Impact of the implementation of a fast-track on emergency department length of stay and quality of care indicators in the Champagne-Ardenne region: a before-after study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:We aimed to evaluate the effect of the implementation of a fast-track on emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) and quality of care indicators. DESIGN:Adjusted before-after analysis. SETTING:A large hospital in the Champagne-Ardenne region, France. PARTICIPANTS:Patients admitted to the ED between 13 January 2015 and 13 January 2017. INTERVENTION:Implementation of a fast-track for patients with small injuries or benign medical conditions (13 January 2016). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Proportion of patients with LOS ≥4 hours and proportion of access block situations (when patients cannot access an appropriate hospital bed within 8 hours). 7-day readmissions and 30-day readmissions. RESULTS:The ED of the intervention hospital registered 53 768 stays in 2016 and 57 965 in 2017 (+7.8%). In the intervention hospital, the median LOS was 215 min before the intervention and 186 min after the intervention. The exponentiated before-after estimator for ED LOS ≥4 hours was 0.79; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.81. The exponentiated before-after estimator for access block was 1.19; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.25. There was an increase in the proportion of 30 day readmissions in the intervention hospital (from 11.4% to 12.3%). After the intervention, the proportion of patients leaving without being seen by a physician decreased from 10.0% to 5.4%. CONCLUSIONS:The implementation of a fast-track was associated with a decrease in stays lasting ≥4 hours without a decrease in access block. Further studies are needed to evaluate the causes of variability in ED LOS and their connections to quality of care indicators.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to assess the impact of a multimodal intervention on emergency department (ED) crowding and patient flow in a Dutch level 1 trauma center. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, we compare ED crowding and patient flow between a 9-month pre-intervention period and a 9-month intervention period, during peak hours and overall (24/7). The multimodal intervention included (1) adding an emergency nurse practitioner (ENP) and (2) five medical specialists during peak hours to the 24/7 available emergency physicians (EPs), (3) a Lean programme to improve radiology turnaround times, and (4) extending the admission offices' openings hours. Crowding is measured with the modified National ED OverCrowding Score (mNEDOCS). Furthermore, radiology turnaround times, patients' length of stay (LOS), proportion of patients leaving without being seen (LWBS) by a medical provider, and unscheduled representations are assessed. RESULTS:The number of ED visits were grossly similar in the two periods during peak hours (15,558 ED visits in the pre-intervention period and 15,550 in the intervention period) and overall (31,891 ED visits in the pre-intervention period vs. 32,121 in the intervention period). During peak hours, ED crowding fell from 18.6% (pre-intervention period) to 3.5% (intervention period), radiology turnaround times decreased from an average of 91?min (interquartile range 45-256?min) to 50?min (IQR 30-106?min., p <?0.001) and LOS reduced with 13?min per patient from 167 to 154?min (p <?0.001). For surgery, neurology and cardiology patients, LOS reduced significantly (with 17?min, 25?min, and 8?min. respectively), while not changing for internal medicine patients. Overall, crowding, radiology turnaround times and LOS also decreased. Less patients LWBS in the intervention period (270 patients vs. 348 patients, p <?0.001) and less patients represented unscheduled within 1 week after the initial ED visit: 864 (2.7%) in the pre-intervention period vs. 645 (2.0%) patients in the intervention period, p <?0.001. CONCLUSIONS:In this hospital, a multimodal intervention successfully reduces crowding, radiology turnaround times, patients' LOS, number of patients LWBS and the number of unscheduled return visits, suggesting improved ED processes. Further research is required on total costs of care and long-term effects.
Project description:Hospitals around the world are faced with the issue of boarders in emergency department (ED), patients marked for admission but with no available inpatient bed. Boarder status is known to be associated with delayed inpatient care and suboptimal outcomes. A new care delivery system was developed in our institution where boarders received full inpatient care from a designated medical team, acute medical team (AMT), while still residing at ED. The current study examines the impact of this AMT intervention on patient outcomes.We conducted a retrospective quasi-experimental cohort study to analyze outcomes between the AMT intervention and conventional care in a 1250-bed acute care tertiary academic hospital in Singapore. Study participants included patients who received care from the AMT, a matched cohort of patients admitted directly to inpatient wards (non-AMT) and a sample of patients prior to the intervention (pre-AMT group). Primary outcomes were length of hospital stay (LOS), early discharges (within 24 h) and bed placement. Secondary outcomes included unplanned readmissions within 3 months, and patient's bill size. ?2- and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test for differences between the cohorts on dichotomous and continuous variables respectively.The sample comprised of 2279 patients (1092 in AMT, 1027 in non-AMT, and 160 in pre-AMT groups). Higher rates of early discharge (without significant differences in the readmission rates) and shorter LOS were noted for the AMT patients. They were also more likely to be admitted into a ward allocated to their discipline and had lower bill size compared to non AMT patients.The AMT intervention improved patient outcomes and resource utilization. This model was noted to be sustainable and provides a potential solution for hospitals' ED boarders who face a gap in inpatient care during their crucial first few hours of admissions while waiting for an inpatient bed.
Project description:Background and purpose - Fast-track care programs in elective total hip and knee replacement (THR/TKR) have been introduced in several countries during the last decade resulting in a significant reduction of hospital stay without any rise in readmissions or early adverse events (AE). We evaluated the risk of readmissions and AE within 30 and 90 days after surgery when a fast-track program was introduced in routine care of joint replacement at 8 Swedish hospitals. Patients and methods - Fast-track care programs were introduced at 8 public hospitals in Västra Götaland region from 2012 to 2014. We obtained data from the Swedish Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Registers for patients operated with THR and TKR in 2011-2015. All readmissions and new contacts with the health care system within 3 months with a possible connection to the surgical intervention were requested from the regional patient register. We compared patients operated before and after the introduction of the fast-track program. Results - Implementation of the fast-track program resulted in a decrease in median hospital length of stay (LOS) from 5 to 3 days in both THR and TKR. The total readmission rate <90 days for THR was 7.2% with fast-track compared with 6.7% in the previous program, and for TKR 8.4% in both groups. Almost half of the readmissions occurred without any AE identified. There was no statistically significant difference concerning readmissions or AE when comparing the programs. Interpretation - Implementation of a fast-track care program in routine care of elective hip and knee replacement is effective in reducing hospital stay without increasing the risk of readmissions or adverse events within 90 days after surgery.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We aim to determine the incidence of delirium and describe its impacts on hospital length of stay (LOS) among non-delirious community-dwelling older adults with an 8-hour exposure to the emergency department (ED) environment. DESIGN:This is a prospective observational multicentre cohort study (March-July 2015). Patients were assessed two times per day during their entire ED stay and up to 24?hours on hospital ward. SETTING:The study took place in four Canadian EDs. PARTICIPANTS:338 included patients: (1) aged ?65 years; (2) who had an ED stay ?8?hours; (3) were admitted to hospital ward and (4) were independent/semi-independent. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:The primary outcomes of this study were incident delirium in the ED or within 24?hours of ward admission and ED and hospital LOS. Functional and cognitive status were assessed using validated Older Americans Resources and Services and the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status tools. The Confusion Assessment Method was used to detect incident delirium. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate outcomes. RESULTS:Mean age was 76.8 (±8.1), 17.7% were aged >85 years old and 48.8% were men. The mean incidence of delirium was 12.1% (n=41). Median IQR ED LOS was 32.4 (24.5-47.9)?hours and hospital LOS was 146.6 (75.2-267.8)?hours. Adjusted mean hospital LOS was increased by 105.4?hours (4.4 days) (95%?CI 25.1 to 162.0, P<0.001) for patients who developed an episode of delirium compared with non-delirious patient. CONCLUSIONS:An incident delirium was observed in one of eight independent/semi-independent older adults after an 8-hour ED exposure. An episode of delirium increases hospital LOS by 4 days and therefore has important implications for patients and could contribute to ED overcrowding through a deleterious feedback loop.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Emergency department (ED) crowding is common and associated with increased costs and negative patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct an in-depth analysis to identify the root causes of an ED length of stay (ED-LOS) of more than six hours.<h4>Methods</h4>An observational retrospective record review study was conducted to analyse the causes for ED-LOS of more than six hours during a one-week period in an academic hospital in the Netherlands. Basic administrative data were collected for all visiting patients. A root cause analysis was conducted using the PRISMA-method for patients with an ED-LOS > 6 hours, excluding children and critical care room presentations.<h4>Results</h4>568 patients visited the ED during the selected week (January 2017). Eighty-four patients (15%) had an ED-LOS > 6 hours and a PRISMA-analysis was performed in 74 (88%) of these patients. 269 root causes were identified, 216 (76%) of which were organisational and 53 (22%) patient or disease related. 207 (94%) of the organisational factors were outside the influence of the ED. Descriptive statistics showed a mean number of 2,5 consultations, 59% hospital admissions or transfers and a mean age of 57 years in the ED-LOS > 6 hours group. For the total group, there was a mean number of 1,9 consultations, 29% hospital admissions or transfers and a mean age of 43 years.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study showed that the root causes for an increased ED-LOS were mostly organisational and beyond the control of the ED. These results confirm that interventions addressing the complete acute care chain are needed in order to reduce ED-LOS and crowding in ED's.
Project description:Background and purpose - Fast-tracking shortens the length of the primary treatment period (length of stay, LOS) after total knee replacement (TKR). We evaluated the influence of the fast-track concept on the length of uninterrupted institutional care (LUIC) and other outcomes after TKR. Patients and methods - 4,256 TKRs performed in 4 hospitals between 2009-2010 and 2012-2013 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. Hospitals were classified as fast track (Hospital A) and non-fast track (Hospitals B, C and D). We analyzed length of uninterrupted institutional care (LUIC), LOS, discharge destination, readmission, revision, manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) and mortality rate in each hospital. We compared these outcomes for TKRs performed in Hospital A before and after fast-track implementation and we also compared Hospital A outcomes with the corresponding outcomes for the other 3 hospitals. Results - After fast-track implementation, median LOS in Hospital A fell from 5 to 3 days (p < 0.001) and (median) LUIC from 7 to 3 (p < 0.001) days. These reductions in LOS and LUIC were accompanied by an increase in the discharge rate to home (p = 0.01). Fast-tracking in Hospital A led to no increase in 14- and 42-day readmissions, MUA, revision or mortality compared with the rates before fast-tracking, or with those in the other hospitals. Of the 4 hospitals, LOS and LUIC were most reduced in Hospital A. Interpretation - A fast-track protocol reduces LUIC and LOS after TKR without increasing readmission, complication or revision rates.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Patient handovers are often delayed, patients are hardly involved in their discharge process and hospital-wide standardised discharge procedures are lacking. The aim of this study was to implement a structured discharge bundle and to test the effect on timeliness of medical and nursing handovers, length of hospital stay (LOS) and unplanned readmissions.<h4>Design</h4>Interrupted time series with six preintervention and six postintervention data collection points (September 2015 to June 2017).<h4>Setting</h4>Internal medicine and surgical wards PARTICIPANTS: Patients (?18 years) admitted for more than 48?hours to surgical or internal medicine wards.<h4>Intervention</h4>The Transfer Intervention Procedure (TIP), containing four elements: planning the discharge date within 48?hours postadmission; arrangements for postdischarge care; preparing handovers and personalised patient discharge letter; and a discharge conversation 12-24?hours before discharge.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>The number of medical and nursing handovers sent within 24?hours. Secondary outcomes were median time between discharge and medical handovers, LOS and unplanned readmissions.<h4>Results</h4>Preintervention 1039 and postintervention 1052 patient records were reviewed. No significant change was observed in the number of medical and nursing handovers sent within 24?hours. The median (IQR) time between discharge and medical handovers decreased from 6.15 (0.96-15.96) to 4.08 (0.33-13.67) days, but no significant difference was found. No intervention effect was observed for LOS and readmission. In subgroup analyses, a reduction of 5.6 days in the median time between discharge and medical handovers was observed in hospitals with high protocol adherence and much attention for implementation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Implementation of a structured discharge bundle did not lead to improved timeliness of patient handovers. However, large interhospital variation was observed and an intervention effect on the median time between discharge and medical handovers was seen in hospitals with high protocol adherence. Future interventions should continue to create awareness of the importance of timely handovers.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>NTR5951; Results.
Project description:Emergency department (ED) crowding adversely affects multiple facets of high-quality care. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts mandates specific, hospital action plans to reduce ED boarding via a mechanism termed "Code Help." Because implementation appears inconsistent even when hospital conditions should have triggered its activation, we hypothesized that compliance with the Code Help policy would be associated with reduction in ED boarding time and total ED length of stay (LOS) for admitted patients, compared to patients seen when the Code Help policy was not followed.This was a retrospective analysis of data collected from electronic, patient-care, timestamp events and from a prospective Code Help registry for consecutive adult patients admitted from the ED at a single academic center during a 15-month period. For each patient, we determined whether the concurrent hospital status complied with the Code Help policy or violated it at the time of admission decision. We then compared ED boarding time and overall ED LOS for patients cared for during periods of Code Help policy compliance and during periods of Code Help policy violation, both with reference to patients cared for during normal operations.Of 89,587 adult patients who presented to the ED during the study period, 24,017 (26.8%) were admitted to an acute care or critical care bed. Boarding time ranged from zero to 67 hours 30 minutes (median 4 hours 31 minutes). Total ED LOS for admitted patients ranged from 11 minutes to 85 hours 25 minutes (median nine hours). Patients admitted during periods of Code Help policy violation experienced significantly longer boarding times (median 20 minutes longer) and total ED LOS (median 46 minutes longer), compared to patients admitted under normal operations. However, patients admitted during Code Help policy compliance did not experience a significant increase in either metric, compared to normal operations.In this single-center experience, implementation of the Massachusetts Code Help regulation was associated with reduced ED boarding time and ED LOS when the policy was consistently followed, but there were adverse effects on both metrics during violations of the policy.
Project description:Due to hospital crowding, mechanically ventilated patients are increasingly spending hours boarding in emergency departments (ED) before intensive care unit (ICU) admission. This study aims to evaluate the association between time ventilated in the ED and in-hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS).This was a multi-center, prospective, observational study of patients ventilated in the ED, conducted at three academic Level I Trauma Centers from July 2011 to March 2013. All consecutive adult patients on invasive mechanical ventilation were eligible for enrollment. We performed a Cox regression to assess for a mortality effect for mechanically ventilated patients with each hour of increasing LOS in the ED and multivariable regression analyses to assess for independently significant contributors to in-hospital mortality. Our primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, with secondary outcomes of ventilator days, ICU LOS and hospital LOS. We further commented on use of lung protective ventilation and frequency of ventilator changes made in this cohort.We enrolled 535 patients, of whom 525 met all inclusion criteria. Altered mental status without respiratory pathology was the most common reason for intubation, followed by trauma and respiratory failure. Using iterated Cox regression, a mortality effect occurred at ED time of mechanical ventilation > 7 hours, and the longer ED stay was also associated with a longer total duration of intubation. However, adjusted multivariable regression analysis demonstrated only older age and admission to the neurosciences ICU as independently associated with increased mortality. Of interest, only 23.8% of patients ventilated in the ED for over seven hours had changes made to their ventilator.In a prospective observational study of patients mechanically ventilated in the ED, there was a significant mortality benefit to expedited transfer of patients into an appropriate ICU setting.