KNL1 Binding to PP1 and Microtubules Is Mutually Exclusive.
ABSTRACT: The kinetochore scaffold 1 (KNL1) protein coordinates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a signaling pathway that delays chromosome segregation until all sister chromatids are properly attached to spindle microtubules. Recently, microtubules and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which both bind the N-terminal domain of KNL1, have emerged as regulators of the SAC; however, how these proteins interact to contribute to SAC signaling is unknown. Here, we use X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and biochemical assays to show how KNL1 binds both PP1 and microtubules. Unexpectedly, we discovered that PP1 and microtubules bind KNL1 via overlapping binding sites. Further, we showed that Aurora B kinase phosphorylation results in distinct patterns of KNL1 complex disruption. Finally, combining this data with co-sedimentation assays unequivocally demonstrated that microtubules and PP1 binding to KNL1 is mutually exclusive, with preferential formation of the KNL1:PP1 holoenzyme in the presence of PP1.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase onset until kinetochores accomplish bioriented microtubule attachments . Although several centromeric and kinetochore kinases, including Aurora B, regulate kinetochore-microtubule attachment and/or SAC activation [2-4], the molecular mechanism that translates bioriented attachment into SAC silencing remains unclear . Employing a method to rapidly induce exact gene replacement in budding yeast , we show here that the binding of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1/Glc7) to the evolutionarily conserved RVSF motif of the kinetochore protein Spc105 (KNL1/Blinkin/CASC5) is essential for viability by silencing the SAC, while it plays an auxiliary nonessential role for physical chromosome segregation. Although Aurora B may inhibit this binding, persistent PP1-Spc105 interaction does not affect chromosome segregation and is insufficient to silence the SAC in the absence of microtubules, indicating that dynamic regulation of this interaction is dispensable. However, the amount of PP1 targeted to kinetochores must be finely tuned, because recruitment of either no or one extra copy of PP1 to Spc105 is detrimental, illustrating the vital impact of targeting an exiguous fraction of PP1 to the kinetochore. We propose that the PP1-Spc105 interaction enables local regulation of dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at the kinetochore to couple microtubule attachment and SAC silencing.
Project description:Accurate chromosome segregation during cell division requires the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which detects unattached kinetochores, and an error correction mechanism that destabilizes incorrect kinetochore-microtubule attachments. While the SAC and error correction are both regulated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which silences the SAC and stabilizes kinetochore-microtubule attachments, how these distinct PP1 functions are coordinated remains unclear. Here, we investigate the contribution of PP1, docked on its conserved kinetochore receptor Spc105/Knl1, to SAC silencing and attachment regulation. We find that Spc105-bound PP1 is critical for SAC silencing but dispensable for error correction; in fact, reduced PP1 docking on Spc105 improved chromosome segregation and viability of mutant/stressed states. We additionally show that artificially recruiting PP1 to Spc105/Knl1 before, but not after, chromosome biorientation interfered with error correction. These observations lead us to propose that recruitment of PP1 to Spc105/Knl1 is carefully regulated to ensure that chromosome biorientation precedes SAC silencing, thereby ensuring accurate chromosome segregation.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is the major surveillance system that ensures that sister chromatids do not separate until all chromosomes are correctly bioriented during mitosis. Components of the checkpoint include Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 (BubR1), Bub3, and the kinases Bub1, Mph1 (Mps1), and Aurora B. Checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores when individual kinetochores are not bound to spindle microtubules or not under tension. Kinetochore association of Mad2 causes it to undergo a conformational change, which promotes its association to Mad3 and Cdc20 to form the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). The MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until the checkpoint is satisfied. SAC silencing derepresses Cdc20-APC/C activity. This triggers the polyubiquitination of securin and cyclin, which promotes the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic progression. We, and others, recently showed that association of PP1 to the Spc7/Spc105/KNL1 family of kinetochore proteins is necessary to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore attachments and silence the SAC. We now report that phosphorylation of the conserved MELT motifs in Spc7 by Mph1 (Mps1) recruits Bub1 and Bub3 to the kinetochore and that this is required to maintain the SAC signal.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors correct attachment of chromosomes to microtubules, an important safeguard mechanism ensuring faithful chromosome segregation in eukaryotic cells. How the SAC signal is turned off once all the chromosomes have successfully attached to the spindle remains an unresolved question. Mps1 phosphorylation of Knl1 results in recruitment of the SAC proteins Bub1, Bub3, and BubR1 to the kinetochore and production of the wait-anaphase signal. SAC silencing is therefore expected to involve a phosphatase opposing Mps1. Here we demonstrate in vivo and in vitro that BubR1-associated PP2A-B56 is a key phosphatase for the removal of the Mps1-mediated Knl1 phosphorylations necessary for Bub1/BubR1 recruitment in mammalian cells. SAC silencing is thus promoted by a negative feedback loop involving the Mps1-dependent recruitment of a phosphatase opposing Mps1. Our findings extend the previously reported role for BubR1-associated PP2A-B56 in opposing Aurora B and suggest that BubR1-bound PP2A-B56 integrates kinetochore surveillance and silencing of the SAC.
Project description:The accurate and timely transmission of the genetic material to progeny during successive rounds of cell division is sine qua non for the maintenance of genome stability. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a surveillance mechanism, the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), to prevent premature advance to anaphase before every chromosome is properly attached to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. The architecture of the KNL1-BubR1 complex reveals important features of the molecular recognition between SAC components and the kinetochore. The interaction is important for a functional SAC as substitution of BubR1 residues engaged in KNL1 binding impaired the SAC and BubR1 recruitment into checkpoint complexes in stable cell lines. Here we discuss the implications of the disorder-to-order transition of KNL1 upon BubR1 binding for SAC signaling and propose a mechanistic model of how BUBs binding may affect the recognition of KNL1 by its other interacting partners.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors chromosome attachment defects, and the assembly of SAC proteins at kinetochores is essential for its activation, but the SAC disassembly process remains unknown. We found that deletion of a 14-3-3 protein, Bmh1, or hyperactivation of Cdc14 early anaphase release (FEAR) allows premature SAC silencing in budding yeast, which depends on a kinetochore protein Fin1 that forms a complex with protein phosphatase PP1. Previous works suggest that FEAR-dependent Fin1 dephosphorylation promotes Bmh1-Fin1 dissociation, which enables kinetochore recruitment of Fin1-PP1. We found persistent kinetochore association of SAC protein Bub1 in fin1? mutants after anaphase entry. Therefore, we revealed a mechanism that clears SAC proteins from kinetochores. After anaphase entry, FEAR activation promotes kinetochore enrichment of Fin1-PP1, resulting in SAC disassembly at kinetochores. This mechanism is required for efficient SAC silencing after SAC is challenged, and untimely Fin1-kinetochore association causes premature SAC silencing and chromosome missegregation.
Project description:Proper segregation of chromosomes depends on a functional spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and requires kinetochore localization of the Bub1 and Mad1/Mad2 checkpoint proteins. Several aspects of Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment in human cells are unclear and in particular the underlying direct interactions. Here we show that conserved domain 1 (CD1) in human Bub1 binds directly to Mad1 and a phosphorylation site exists in CD1 that stimulates Mad1 binding and SAC signalling. Importantly, fusion of minimal kinetochore-targeting Bub1 fragments to Mad1 bypasses the need for CD1, revealing that the main function of Bub1 is to position Mad1 close to KNL1 MELT repeats. Furthermore, we identify residues in Mad1 that are critical for Mad1 functionality, but not Bub1 binding, arguing for a direct role of Mad1 in the checkpoint. This work dissects functionally relevant molecular interactions required for spindle assembly checkpoint signalling at kinetochores in human cells.
Project description:Regulated interactions between kinetochores and spindle microtubules are critical for maintaining genomic stability during chromosome segregation. Defects in chromosome segregation are widespread phenomenon in human cancers that are thought to serve as the fuel for tumorigenic progression. Tumor suppressor proteins ASPP1 and ASPP2, two members of the apoptosis stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family, are frequently down-regulated in human cancers. Here we report that ASPP1/2 are required for proper mitotic progression. In ASPP1/2 co-depleted cells, the persistence of unaligned chromosomes and the reduction of tension across sister kinetochores on aligned chromosomes resulted in persistent spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation. Using protein affinity purification methods, we searched for functional partners of ASPP1/2, and found that ASPP1/2 were associated with a subset of kinetochore proteins (Hec1, KNL-1, and CENP-F). It was found that ASPP1/2 act as PP1-targeting subunits to facilitate the interaction between PP1 and Hec1, and catalyze Hec1 (Ser165) dephosphorylation during late mitosis. These observations revealed a previously unrecognized function of ASPP1/2 in chromosome segregation and kinetochore-microtubule attachments that likely contributes to their roles in chromosome stability and tumor suppression.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that blocks anaphase onset until all chromosomes are properly attached to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. Checkpoint activity requires kinetochore localization of Mad1/Mad2 to inhibit activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome in the presence of unattached kinetochores. In budding yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, Bub1, recruited to kinetochores through KNL1, recruits Mad1/Mad2 by direct linkage with Mad1. However, in human cells it is not yet established which kinetochore protein(s) function as the Mad1/Mad2 receptor. Both Bub1 and the RZZ complex have been implicated in Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment; however, their specific roles remain unclear. Here, we investigate the contributions of Bub1, RZZ and KNL1 to Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment. We find that the RZZ complex localizes to the N-terminus of KNL1, downstream of Bub1, to mediate robust Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore localization. Our data also point to the existence of a KNL1-, Bub1-independent mechanism for RZZ and Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment. Based on our results, we propose that in humans, the primary mediator for Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore localization is the RZZ complex.
Project description:The Mad1-Mad2 heterodimer is the catalytic hub of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which controls M phase progression through a multi-subunit anaphase inhibitor, the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) [1, 2]. During interphase, Mad1-Mad2 generates MCC at nuclear pores . After nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), kinetochore-associated Mad1-Mad2 catalyzes MCC assembly until all chromosomes achieve bipolar attachment [1, 2]. Mad1-Mad2 and other factors are also incorporated into the fibrous corona, a phospho-dependent expansion of the outer kinetochore that precedes microtubule attachment [4-6]. The factor(s) involved in targeting Mad1-Mad2 to kinetochores in higher eukaryotes remain controversial [7-12], and the specific phosphorylation event(s) that trigger corona formation remain elusive [5, 13]. We used genome editing to eliminate Bub1, KNL1, and the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch (RZZ) complex in human cells. We show that RZZ's sole role in SAC activation is to tether Mad1-Mad2 to kinetochores. Separately, Mps1 kinase triggers fibrous corona formation by phosphorylating two N-terminal sites on Rod. In contrast, Bub1 and KNL1 activate kinetochore-bound Mad1-Mad2 to produce a "wait anaphase" signal but are not required for corona formation. We also show that clonal lines isolated after BUB1 disruption recover Bub1 expression and SAC function through nonsense-associated alternative splicing (NAS). Our study reveals a fundamental division of labor in the mammalian SAC and highlights a transcriptional response to nonsense mutations that can reduce or eliminate penetrance in genome editing experiments.