Opioid-related US hospital discharges by type, 1993-2016.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To classify and compare US nationwide opioid-related hospital inpatient discharges over time by discharge type: 1) opioid use disorder (OUD) diagnosis without opioid overdose, detoxification, or rehabilitation services, 2) opioid overdose, 3) OUD diagnosis or opioid overdose with detoxification services, and 4) OUD diagnosis or opioid overdose with rehabilitation services. METHODS:Survey-weighted national analysis of hospital discharges in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample yielded age-adjusted annual rates per 100,000 population. Annual percentage change (APC) in the rate of opioid-related discharges by type during 1993-2016 was assessed. RESULTS:The annual rate of hospital discharges documenting OUD without opioid overdose, detoxification, or rehabilitation services quadrupled during 1993-2016, and at an increased rate (8% annually) during 2003-2016. The discharge rate for all types of opioid overdose increased an average 5-9% annually during 1993-2010; discharges for non-heroin overdoses declined 2010-2016 (3-12% annually) while heroin overdose discharges increased sharply (23% annually). The rate of discharges including detoxification services among OUD and overdose patients declined (-4% annually) during 2008-2016 and rehabilitation services (e.g., counselling, pharmacotherapy) among those discharges decreased (-2% annually) during 1993-2016. CONCLUSIONS:Over the past two decades, the rate of both OUD diagnoses and opioid overdoses increased substantially in US hospitals while rates of inpatient detoxification and rehabilitation services identified by diagnosis codes declined. It is critical that inpatients diagnosed with OUD or treated for opioid overdose are linked effectively to substance use disorder treatment at discharge.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prior studies indicate that the opportunity from detoxification to engage in subsequent drug use disorder (DUD) treatment may be missed. This study examined national trends and characteristics of inpatient detoxification for DUDs and explored factors associated with receiving DUD treatment (i.e., inpatient drug detoxification plus rehabilitation) and discharges against medical advice (DAMA). METHODS:We analyzed inpatient hospitalization data involving the drug detoxification procedure for patients aged?12 years (n =?271,403) in the 2003-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Samples. We compared the estimated rate and characteristics of inpatient drug-detoxification hospitalizations between 2003 and 2011 and determined demographic and clinical correlates of inpatient drug detoxification plus rehabilitation (versus detoxification-only) and DAMA (versus transfer to further treatment). RESULTS:There was no significant yearly change in the population rate of inpatient drug-detoxification hospitalizations during 2003-2011. The majority of inpatient drug detoxification were patients aged 35-64 years, males, and those on Medicaid. Among inpatient drug-detoxification hospitalizations, only 13% received detoxification plus rehabilitation during inpatient care, and up to 14% were DAMA; the most commonly identified diagnoses were opioid use disorder (OUD; 75%) and non-addiction mental health disorders (48%). Being on Medicaid (vs. having private insurance) and having OUD (vs. no OUD) were associated with decreased odds of receiving detoxification plus rehabilitation, as well as increased odds of DAMA. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest the presence of a potentially large detoxification-treatment gap for inpatient detoxification patients. They highlight the need for implementing DUD services to improve engagement in receiving further DUD treatment in order to improve recovery and health outcomes.
Project description:Importance:The US opioid epidemic is complex and dynamic, yet relatively little is known regarding its likely future impact and the potential mitigating impact of interventions to address it. Objective:To estimate the future burden of the opioid epidemic and the potential of interventions to address the burden. Design, Setting, and Participants:A decision analytic dynamic Markov model was calibrated using 2010-2018 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the US Census, and National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. Data on individuals 12 years or older from the US general population or with prescription opioid medical use; prescription opioid nonmedical use; heroin use; prescription, heroin, or combined prescription and heroin opioid use disorder (OUD); 1 of 7 treatment categories; or nonfatal or fatal overdose were examined. The model was designed to project fatal opioid overdoses between 2020 and 2029. Exposures:The model projected prescribing reductions (5% annually), naloxone distribution (assumed 5% reduction in case-fatality), and treatment expansion (assumed 35% increase in uptake annually for 4 years and 50% relapse reduction), with each compared vs status quo. Main Outcomes and Measures:Projected 10-year overdose deaths and prevalence of OUD. Results:Under status quo, 484?429 (95% confidence band, 390?543-576?631) individuals were projected to experience fatal opioid overdose between 2020 and 2029. Projected decreases in deaths were 0.3% with prescribing reductions, 15.4% with naloxone distribution, and 25.3% with treatment expansion; when combined, these interventions were associated with 179?151 fewer overdose deaths (37.0%) over 10 years. Interventions had a smaller association with the prevalence of OUD; for example, the combined intervention was estimated to reduce OUD prevalence by 27.5%, from 2.47 million in 2019 to 1.79 million in 2029. Model projections were most sensitive to assumptions regarding future rates of fatal and nonfatal overdose. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of this study suggest that the opioid epidemic is likely to continue to cause tens of thousands of deaths annually over the next decade. Aggressive deployment of evidence-based interventions may reduce deaths by at least a third but will likely have less impact for the number of people with OUD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:With governments' increasing efforts to curb opioid prescription use and limit dose below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-recommended threshold of 90 morphine milligram equivalents per day, little is known about prescription opioid patterns preceding opioid use disorder (OUD) or overdose. This study aimed to determine prescribed opioid fills and dose trajectories in the year before an incident OUD or overdose diagnosis using a 2005-2016 commercial healthcare database. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This cross-sectional study identified individuals aged 18 to 64 years with incident OUD or overdose in the United States. We measured the prevalence of opioid prescription fills and trajectories of opioid morphine equivalent dose (MED) prescribed during the 12-month period before the diagnosis. Of 227,038 adults with incident OUD or overdose, 33.1% were aged 18 to 30 years, 52.9% were males, and 85.0% were metropolitan residents. Half (50.5%) of the patients had a diagnosis of chronic pain, 32.7% had depression, and 20.3% had anxiety. Overall, 79,747 (35.1%) patients filled no opioid prescription in the 12 months before OUD or overdose diagnosis, with the proportion significantly increasing between 2006 and 2016 (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.86; 95% CI 1.79-1.93; P < 0.001). Patients without (versus with) prescribed opioids tended to be younger males and metropolitan and Northeast US residents. Of 145,609 patients who filled opioid prescriptions, 5 distinct prescribed daily dose trajectories preceding diagnosis emerged: consistent low dose (<3 mg MED, 34.6%), consistent moderate dose (20 mg MED, 27.3%), consistent high dose (150 mg MED, 15.0%), escalating dose (from <3 to 20 mg MED, 13.7%), and de-escalating dose (from 20 to <3mg MED, 9.4%). Overall, over two-thirds of patients with OUD or overdose with prescription opioids were prescribed a mean daily dose below 90 mg MED before diagnosis. Major limitations include the limited generalizability of the study findings and lack of information on out-of-pocket drug spending, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status of participants, which prevents analyses addressing these characteristics. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we found that absence of opioid prescription fills in the year before incident OUD or overdose diagnosis was prevalent, and the majority of the patients received prescription opioid doses below the risk threshold of 90 mg MED. An increasing proportion of high-risk patients could be missed by current programs solely based on opioid prescribing and dispensing information in this new era of limited access to prescription opioids.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The United States is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. Treatment use data from diverse racial/ethnic groups with opioid use disorder (OUD) are needed to inform treatment expansion efforts. METHODS:We examined demographic characteristics and behavioral health of persons aged ?12 years that met criteria for past-year OUD (n=6,125) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=503,101). We determined the prevalence and correlates of past-year use of alcohol/drug use treatment and opioid-specific treatment to inform efforts for improving OUD treatment. RESULTS:Among persons with OUD, 81.93% had prescription (Rx) OUD only, 9.75% had heroin use disorder (HUD) only, and 8.32% had Rx OUD+HUD. Persons with Rx OUD+HUD tended to be white, adults aged 18-49, males, or uninsured. The majority (80.09%) of persons with OUD had another substance use disorder (SUD), and major depressive episode (MDE) was common (28.74%). Of persons with OUD, 26.19% used any alcohol or drug use treatment, and 19.44% used opioid-specific treatment. Adolescents, the uninsured, blacks, native-Hawaiians/Pacific-Islanders/Asian-Americans, persons with Rx OUD only, and persons without MDE or SUD particularly underutilized opioid-specific treatment. Among alcohol/drug use treatment users, self-help group and outpatient rehabilitation treatment were commonly used services. CONCLUSIONS:Most people with OUD report no use of OUD treatment. Multifaceted interventions, including efforts to access insurance coverage, are required to change attitudes and knowledge towards addiction treatment in order to develop a supportive culture and infrastructure to enable treatment-seeking. Outreach efforts could target adolescents, minority groups, and the uninsured to improve access to treatment.
Project description:The opioid crisis presents substantial challenges to public health in New England's rural states, where access to pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder (OUD), harm reduction, HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) services vary widely. We present an approach to characterizing the epidemiology, policy and resource environment for OUD and its consequences, with a focus on eleven rural counties in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont between 2014 and 2018. We developed health policy summaries and logic models to facilitate comparison of opioid epidemic-related polices across the three states that could influence the risk environment and access to services. We assessed sociodemographic factors, rates of overdose and infectious complications tied to OUD, and drive-time access to prevention and treatment resources. We developed GIS maps and conducted spatial analyses to assess the opioid crisis landscape. Through collaborative research, we assessed the potential impact of available resources to address the opioid crisis in rural New England. Vermont's comprehensive set of policies and practices for drug treatment and harm reduction appeared to be associated with the lowest fatal overdose rates. Franklin County, Massachusetts had good access to naloxone, drug treatment and SSPs, but relatively high overdose and HIV rates. New Hampshire had high proportions of uninsured community members, the highest overdose rates, no HCV surveillance data, and no local access to SSPs. This combination of factors appeared to place PWID in rural New Hampshire at elevated risk. Study results facilitated the development of vulnerability indicators, identification of locales for subsequent data collection, and public health interventions.
Project description:Introduction: Despite widespread recognition of the opioid crisis, opioid overdose remains a common reason for Emergency Department (ED) utilization. Treatment for these patients after stabilization often involves the provision of information for outpatient treatment options. Ideally, an ED visit for overdose would present an opportunity to start treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) immediately. Although widely recognized as effective, opioid agonist therapy with methadone and buprenorphine commonly referred to as "medication-assisted therapy" but more correctly as "medication for addiction treatment" (MAT), can be difficult to access even for motivated individuals due to shortages of prescribers and treatment programs. Moreover, opioid agonist therapy may not be appropriate for all patients, as many patients who present after overdose are not opioid dependent. More treatment options are required to successfully match patients with diverse needs to an optimal treatment plan in order to avoid relapse. Naltrexone, a long-acting opioid antagonist, available orally and as a monthly extended-release intramuscular injection, may represent another treatment option. Methods: We conducted a literature search of MEDLINE and PubMed. We aimed to capture references related to naltrexone and is use as MAT for OUD, as well as manuscripts that discussed naltrexone in comparison toother agents used for MAT, opioid detoxification, and naltrexone metabolism. Our initial search logic returned a total of 618 articles. Following individual evaluation for relevance, we selected 65 for in-depthreview. Manuscripts meeting criteria were examined for citations meriting further review, leading to the addition of 30 manuscripts Conclusions: Here, we review the pharmacology of naltrexone as it relates to OUD, its history of use, and highlight recent studies and new approaches for use of the drug as MAT including its potential initiation after ED visit for opioid overdose.
Project description:Opioid use disorders (OUDs) have long been a global problem, but the prevalence rates have increased over 20 years to epidemic proportions in the US, with concomitant increases in morbidity and all-cause mortality, but especially opioid overdose. These increases are in part attributable to a several-fold expansion in the prescription of opioid pain medications over the same time period. Opioid detoxification and psychosocial treatments alone have each not yielded sufficient efficacy for OUD, but ?-opioid receptor agonist, partial agonist, and antagonist medications have demonstrated the greatest overall benefit in OUD treatment. Buprenorphine, a ?-opioid receptor partial agonist, has been used successfully on an international basis for several decades in sublingual tablet and film preparations for the treatment of OUD, but the nature of formulation, which is typically self-administered, renders it susceptible to nonadherence, diversion, and accidental exposure. This article reviews the clinical trial data for novel buprenorphine delivery systems in the form of subcutaneous depot injections, transdermal patches, and subdermal implants for the treatment of OUD and discusses both the clinical efficacy of longer-acting formulations through increasing consistent medication exposure and their potential utility in reducing diversion. These new delivery systems also offer new dosing opportunities for buprenorphine and strategies for dosing intervals in the treatment of OUD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Opioid use disorder (OUD) among women delivering at a hospital has increased 400% from 1999-2014 in the United States. From the years 2007 to 2016, opioid-related mortality during pregnancy increased over 200%, and drug-overdose deaths made up nearly 10% of all pregnancy-associated mortality in 2016 in the US. Disproportionately higher rates of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) have been reported in rural areas of the country, suggesting that perinatal OUD is a pressing issue among these communities. There is an urgent need for comprehensive, evidence-based treatment services for pregnant women experiencing OUD. The purpose of this article is to describe a study protocol aimed at developing and evaluating a perinatal OUD curriculum, enhancing evidence-based perinatal OUD treatment in a rural setting, and evaluating the implementation of such collaborative care for perinatal OUD. METHODS:This two-year study employed a one group, repeated measures, hybrid type-1 effectiveness-implementation design. This study delivered interventions at 2 levels, both targeting improvement of care for pregnant women with OUD. The first area of focus was at the community healthcare provider-level, which aimed to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of perinatal OUD education across time and to improve provider education by increasing knowledge specific to: MOUD provision; screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) utilization; and NOWS treatment. The second area of intervention focus was at the patient-level, which assessed the preliminary effect of perinatal OUD provider education in promoting illicit opioid abstinence and treatment engagement among pregnant women with OUD. We adopted constructs from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to assess contextual factors that may influence implementation, and the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) model to comprehensively evaluate implementation outcomes. DISCUSSION:This article presents the protocol of an implementation study that is employing the CFIR and RE-AIM frameworks to implement and evaluate a perinatal OUD education and service coordination program in two rural counties. This protocol could serve as a model for clinicians and researchers seeking to implement improvements in perinatal care for women with OUD in other rural communities. Trial registration NCT04448015 clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate fatal and nonfatal opioid overdose events in pregnant and postpartum women in Massachusetts, comparing rates in individuals receiving and not receiving pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder (OUD). METHODS:We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using linked administrative and vital statistics databases in Massachusetts to identify women with evidence of OUD who delivered a liveborn neonate in 2012-2014. We described maternal sociodemographic, medical, and substance use characteristics, computed rates of opioid overdose events in the year before and after delivery, and compared overdose rates by receipt of pharmacotherapy with methadone or buprenorphine in the prenatal and postpartum periods. RESULTS:Among 177,876 unique deliveries, 4,154 (2.3%) were to women with evidence of OUD in the year before delivery, who experienced 242 total opioid-related overdose events (231 nonfatal, 11 fatal) in the year before or after delivery. The overall overdose rate was 8.0 per 100,000 person-days. Overdoses were lowest in the third trimester (3.3/100,000 person-days in the third trimester) and then increased in the postpartum period with the highest overdose rate 7-12 months after delivery (12.3/100,000 person-days). Overall, 64.3% of women with evidence of OUD in the year before delivery received any pharmacotherapy in the year before delivery. Women receiving pharmacotherapy had reduced overdose rates in the early postpartum period. CONCLUSION:Pregnant women in Massachusetts have high rates of OUD. The year after delivery is a vulnerable period for women with OUD. Additional longitudinal supports and interventions tailored to women in the first year postpartum are needed to prevent and reduce overdose events.
Project description:BACKGROUND:With increasing efforts to scrutinize and reduce opioid prescribing, limited data exist on the recent trend in receipt of prescription pain medications before diagnosis of opioid use disorder (OUD) or opioid-related overdose (OD). METHODS:Using 2005-2016 Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims databases, we assessed trends in annual 1) incidence of OUD or OD and 2) prevalence of receipt of prescription opioids or four commonly-prescribed adjuvant analgesics among patients newly diagnosed with OUD/OD. Trends were examined in the overall sample and by 3 age groups, including youths (?18 years), adults (19-64 years), and older adults (?65 years). RESULTS:The incidence of diagnosed OUD or OD increased more than 3-fold from 4.99 to 23.81 per 10,000 persons from 2006 to 2016, with the highest increase (14.18-fold) seen in older adults, followed by adults (3.53-fold), and youths (0.16-fold). Between 2006 and 2016, the proportion of patients with incident OUD/OD who received anticonvulsant adjuvant analgesics in the year before diagnosis increased (from 23.4% to 34.3% [P-trend?=?.005]) whereas the proportion receiving high-dose prescriptions opioids decreased (from 45.5% to 34.8% [P-trend =< .001]). A decreasing trend was observed in general for tricyclic antidepressants and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. DISCUSSION:In US commercially insured patients newly diagnosed with OUD/OD, receipt of high-dose opioid prescriptions preceding the diagnosis decreased over time, paralleled by increased use of anticonvulsants commonly prescribed for pain conditions. Further investigations are warranted to understand how prescribed and anticonvulsants contribute to the development of OUD/OD.