Identification of a novel large deletion and other copy number variations in the CFTR gene in patients with Cystic Fibrosis from a multiethnic population.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). There are over 2000 different pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants described in association with a broad clinical heterogeneity. The most common types of mutations in this gene are single nucleotide substitutions or small deletions and insertions. However, large rearrangements, such as large duplications or deletions, are also a possible cause of CF; these variations are rarely tested in routine screenings, and much of them remain unidentified in some populations, especially those with high ethnic heterogeneity. METHODS:The present study utilized the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) technique for the detection of duplications and deletions in 165 CF patients from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil), which after extensive mutational screening, still exhibited one or two unidentified CF alleles. RESULTS:Five patients with alterations in MLPA signals were detected. After validation, we identified three copy number variations, one large duplication (CFTRdup2-3) and two large deletions (CFTRdel25-26 and CFTRdel25-27-CTTNBP2). Two detected deletions were not validated. They were false positives caused by a small deletion of 18 base pairs (232del18) and a point mutation (S168L) in the probe binding site. CONCLUSION:Our results highlight the importance of screening for large rearrangements in CF cases with no or only one CFTR mutation defined.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited life-threatening disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and the digestive system. In Palestine, mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR) that contributes to the clinical presentation of CF are ill defined. A cohort of thirty three clinically diagnosed CF patients from twenty one different Palestinian families residing in the central and southern part of Palestine were incorporated in this study. Sweat chloride testing was performed using the Sweat Chek Conductivity Analyzer (ELITECH Group, France) to confirm the clinical diagnosis of CF. In addition, nucleic acid from the patients' blood samples was extracted and the CFTR mutation profiles were assessed by direct sequencing of the CFTR 27 exons and the intron-exon boundaries. For patient's DNA samples where no homozygous or two heterozygous CFTR mutations were identified by exon sequencing, DNA samples were tested for deletions or duplications using SALSA MLPA probemix P091-D1 CFTR assay. Sweat chloride testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of CF in those patients. All patients had NaCl conductivity >60 mmol/l. In addition, nine different CFTR mutations were identified in all 21 different families evaluated. These mutations were c.1393-1G>A, F508del, W1282X, G85E, c.313delA, N1303K, deletion exons 17a-17b-18, deletion exons 17a-17b and Q1100P. c.1393-1G>A was shown to be the most frequent occurring mutation among tested families. We have profiled the underling mutations in the CFTR gene of a cohort of 21 different families affected by CF. Unlike other studies from the Arab countries where F508del was reported to be the most common mutation, in southern/central Palestine, the c.1393-1G>A appeared to be the most common. Further studies are needed per sample size and geographic distribution to account for other possible CFTR genetic alterations and their frequencies. Genotype/phenotype assessments are also recommended and finally carrier frequency should be ascertained.
Project description:The most prevalent "rare" disease worldwide, cystic fibrosis (CF), is an autosomal recessive multisystem disease, caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. The knowledge of CFTR mutations present in certain population is important for designing a simple, fast and cost-effective genetic testing approach, also for better management of CF patients, including the administration of novel targeted therapies. Here, we present genetic results of 158 unrelated CF patients from the National CF Registry of the Republic of North Macedonia. Initially, patients were screened for the 11 most common CF mutations. Additional CF mutations and large deletions/duplications in the CFTR gene were analyzed using commercial kits. If the genotype was undetermined, all CFTR exons were analyzed using Sanger DNA sequencing or next generation sequencing (NGS) (since 2014). The most common CF mutation, c.l521_ 1523del (legacy name F508del), was found with an overall incidence of 75.9%. Additionally, 26 other pathogenic variants and three large deletions were identified in the CFTR gene as a genetic cause of CF. Two of these, c.1070 C>T (p.Ala357Val) and c.2779_2788dup CTTGCTATGG (p.Gly930AlafsTer48), were novel. According to the distribution and prevalence of the pathogenic variants detected in our patients, a fast and cost-effective method, based on a single base extension was designed as a first-line CF genetic test with a 90.0% detection rate within our population. Furthermore, the knowledge of CFTR mutation classes in our CF patients represents the first step toward personalized therapy for CF in our country.
Project description:Grade III fetal bowel hyperechogenicity and/or loop dilatation observed at the second trimester of pregnancy can be due to several disease conditions, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Screening for frequent CF mutations is performed as a first step and, in certain situations, such as when a frequent CF mutation is found in the fetus, the increased risk of CF justifies an in-depth study of the second allele. To determine the contribution of large CFTR gene rearrangements in such cases, detected using a semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR (QFM-PCR) assay, we collated data on 669 referrals related to suspicion of CF in fetuses from 1998 to 2009. Deletions were found in 5/70 cases in which QFM-PCR was applied, dele19, dele22_23, dele2_6b, dele14b_15 and dele6a_6b, of which the last three remain undescribed. In 3/5 cases, hyperechogenicity was associated with dilatation and/or gallbladder anomalies. Of the total cases of CF recognized in the subgroup of first-hand referrals, deletions represent 16.7% of CF alleles. Our study thus strengthens the need to consider large CFTR gene rearrangements in the diagnosis strategy of fetal bowel anomalies, in particular in the presence of multiple anomalies.
Project description:A disparity between Caucasian and Hispanic mutation detection for cystic fibrosis continues to exist, although the carrier frequency is only moderately lower in Hispanics. We aimed to identify exonic rearrangements that remained undetected by conventional methods. In seven of 32 cystic fibrosis-affected self-identified Hispanics for whom only one or no mutations were identified by extensive molecular testing, exon deletions appeared to be present with a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay. Two recurrent deletions (of exons 2-3 and exons 22-23) were identified in one and three patients, respectively (12.5%, 11.1% of unidentified alleles). Two apparently novel deletions (exons 6b and 20) were identified in three additional patients. Subsequent sequencing to characterize deletion breakpoints, however, identified single nucleotide deletions at the probe binding sites close to the ligation point. All resulted in false positive MLPA deletion signals. Interestingly, these mutations were not common in Caucasians, and one (935delA) was common in U.S. Hispanics. On examination of all probe binding sites, we identified a total of 76 reported mutations and five silent variants that immediately surrounded the MLPA ligation sites, with 22 occurring in non-Caucasians. These mutations are not all rare. Thus, apparent exon deletions by MLPA may indicate the presence of both large deletions and point mutations, with important implications for pan-ethnic MLPA testing in cystic fibrosis and other genetic conditions.
Project description:By performing extensive scanning of whole coding and flanking sequences of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, we had previously identified the CF-causing mutations in black South African patients of different ethnic groups suspected with the disease. Of ten samples analyzed, there were six remaining that had either one (n = 2) or two (n = 4) unidentified CFTR alleles that have now been tested for large rearrangements using a semiquantitative fluorescent PCR assay. A novel deletion encompassing CFTR exon 2 was detected in one patient who was heterozygous for the mutation 3120+1G>A. The Caucasian deletion involving the same exon [c.54-5811_c.164+2186del8108ins182] was ruled out. The DNA had been stored for more than 12 years and only minute quantities remained. We thus used a whole-genome amplification method based on multiple displacement amplification to generate sufficient amounts of DNA to characterize the intronic breakpoints and identify the deletion at the genomic level. Mapping and sequencing the breakpoint junctions revealed a novel large deletion [c.54-1161_c.164+1603del2875]. We have designed a simple test to specifically detect the presence or absence of this large rearrangement. This study reports the first large CFTR rearrangement in a black South African CF patient, further defining the molecular spectrum of CF that will be useful for improving genetic testing and counseling in this region.
Project description:Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is a rare, autosomal recessive, salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutations in the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). Because 18 to 40% of suspected GS patients carry only one SLC12A3 mutant allele, large genomic rearrangements may account for unidentified mutations. Here, we directly sequenced genomic DNA from a large cohort of 448 unrelated patients suspected of having GS. We found 172 distinct mutations, of which 100 were unreported previously. In 315 patients (70%), we identified two mutations; in 81 patients (18%), we identified one; and in 52 patients (12%), we did not detect a mutation. In 88 patients, we performed a search for large rearrangements by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and found nine deletions and two duplications in 24 of the 51 heterozygous patients. A second technique confirmed each rearrangement. Based on the breakpoints of seven deletions, nonallelic homologous recombination by Alu sequences and nonhomologous end-joining probably favor these intragenic deletions. In summary, missense mutations account for approximately 59% of the mutations in Gitelman's syndrome, and there is a predisposition to large rearrangements (6% of our cases) caused by the presence of repeated sequences within the SLC12A3 gene.
Project description:We report a classic cystic fibrosis (CF) boy with a large deletion of exons 4-11 in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene on one allele and p.Phe508del in exon 10 on the second allele. Both parents of Georgian and Ukrainian background had no personal or family history of the disease. The initial molecular diagnostic investigation identified the patient as homozygous for the p.Phe508del and not compatible with his parent's genetic status. The possibility of nonpaternity or uniparental disomy (UPD7) was investigated and excluded using microsatellite analysis of highly polymorphic markers on chromosome 7. Array-CGH was also performed on the patient and revealed a male profile with a subtle deletion within the CFTR gene on the long arm (q-arm) of chromosome 7 (7q31.2). The deletion was confirmed by MLPA extending from probe L02380 to probe L14978 (28.7 kb) and that was inherited from his father, while p.PheF508del was inherited from his mother. These data highlight the need for additional testing for large deletions in patients with apparent homozygosity for a mutated CFTR allele that do not match the carrier status of the parents. Not testing can lead to misdiagnosis and misinterpretation of mutation carrier status and the expected penetrance of the disorder.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-threatening autosomal recessive disorder in Caucasians, is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). We and others previously identified CFTR mutations in 20 Chinese patients with CF. In this study, eight Chinese patients with a clinical diagnosis of suspected CF were newly collected and screened for CFTR mutations using a combination of conventional Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. The CFTR mutations observed in Chinese CF patients, both reported previously and identified in the present study, were also summarized. In the newly collected patients, we identified 10 different CFTR mutations, including p.F508del, the most common CF-causing mutation in Caucasians, and three novel mutations (p.V1212Afs*15; p.L666* and p.A969A). Most notably, the previously reported p.G970D mutation was found in six patients, making it the most frequent CFTR mutation identified in Chinese CF patients thus far. In conclusion, we detected p.F508del for the first time, identified additional novel CFTR mutations and recorded the most frequent CF-causing mutation in Chinese CF patients.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of sticky and heavy mucus that can damage several organs. CF shows variable expressivity in affected individuals, but it typically causes respiratory and digestive complications as well as congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens in males. Individuals with classic CF usually have variants that produce a defective protein from both alleles of the CFTR gene. Individuals with other variants may present with classic, non-classic, or milder forms of CF due to lower levels of functional CFTR protein. This article reports the genetic analysis of a female with features of asthma and mild or non-classic CF. CFTR sequencing demonstrated that she is a carrier for a maternally derived 5T/12TG variant. Deletion/duplication analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) showed the presence of an intragenic paternally derived duplication involving exons 7-11 of the CFTR gene. This duplication is predicted to result in the production of a truncated CFTR protein lacking the terminal part of the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) and thus is likely to be a non-functioning allele. The combination of this large intragenic duplication and 5T/12TG is the probable cause of the mild or non-classic CF features in this individual.
Project description:Over the last 20 years since the discovery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, more than 1,600 different putatively pathological CFTR mutations have been identified. Until now, however, copy number mutations (CNMs) involving the CFTR gene have not been methodically analyzed, resulting almost certainly in the underascertainment of CFTR gene duplications compared with deletions. Here, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (averaging one interrogating probe every 95 bp) was used to analyze the entire length of the CFTR gene (189 kb) in 233 cystic fibrosis chromosomes lacking conventional mutations. We succeeded in identifying five duplication CNMs that would otherwise have been refractory to analysis. Based upon findings from this and other studies, we propose that deletion and duplication CNMs in the human autosomal genome are likely to be generated in the proportion of approximately 2-3:1. We further postulate that intragenic gene duplication CNMs in other disease loci may have been routinely underascertained. Finally, our analysis of +/-20 bp flanking each of the 40 CFTR breakpoints characterized at the DNA sequence level provide support for the emerging concept that non-B DNA conformations in combination with specific sequence motifs predispose to both recurring and nonrecurring genomic rearrangements.