The implementation of the Japanese Dental English core curriculum: active learning based on peer-teaching and learning activities.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Education in Japan and other Asian countries advocates the stereotypical passive learning style where students are limited in their breadth of knowledge dismissing anything not imparted by their teachers. With globalized education, professions are becoming very competitive, embracing student-centeredness compelling them to introduce active learning activities. A study funded by Japan's Ministry of Education conducted a needs analysis, proposed a solution, and implemented an active learning approach. Since the latter is still new in the Japanese teaching-learning environment, this current study aimed at assessing the willingness of undergraduate students of dental medicine to participate in active learning activities rather than the typical passive-style teaching-learning educational process. METHODS:Three active implementation-learning activities, namely International Group Discussions (IGD), Student-Teacher Experience (STE) and Role Play Activities (RPA) were included in the Dental English course in a classroom setting at a dental school in Japan. Students had to choose between participating in the activity or taking the final examination. Two hundred and three third-year undergraduate dental students participated over a 5-year period from October 2013 to March 2017. For IGD, the researchers assigned students to a topic and grouped them with visiting international exchange students. For STE, researchers gave students teacher-prepared presentation slides on basic dental topics, which they presented in front of their classmates. For RPA, students had to do prepared role-play and impromptu role play. Peer and teacher feedbacks of the activities were given to all students. At the end of the course, the students evaluated the active learning activities and wrote their comments in a free entry survey. RESULTS:All 203 students participated in the active learning activities confirming the changing learning needs of Japanese students in this dental school. The most common comment was that the class was interesting, fun, an easy-to-understand way to learn dental terms, and a safe way to express themselves in the English language. CONCLUSION:The majority of Japanese students preferred the active learning style. The study revealed that students reported greater engagement and better learning with proper guidance and time to prepare for the activities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The authors' medical school has adopted an inverted classroom model (ICM) for physiology classes. This study aimed to determine students' learning styles and investigate the relationship between learning style and satisfaction with different instruction approaches and components of the ICM. METHODS:One hundred and twenty-one second-year dental students participated in this study, which had a 77.6% participation rate. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, a sociodemographic questionnaire, and a satisfaction survey were administered after course completion. RESULTS:In both the traditional and ICM classes, most of the participants were convergers (56.9 and 54%) and assimilators (20.7 and 25.4%), and the rest of the participants were accommodators (15.5 and 12.7%) and divergers (6.9 and 8%). Learning style did not influence participants' satisfaction and did not predict their satisfaction with the traditional and ICM approaches. The satisfaction scores for the four components of the ICM were not significantly different by learning style. The mean satisfaction scores of the ICM approach were higher than those of the traditional approach in all learning style groups. All of the participants in the ICM class were more satisfied with the online and teacher-student interaction components than the student group discussion and presentation components. CONCLUSIONS:Learning style may not be a potential contributing factor for optimizing the implementation of the ICM. Instead of focusing on learning styles, further research must investigate how to design more efficient online courses, determine appropriate levels of learning materials, provide more online instructional interaction, and help students overcome their feelings of fear.
Project description:PURPOSE:The present study aimed to identify the learning preferences of dental students and to characterize their relationship with academic performance at a dental school in Isfahan, Iran. METHODS:This cross-sectional descriptive study included 200 undergraduate dental students from October to November 2016. Data were collected using a 2-part questionnaire. The first part included demographic data, and the second part was a Persian-language version of the visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted with the chi-square test, 1-way analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression. RESULTS:The response rate was 86.6%. Approximately half of the students (51.5%) had multimodal learning preferences. Among the unimodal group (48.5%), the most common mode was aural (24.0%), followed by kinesthetic (15.5%), reading-writing (8.0%), and visual (1.0%). There was a significant association between academic performance and the reading/writing learning style preference (P< 0.01). CONCLUSION:Multimodal learning styles were the most preferred. Among single-mode learning styles, the aural style was most common, followed by the kinesthetic style. Students with a reading/writing preference had better academic performance. The results of this study provide useful information for preparing a more problem-based curriculum with active learning strategies.
Project description:A growing body of research-based knowledge has been generated for the purpose of better understanding the reciprocal and dynamic relationship between teachers' instructional characteristics and students' psychosocial and learning outcomes. This study specifically examined the relationship between teachers' interpersonal styles and fear of failure outcomes in physical education students. Five hundred sixty-two middle school and high school students in Physical Education classes (PE) participated in the study. Students completed questionnaires that assessed instructors' autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching styles and students' own fear of failure. A person-centered analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that higher teacher autonomy support was associated with lower student fear of failure. To the contrary, a controlling teaching style was associated with fear of failure in these students. Two profiles emerged in which moderate fear of failure was associated with a stronger perception of a controlling teacher style and lower levels of fear of failure were associated with greater perceived instructor support for autonomy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the last three decades there is a growing recognition in the dental profession that dental education must go beyond teaching the technicalities of dentistry and include professionalism and communication skills that the future dentist may need. Such skills are best taught in a student-centered way. Literature suggests that student-centered elements are difficult to introduce in traditional, teacher-centered curricula. This is especially true in post-communist countries where higher education was under strict state control for decades. The aim of the piece of research presented here was to investigate how difficult it is to introduce a student-centered career skills course in a traditionally teacher-centered dental curriculum. METHODS:Considering the needs of our final-year dental students and Super's model of career development, we created an undergraduate curricular career skills course running for two semesters in two languages (Hungarian and English). The primary aim of the course is to help students with their career expectations and develop their identity as a professional workforce. The secondary aim is to teach skills that students can use when applying for a job. At the end of the semesters, we assessed our students' satisfaction with various aspects of the course by using a questionnaire. Results were analyzed item-wise and according to the main aspects of the course (i.e., groups of items organized around a particular aspect). RESULTS:General satisfaction with the course was high, and practical skills training (such as CV and motivation letter writing) got the highest scores. From the answers it appears that the students were the least comfortable with having to deal with their personal values and preferences. CONCLUSIONS:While it is common for universities to offer various forms of career intervention, to our knowledge, no other university offers a curricular career skills course specifically for dental students. Our student-centered course designed in a problem-based learning framework worked even in a traditionally teacher-centered educational environment, where university students are rarely encouraged to be active participants in courses. By sharing our experience, we would like to encourage our fellow dental educators working in similar environments to devise and offer such courses.
Project description:In the context of education, this study examined the relationship between perceiving a transformational physical education (PE) teacher and student's leisure-time physical activity (PA). Furthermore, we tested the potential mediation role of motivational learning climate, passion and self-determined motivation in this relationship. The sample was composed of 2210 high-school PE students (1145 males, 1065 females) between 16 and 20 years of age. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that the perceived transformational PE teacher-PA outcomes relationship was stronger when students perceived a task-involving climate, when they were harmoniously passionate, and when they were self-determined. We conclude that students' health-enhancing behaviours could be improved if their PE teachers use transformational teaching style and created a task-oriented learning climate.
Project description:In recent decades, many studies have been carried out on the importance of Kolb experiential learning theory (ELT) in teaching-learning processes and its effect on learning outcomes. However, some experts have criticized the Kolb theory and argue that there are some ambiguities on the validity of the theory as an important predictor of achievement. This study has been carried out on dental students' educational achievement in relation to their dominant learning styles based on Kolb theory in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran).In a cross sectional study, Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI Ver. 3.1) as well as a questionnaire containing students' demographic data, academic achievement marks including grade point average (GPA), theoretical and practical courses marks, and the comprehensive basic sciences exam (CBSE) scores were administered on a purposive sample of 162 dental students who had passed their comprehensive basic sciences exam. Educational achievement data were analyzed in relation to students' dominant learning styles, using descriptive and analytical statistics including χ2, Kruskal-Wallis and two-way ANOVA tests.The dominant learning styles of students were Assimilating (53.1%), Converging (24.1%), Diverging (14.2%) and Accommodating (8.6%). Although, the students with Assimilating and Converging learning styles had a better performance on their educational achievement, there was no significant relationship between educational achievement and dominant learning style (P≥0.05).Findings support that the dominant learning style is not exclusively an essential factor to predict educational achievement. Rather, it shows learning preferences of students that may be considered in designing learning opportunities by the teachers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies indicate that a teacher-centered context could hinder undergraduates from self-regulated learning (SRL), whereas a learner-centered context could promote SRL. However, SRL development between a teacher-centered and a learner-centered context has not directly compared in undergraduate settings. Also, it is still unclear how a contextual change toward learner-centered learning could influence SRL in students, who are strongly accustomed to teacher-centered learning. METHODS:We conducted three focus groups that examined 13 Japanese medical students who left a traditional curriculum composed of didactic lectures and frequent summative tests and entered a seven-month elective course (Free Course Student Doctor or FCSD). The FCSD emphasizes student-designed individualized learning with support and formative feedback from mentors chosen by students' preference. We also conducted two focus groups that examined 7 students who remained in the teacher-centered curriculum during the same period. Students were asked to discuss their 1) motivation, 2) learning strategies, and 3) self-reflection on self-study before and during the period. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and code comparison between the two cohorts. RESULTS:The non-FCSD participants described their motivational status as being one among a crowd set by the teacher's yardstick. Their reflection focused on minimizing the gap between themselves and the teacher-set yardstick with strategies considered monotonous and homogeneous (e.g. memorization). FCSD participants described losing the teacher-set yardstick and constructing their future self-image as an alternative yardstick. They compared gaps between their present status and future self-image by self-reflection. To fill these gaps, they actively employed learning strategies used by doctors or mentors, leading to diversification of their learning strategies. CONCLUSIONS:A contextual change toward learner-centered learning could promote SRL even in students strongly accustomed to teacher-centered learning. In the learner-centered context, students began to construct their self-image, conduct self-reflection, and seek diverse learning strategies by referring to future 'self' models.
Project description:This paper reports on a case study of the teacher's role as facilitator in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) settings in science. In naturalistic classroom settings, the teacher most often acts as an important resource and provides various forms of guidance during students' learning activities. Few studies, however, have focused on the role of teacher intervention in CSCL settings. By analyzing the interactions between secondary school students and their teacher during a science project, the current study provides insight into the concerns that teachers might encounter when facilitating students' learning processes in these types of settings. The analyses show that one main concern was creating a balance between providing the requested information and supporting students in utilizing each other's knowledge and understanding. Another concern was balancing support on an individual versus group level, and a third concern was directing the students' attention to coexisting conceptual perspectives. Most importantly, however, the analyses show how teacher intervention constitutes the pivotal "glue" that aids students in linking and using coexisting aspects of support such as peer collaboration, digital tools, and instructional design.
Project description:Background:Teaching of maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) is challenging for dental educators due to the varied sinus anatomy and high rate of complications. The method integrating problem-based learning and case-based learning (PBL-CBL method) may be more effective than the traditional teacher-centered method. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of the PBL-CBL method in teaching MSFA. Materials & Methods:Ninety-two students who received training between 2015 and 2017 at the Department of Implant Dentistry were divided randomly into an experimental group and a control group. Students in the experimental group were trained using the PBL-CBL method, while those in the control group were trained using the traditional teacher-centered method. After three months of training, a survey of the students' opinions about the corresponding teaching method was carried out through a feedback questionnaire. A theory test was used to investigate the level of MSFA knowledge among the students. A case analysis was designed to test whether the students can apply the knowledge in solving new problems. Results:Compared with the control method, the PBL-CBL method resulted in higher scores in both the theory test and the case analysis, and obtained a higher rate of satisfaction among the students. The difference in scores between the two methods were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion:The PBL-CBL method resulted in better results regarding acquisition of academic knowledge, ability in case analysis and student satisfaction compared with the teacher-centered method. It may be a promising mode for teaching complex surgical techniques in implant dentistry and other dental fields.
Project description:Medical education remains the onerous responsibility of the senior medical fraternity. Not being formally trained calls for periodic introspection to be more effective teachers. This study, involving the fourth year medical students revealed a great need for self-reflection to improve the Style of teaching, ensuring greater involvement of the students and teaching what is appropriate to the stage of study. Aggressive behaviour was inimical to good learning. A better student teacher communication and the ability to run the session' are important indicators of good teaching. A continued self-evaluation by teachers will improve student learning and medical education.