Distribution and Diversity of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in the Fungal Class Tremellomycetes.
ABSTRACT: Tremellomycetes, a fungal class in the subphylum Agaricomycotina, contain well-known opportunistic and emerging human pathogens. The azole drug fluconazole, used in the treatment of diseases caused by some species of Tremellomycetes, inhibits cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP51, an enzyme that converts lanosterol into an essential component of the fungal cell membrane ergosterol. Studies indicate that mutations and over-expression of CYP51 in species of Tremellomycetes are one of the reasons for fluconazole resistance. Moreover, the novel drug, VT-1129, that is in the pipeline is reported to exert its effect by binding and inhibiting CYP51. Despite the importance of CYPs, the CYP repertoire in species of Tremellomycetes has not been reported to date. This study intends to address this research gap. Comprehensive genome-wide CYP analysis revealed the presence of 203 CYPs (excluding 16 pseudo-CYPs) in 23 species of Tremellomycetes that can be grouped into 38 CYP families and 72 CYP subfamilies. Twenty-three CYP families are new and three CYP families (CYP5139, CYP51 and CYP61) were conserved across 23 species of Tremellomycetes. Pathogenic cryptococcal species have 50% fewer CYP genes than non-pathogenic species. The results of this study will serve as reference for future annotation and characterization of CYPs in species of Tremellomycetes.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) are ubiquitous throughout the tree of life and play diverse roles in metabolism including the synthesis of secondary metabolites as well as the degradation of recalcitrant organic substrates. The genomes of budding yeasts (phylum Ascomycota, sub-phylum Saccharomycotina) typically contain fewer families of CYPs than filamentous fungi. There are currently five CYP families among budding yeasts with known function while at least another six CYP families with unknown function ("orphan CYPs") have been described. The current study surveyed the genomes of 372 species of budding yeasts for CYP-encoding genes in order to determine the taxonomic distribution of individual CYP families across the sub-phylum as well as to identify novel CYP families. Families CYP51 and CYP61 (represented by the ergosterol biosynthetic genes ERG11 and ERG5, respectively) were essentially ubiquitous among the budding yeasts while families CYP52 (alkane/fatty acid hydroxylases), CYP56 (N-formyl-l-tyrosine oxidase) displayed several instances of gene loss at the genus or family level. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the three orphan families CYP5217, CYP5223 and CYP5252 diverged from a common ancestor gene following the origin of the budding yeast sub-phylum. The genomic survey also identified eight CYP families that had not previously been reported in budding yeasts.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP51 (sterol 14α-demethylase) is a well-known target of the azole drug fluconazole for treating cryptococcosis, a life-threatening fungal infection in immune-compromised patients in poor countries. Studies indicate that mutations in CYP51 confer fluconazole resistance on cryptococcal species. Despite the importance of CYP51 in these species, few studies on the structural analysis of CYP51 and its interactions with different azole drugs have been reported. We therefore performed in silico structural analysis of 11 CYP51s from cryptococcal species and other <i>Tremellomycetes</i>. Interactions of 11 CYP51s with nine ligands (three substrates and six azoles) performed by Rosetta docking using 10,000 combinations for each of the CYP51-ligand complex (11 CYP51s × 9 ligands = 99 complexes) and hierarchical agglomerative clustering were used for selecting the complexes. A web application for visualization of CYP51s' interactions with ligands was developed (http://bioshell.pl/azoledocking/). The study results indicated that <i>Tremellomycetes</i> CYP51s have a high preference for itraconazole, corroborating the in vitro effectiveness of itraconazole compared to fluconazole. Amino acids interacting with different ligands were found to be conserved across CYP51s, indicating that the procedure employed in this study is accurate and can be automated for studying P450-ligand interactions to cater for the growing number of P450s.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs) play diverse and pivotal roles in fungal metabolism and adaptation to specific ecological niches. Fungal genomes encode extremely variable "CYPomes" ranging from one to more than 300 CYPs. Despite the rapid growth of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes and the resulting influx of predicted CYPs, the vast majority of CYPs remain functionally uncharacterized. To facilitate the curation and functional and evolutionary studies of CYPs, we previously developed Fungal Cytochrome P450 Database (FCPD), which included CYPs from 70 fungal and oomycete species. Here we present a new version of FCPD (1.2) with more data and an improved classification scheme.<h4>Results</h4>The new database contains 22,940 CYPs from 213 species divided into 2,579 clusters and 115 clans. By optimizing the clustering pipeline, we were able to uncover 36 novel clans and to assign 153 orphan CYP families to specific clans. To augment their functional annotation, CYP clusters were mapped to David Nelson's P450 databases, which archive a total of 12,500 manually curated CYPs. Additionally, over 150 clusters were functionally classified based on sequence similarity to experimentally characterized CYPs. Comparative analysis of fungal and oomycete CYPomes revealed cases of both extreme expansion and contraction. The most dramatic expansions in fungi were observed in clans CYP58 and CYP68 (Pezizomycotina), clans CYP5150 and CYP63 (Agaricomycotina), and family CYP509 (Mucoromycotina). Although much of the extraordinary diversity of the pan-fungal CYPome can be attributed to gene duplication and adaptive divergence, our analysis also suggests a few potential horizontal gene transfer events. Updated families and clans can be accessed through the new version of the FCPD database.<h4>Conclusions</h4>FCPD version 1.2 provides a systematic and searchable catalogue of 9,550 fungal CYP sequences (292 families) encoded by 108 fungal species and 147 CYP sequences (9 families) encoded by five oomycete species. In comparison to the first version, it offers a more comprehensive clan classification, is fully compatible with Nelson's P450 databases, and has expanded functional categorization. These features will facilitate functional annotation and classification of CYPs encoded by newly sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes. Additionally, the classification system will aid in studying the roles of CYPs in the evolution of fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches.
Project description:Families and genera assigned to Tremellomycetes have been mainly circumscribed by morphology and for the yeasts also by biochemical and physiological characteristics. This phenotype-based classification is largely in conflict with molecular phylogenetic analyses. Here a phylogenetic classification framework for the Tremellomycetes is proposed based on the results of phylogenetic analyses from a seven-genes dataset covering the majority of tremellomycetous yeasts and closely related filamentous taxa. Circumscriptions of the taxonomic units at the order, family and genus levels recognised were quantitatively assessed using the phylogenetic rank boundary optimisation (PRBO) and modified general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) tests. In addition, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis on an expanded LSU rRNA (D1/D2 domains) gene sequence dataset covering as many as available teleomorphic and filamentous taxa within Tremellomycetes was performed to investigate the relationships between yeasts and filamentous taxa and to examine the stability of undersampled clades. Based on the results inferred from molecular data and morphological and physiochemical features, we propose an updated classification for the Tremellomycetes. We accept five orders, 17 families and 54 genera, including seven new families and 18 new genera. In addition, seven families and 17 genera are emended and one new species name and 185 new combinations are proposed. We propose to use the term pro tempore or pro tem. in abbreviation to indicate the species names that are temporarily maintained.
Project description:Bullera species in the Trichosporonales (Tremellomycetes, Agaricomycotina) are phylogenetically distinct from Bullera alba (teleomorph: Bulleromyces albus), the type species of Bullera that belongs to Tremellales. In the present study, the three Bullera species, namely Bullera formosensis, Bullera koratensis and Bullera lagerstroemiae, and Cryptococcus tepidarius belonging to the Trichosporonales are transferred into a new genus Takashimella gen. nov. (MycoBank No. MB 810672) based on sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, the D1/D2 domains of large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS+5.8S rRNA gene sequences. In addition, the genus Cryptotrichosporon is emended to accommodate a novel ballistoconidium-forming species of the Trichosporonales, which is named as Cryptotrichosporon tibetense (type strain CGMCC 2.02614T = CBS 10455T). The MycoBank number of this new species is MB 810688.
Project description:The Cytochrome P450 super family (CYP) is responsible for a wide range of functions in metazoans, having roles in both exogenous and endogenous substrate metabolism. Annelids are known to metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and produce estrogen. CYPs are postulated to be key enzymes in these processes in annelids. In this study, the CYP complement (CYPome) of the annelid Capitella teleta has been robustly identified and annotated with the genome assembly available. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to understand the evolutionary relationships between CYPs in C. teleta and other species. Predictions of which CYPs are potentially involved in both PAH metabolism and steroidogensis were made based on phylogeny. Annotation of 84 full length and 12 partial CYP sequences predicted a total of 96 functional CYPs in C. teleta. A further 13 CYP fragments were found but these may be pseudogenes. The C. teleta CYPome contained 24 novel CYP families and seven novel CYP subfamilies within existing families. A phylogenetic analysis identified that the C. teleta sequences were found in 9 of the 11 metazoan CYP clans. Two CYPs, CYP3071A1 and CYP3072A1, did not cluster with any metazoan CYP clans. We found xenobiotic response elements (XREs) upstream of C. teleta CYPs related to vertebrate CYP1 (CYP3060A1, CYP3061A1) and from families with reported transcriptional upregulation in response to PAH exposure (CYP4, CYP331). C. teleta had a CYP51A1 with ?65% identity to vertebrate CYP51A1 sequences and has been predicted to have lanosterol 14 ?-demethylase activity. CYP376A1, CYP3068A1, CYP3069A1, and CYP3070A1 were the most appropriate candidates for steroidogenesis genes based on their phylogeny and warrant further analyses, though no specific aromatase (estrogen synthesis) candidates were found. Presence of XREs upstream of C. teleta CYPs may indicate a functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor in C. teleta and candidate CYPs for studies of PAH metabolism.
Project description:The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is a diverse and important enzyme family, playing a central role in chemical defense and in synthesis and metabolism of major biological signaling molecules. The CYPomes of four cnidarian genomes (Hydra vulgaris, Acropora digitifera, Aurelia aurita, Nematostella vectensis) were annotated; phylogenetic analyses determined the evolutionary relationships amongst the sequences and with existing metazoan CYPs. 155 functional CYPs were identified and 90 fragments. Genes were from 24 new CYP families and several new subfamilies; genes were in 9 of the 12 established metazoan CYP clans. All species had large expansions of clan 2 diversity, with H. vulgaris having reduced diversity for both clan 3 and mitochondrial clan. We identified potential candidates for xenobiotic metabolism and steroidogenesis. That each genome contained multiple, novel CYP families may reflect the large evolutionary distance within the cnidarians, unique physiology in the cnidarian classes, and/or different ecology of the individual species.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 (Cyp) enzymes from the first four families (Cyp1-4) play a major role in metabolizing xenobiotics, affecting drug pharmacokinetics and chemical-induced toxicity. Due to cloning of the mouse genome, many novel Cyp isoforms have been identified, but their tissue distribution of expression is unknown. This study compared the tissue distribution of all 78 Cyps from the Cyp1-4 families in C57BL/6 mice providing not only an indication of which tissues novel Cyps may have their greatest importance but also a cohesive comparison of the tissue distribution of all Cyp1-4 isoforms. Transcripts of the 78 Cyps were quantified by multiplex suspension arrays and quantitative real-time PCR in 14 tissues. Hierarchical clustering indicated that in male mice, 52% of the Cyp species were expressed highest in liver, 10% in kidney, 10% in duodenum/jejunum, 10% in testes, 5% in lung, and < 4% in colon, brain, heart, and stomach. Female mice had a similar pattern of Cyp messenger RNA expression; however, compared with males, females had 7% more Cyps that were liver predominant, 2% more Cyps that were stomach predominant, but 1% less Cyps that were kidney and lung predominant. Differences in gender expression were observed in 29 of the Cyps, with 24 being higher in females than males. Additionally, the data suggest a correlation between the spatial arrangement of genes within a gene cluster and their organ-predominant expression, indicating a common regulatory mechanism may be present within these clusters. In conclusion, this study provides novel data on the tissue distribution and gender-divergent expression of 78 functional mouse Cyp isoforms.
Project description:Sequencing in all areas of the tree of life has produced >300,000 cytochrome P450 (CYP) sequences that have been mined and collected. Nomenclature has been assigned to >41,000 CYP sequences and the majority of the remainder has been sorted by BLAST searches into clans, families and subfamilies in preparation for naming. The P450 sequence space is being systematically explored and filled in. Well-studied groups like vertebrates are covered in greater depth while new insights are being added into uncharted territories like horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), tardigrades (Hypsibius dujardini), velvet worm (Euperipatoides_rowelli), and basal land plants like hornworts, liverworts and mosses. CYPs from the fungi, one of the most diverse groups, are being explored and organized as nearly 800 fungal species are now sequenced. The CYP clan structure in fungi is emerging with 805 CYP families sorting into 32 CYP clans. >3000 bacterial sequences are named, mostly from terrestrial or freshwater sources. Of 18,379 bacterial sequences downloaded from the CYPED database, all are >43% identical to named CYPs. Therefore, they fit in the 602 named P450 prokaryotic families. Diversity in this group is becoming saturated, however 25% of 3305 seawater bacterial P450s did not match known P450 families, indicating marine bacterial CYPs are not as well sampled as land/freshwater based bacterial CYPs. Future sequencing plans of the Genome 10K project, i5k and GIGA (Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance) are expected to produce more than one million cytochrome P450 sequences by 2020. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone.