S1P-S1PR1 Signaling: the "Sphinx" in Osteoimmunology.
ABSTRACT: The fundamental interaction between the immune and skeletal systems, termed as osteoimmunology, has been demonstrated to play indispensable roles in the maintenance of balance between bone resorption and formation. The pleiotropic sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), together with its cognate receptor, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), are known as key players in osteoimmunology due to the regulation on both immune system and bone remodeling. The role of S1P-S1PR1 signaling in bone remodeling can be directly targeting both osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis. Meanwhile, inflammatory cell function and polarization in both adaptive immune (T cell subsets) and innate immune cells (macrophages) are also regulated by this signaling axis, suggesting that S1P-S1PR1 signaling could aslo indirectly regulate bone remodeling via modulating the immune system. Therefore, it could be likely that S1P-S1PR1 signaling might take part in the maintenance of continuous bone turnover under physiological conditions, while lead to the pathogenesis of bone deformities during inflammation. In this review, we summarized the immunological regulation of S1P-S1PR1 signal axis during bone remodeling with an emphasis on how osteo-immune regulators are affected by inflammation, an issue with relevance to chronical bone disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and periodontitis.
Project description:The interleukin-22 (IL-22) signaling pathway is well known to be involved in the progression of various cancer types but its role in bone metastatic breast cancer remains unclear. We demonstrate using human GEO profiling that bone metastatic breast cancer displays elevated interleukin-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) expression. Importantly, IL-22 stimuli promoted the expression of IL-22R1 and S1PR1 in aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. IL-22 treatment also increased sphingosine-1-phosphate production in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated chemotactic migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect was inhibited by an S1P antagonist. In addition to the S1PR1 axis, IL-22 stimulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), thereby promoting breast cancer cell invasion. Moreover, IL-22 induced IL22R1 and S1PR1 expression in macrophages, myeloid cell, and MCP1 expression in MSCs to facilitate macrophage infiltration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that IL-22R1 and S1PR1 are overexpressed in invasive malignant breast cancers and that this correlates with the MMP-9 levels. Collectively, our present results indicate a potential role of IL-22 in driving the metastasis of breast cancers into the bone microenvironment through the IL22R1-S1PR1 axis.
Project description:Production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is linked to 17?-estradiol (E2) activity in many estrogen-responsive cells; in bone development, the role of S1P is unclear. We studied effects of S1P on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts (hOB). Ten nM E2, 1 ?M S1P, or 1 ?M of the S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) agonist SEW2871 increased hOB proliferation at 24 hours. S1PR 1, 2, and 3 mRNAs are expressed by hOB but not S1PR4 or S1PR5. Expression of S1PR2 was increased at 7 and 14 days of differentiation, in correspondence with osteoblast-related mRNAs. Expression of S1PR1 was increased by E2 or S1P in proliferating hOB, whereas S1PR2 mRNA was unaffected in proliferating cells; S1PR3 was not affected by E2 or S1P. Inhibiting sphingosine kinase (SPHK) activity with sphingosine kinase inhibitor (Ski) greatly reduced the E2 proliferative effect. Both E2 and S1P increased SPHK mRNA at 24 hours in hOB. S1P promoted osteoblast proliferation via activating MAP kinase activity. Either E2 or S1P increased S1P synthesis in a fluorescent S1P assay. Interaction of E2 and S1P signaling was indicated by upregulation of E2 receptor mRNA after S1P treatment. E2 and S1P also promoted alkaline phosphatase expression. During osteoblast differentiation, S1P increased bone-specific mRNAs, similarly to the effects of E2. However, E2 and S1P showed differences in the activation of some osteoblast pathways. Pathway analysis by gene expression arrays was consistent with regulation of pathways of osteoblast differentiation; collagen and cell adhesion proteins centered on Rho/Rac small GTPase signaling and Map kinase or signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) intermediates. Transcriptional activation also included significant increases in superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 transcription by either S1P or E2. We demonstrate that the SPHK system is a co-mediator for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, which is mainly, but not entirely, complementary to E2, whose effects are mediated by S1PR1 and S1PR2.
Project description:Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-Janus kinase (JAK) signaling is viewed as crucial for persistent signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation in cancer. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 activation is normally transient. Here we identify a key mechanism for persistent STAT3 activation in tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We show that expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for the lysophospholipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is elevated in STAT3-positive tumors. STAT3 is a transcription factor for the S1pr1 gene. Reciprocally, enhanced S1pr1 expression activates STAT3 and upregulates Il6 gene expression, thereby accelerating tumor growth and metastasis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Silencing S1pr1 in tumor cells or immune cells inhibits tumor STAT3 activity, tumor growth and metastasis. S1P-S1PR1-induced STAT3 activation is persistent, in contrast to transient STAT3 activation by IL-6. S1PR1 activates STAT3 in part by upregulating JAK2 tyrosine kinase activity. We show that STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression, as well as the S1P-S1PR1 pathway reciprocal regulation of STAT3 activity, is a major positive feedback loop for persistent STAT3 activation in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment and for malignant progression.
Project description:The bioactive lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was recently assigned critical roles in platelet biology: whereas S1P1 receptor-mediated S1P gradient sensing was reported to be essential for directing proplatelet extensions from megakaryocytes (MKs) toward bone marrow sinusoids, MK sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2)-derived S1P was reported to further promote platelet shedding through receptor-independent intracellular actions, and platelet aggregation through S1P1 Yet clinical use of S1P pathway modulators including fingolimod has not been associated with risk of bleeding or thrombosis. We therefore revisited the role of S1P in platelet biology in mice. Surprisingly, no reduction in platelet counts was observed when the vascular S1P gradient was ablated by impairing S1P provision to plasma or S1P degradation in interstitial fluids, nor when gradient sensing was impaired by S1pr1 deletion selectively in MKs. Moreover, S1P1 expression and signaling were both undetectable in mature MKs in situ, and MK S1pr1 deletion did not affect platelet aggregation or spreading. When S1pr1 deletion was induced in hematopoietic progenitor cells, platelet counts were instead significantly elevated. Isolated global Sphk2 deficiency was associated with thrombocytopenia, but this was not replicated by MK-restricted Sphk2 deletion and was reversed by compound deletion of either Sphk1 or S1pr2, suggesting that this phenotype arises from increased S1P export and S1P2 activation secondary to redistribution of sphingosine to Sphk1. Consistent with clinical observations, we thus observe no essential role for S1P1 in facilitating platelet production or activation. Instead, S1P restricts megakaryopoiesis through S1P1, and can further suppress thrombopoiesis through S1P2 when aberrantly secreted in the hematopoietic niche.
Project description:The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5), S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was pharmacologically inhibited. Stimulating moesin-deficient T cells with S1P failed to induce S1PR1 internalization and CCV formation. Furthermore, treating moesin-deficient mice with FTY720, an S1P receptor agonist known to internalize S1PR1, caused delayed lymphopenia, and lymphocytes isolated from FTY720-treated moesin-deficient mice still responded to S1P ex vivo in chemotaxis assays. These results reveal a novel role for moesin in regulating clathrin-dependent S1PR1 internalization through CCV formation.
Project description:While the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1) axis is critically important for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, S1PR1-activation also occurs in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), including those of the high-endothelial venules (HEVs) that mediate lymphocyte immigration into lymph nodes (LNs). To understand the functional significance of the S1P/S1PR1-Gi axis in HEVs, we generated Lyve1;Spns2?/? conditional knockout mice for the S1P-transporter Spinster-homologue-2 (SPNS2), as HEVs express LYVE1 during development. In these mice HEVs appeared apoptotic and were severely impaired in function, morphology and size; leading to markedly hypotrophic peripheral LNs. Dendritic cells (DCs) were unable to interact with HEVs, which was also observed in Cdh5CRE-ERT2;S1pr1?/? mice and wildtype mice treated with S1PR1-antagonists. Wildtype HEVs treated with S1PR1-antagonists in vitro and Lyve1-deficient HEVs show severely reduced release of the DC-chemoattractant CCL21 in vivo. Together, our results reveal that EC-derived S1P warrants HEV-integrity through autocrine control of S1PR1-Gi signaling, and facilitates concomitant HEV-DC interactions.
Project description:At the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers, P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, is a major obstacle to central nervous system (CNS) pharmacotherapy. Recently, we showed that signaling through tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), sphingolipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) rapidly and reversibly reduced basal P-glycoprotein transport activity in the rat blood-brain barrier. The present study extends those findings to the mouse blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers and, importantly, identifies multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1, Abcc1) as the transporter that mediates S1P efflux from brain and spinal cord endothelial cells. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from wild-type mice, TNF-α, sphingosine, S1P, the S1PR agonist fingolimod (FTY720), and its active, phosphorylated metabolite, FTY720P, reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity; these effects were abolished by a specific S1PR1 antagonist. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from Mrp1-null mice, neither TNF-α nor sphingosine nor FTY720 reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity. However, S1P and FTY720P had the same S1PR1-dependent effects on transport activity as in capillaries from wild-type mice. Thus, deletion of Mrp1 alone terminated endogenous signaling to S1PR1. These results identify Mrp1 as the transporter essential for S1P efflux from the endothelial cells and thus for inside-out S1P signaling to P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers.
Project description:Sphingosine kinase (SphK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR) signaling pathway has been implicated in a variety of pathological processes of ovarian cancer. However, the function of this axis in ovarian cancer angiogenesis remains incompletely defined. Here we provided the first evidence that SphK1/S1P/S1PR1/3 pathway played key roles in ovarian cancer angiogenesis. The expression level of SphK1, but not SphK2, was closely correlated with the microvascular density (MVD) of ovarian cancer tissue. In vitro, the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of ovarian cancer cells could be attenuated by SphK1, but not SphK2, blockage and were restored by the addition of S1P. Moreover, in these cells, we found S1P stimulation induced the angiogenic factor secretion via S1PR1 and S1PR3, but not S1PR2. Furthermore, inhibition of S1PR1/3, but not S1PR2, attenuated the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of the cells. in vivo, blockage of SphK or S1PR1/3 could attenuate ovarian cancer angiogenesis and inhibit angiogenic factor expression in mouse models. Collectively, the current study showed a novel role of SphK1/S1P/S1PR1/3 axis within the ovarian cancer, suggesting a new target to block ovarian cancer angiogenesis.
Project description:Millions of platelets are produced each hour by bone marrow (BM) megakaryocytes (MKs). MKs extend transendothelial proplatelet (PP) extensions into BM sinusoids and shed new platelets into the blood. The mechanisms that control platelet generation remain incompletely understood. Using conditional mutants and intravital multiphoton microscopy, we show here that the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) serves as a critical directional cue guiding the elongation of megakaryocytic PP extensions from the interstitium into BM sinusoids and triggering the subsequent shedding of PPs into the blood. Correspondingly, mice lacking the S1P receptor S1pr1 develop severe thrombocytopenia caused by both formation of aberrant extravascular PPs and defective intravascular PP shedding. In contrast, activation of S1pr1 signaling leads to the prompt release of new platelets into the circulating blood. Collectively, our findings uncover a novel function of the S1P-S1pr1 axis as master regulator of efficient thrombopoiesis and might raise new therapeutic options for patients with thrombocytopenia.
Project description:Because sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis, we hypothesized that the S1P pathway is activated to stimulate endometrial/placental angiogenesis during pregnancy. We initially localized S1P signaling pathway members in the gravid and nongravid uterine horns of unilaterally pregnant ewes. Sphingosine kinase-1 expression was greater in gravid compared to nongravid horns. In situ hybridization revealed elevated expression of sphingosine 1-phosphate phosphatase (SGPP1) in gravid interplacentomal endometrial stroma on Days 20 and 40 compared to the nongravid uterine horn, but expression increased in endometrium of the nongravid uterine horn between Days 40 and 120. SGPP1 expression increased in placentomes late in gestation. Sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase mRNA was modestly expressed at Day 20 and then decreased. In contrast, sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) mRNA increased in endometrium and caruncular stroma of the gravid uterine horn. Treatment with FTY720 and VPC23019, S1P receptor antagonists, blocked human and ovine endothelial cell invasion using an in vitro model of sprouting angiogenesis. Knockdown of S1PR1 with siRNA reduced invasion responses as well. We previously reported that delta-like 4 (DLL4) and A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin-like repeats 1 (ADAMTS1) participate in endothelial cell invasion stimulated by S1P and growth factors in vitro, and thus investigated whether their expression correlated with areas undergoing angiogenesis in vivo. DLL4 expression was similar to S1PR1, while ADAMTS1 mRNA was expressed by endometria of both nongravid and gravid horns, as well as conceptus and placentomes. These results establish that S1P signaling pathway members and S1P- and growth factor-regulated genes are prominent in uterine and placental tissue and in some cases are correlated with areas undergoing angiogenesis. Thus, S1P signaling may be crucial for proper fetal-placental development.