Novel Victorivirus from a Pakistani Isolate of Alternaria alternata Lacking a Typical Translational Stop/Restart Sequence Signature.
ABSTRACT: The family Totiviridae currently contains five genera Totivirus, Victorivirus, Leishmavirus, Trichomonasvirus, and Giardiavirus. Members in this family generally have a set of two-open reading frame (ORF) elements in their genome with the 5'-proximal ORF (ORF1) encoding a capsid protein (CP) and the 3'-proximal one (ORF2) for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). How the downstream open reading frames (ORFs) are expressed is genus-specific. All victoriviruses characterized thus far appear to use the stop/restart translation mechanism, allowing for the expression of two separate protein products from bicitronic genome-sized viral mRNA, while the totiviruses use a -1 ribosomal frame-shifting that leads to a fusion product of CP and RdRp. We report the biological and molecular characterization of a novel victorivirus termed Alternaria alternata victorivirus 1 (AalVV1) isolated from Alternaria alternata in Pakistan. The phylogenetic and molecular analyses showed AalVV1 to be distinct from previously reported victoriviruses. AalVV1 appears to have a sequence signature required for the -1 frame-shifting at the ORF1/2 junction region, rather than a stop/restart key mediator. By contrast, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses of purified virion preparations suggested the expression of two protein products, not a CP-RdRp fusion product. How these proteins are expressed is discussed in this study. Possible effects of infection by this virus were tested in two fungal species: A. alternata and RNA silencing proficient and deficient strains of Cryphonectria parasitica, a model filamentous fungus. AalVV1 showed symptomless infection in all of these fungal strains, even in the RNA silencing deficient C. parasitica strain.
Project description:A novel victorivirus, termed Rosellinia necatrix victorivirus 1 (RnVV1), was isolated from a plant pathogenic ascomycete, white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix, coinfected with a partitivirus. The virus was molecularly and biologically characterized using the natural and experimental hosts (chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica). RnVV1 was shown to have typical molecular victorivirus attributes, including a monopartite double-stranded RNA genome with two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding capsid protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a UAAUG pentamer presumed to facilitate the coupled termination/reinitiation for translation of the two ORFs, a spherical particle structure ~40 nm in diameter, and moderate levels of CP and RdRp sequence identity (34 to 58%) to those of members of the genus Victorivirus within the family Totiviridae. A reproducible transfection system with purified RnVV1 virions was developed for the two distinct fungal hosts. Transfection assay with purified RnVV1 virions combined with virus elimination by hyphal tipping showed that the effects of RnVV1 on the phenotype of the natural host were negligible. Interestingly, comparison of the RNA silencing-competent (standard strain EP155) and -defective (Δdcl-2) strains of C. parasitica infected with RnVV1 showed that RNA silencing acted against the virus to repress its replication, which was restored by coinfection with hypovirus or transgenic expression of an RNA silencing suppressor, hypovirus p29. Phenotypic changes were observed in the Δdcl-2 strain but not in EP155. This is the first reported study on the host range expansion of a Totiviridae member that is targeted by RNA silencing.
Project description:Three dsRNAs, in sizes of approximately 2.5?5 kbp, were detected in the plant pathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae strain CS-7.5-4. Genomic analysis showed that the 5.0 kb dsRNA was a victorivirus named as Nigrospora oryzae victorivirus 2 (NoRV2). The genome of NoRV2 was 5166 bp in length containing two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. ORF1 was deduced to encode a coat protein (CP) showing homology to the CPs of viruses belonging to the Totiviridae family. The stop codon of ORF1 and the start codon of ORF2 were overlapped by the tetranucleotide sequence AUGA. ORF2 was predicted to encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which was highly similar to the RdRps of victoriviruses. Virus-like particle examination demonstrated that the genome of NoRV2 was solely encapsidated by viral particles with a diameter of approximately 35 nm. The other two dsRNAs that were less than 3.0 kb were predicted to be the genomes of two mitoviruses, named as Nigrospora oryzae mitovirus 1 (NoMV1) and Nigrospora oryzae mitovirus 2 (NoMV2). Both NoMV1 and NoMV2 were A-U rich and with lengths of 2865 and 2507 bp, respectively. Mitochondrial codon usage inferred that each of the two mitoviruses contains a major large ORF encoding a mitoviral RdRp. Horizontal transfer experiments showed that the NoMV1 and NoMV2 could be cotransmitted horizontally via hyphal contact to other virus-free N. oryzae strains and causes phenotypic change to the recipient, such as an increase in growth rate. This is the first report of mitoviruses in N. oryzae.
Project description:The complete nucleotide sequence, 5178 bp, of the totivirus Helminthosporium vicotoriae 190S virus (Hv190SV) double-stranded RNA, was determined. Computer-assisted sequence analysis revealed the presence of two large overlapping ORFs; the 5'-proximal large ORF (ORF1) codes for the coat protein (CP) with a predicted molecular mass of 81 kDa, and the 3'-proximal ORF (ORF2), which is in the -1 frame relative to ORF1, codes for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP). Unlike many other totiviruses, the overlap region between ORF1 and ORF2 lacks known structural information required for translational frameshifting. Using an antiserum to a C-terminal fragment of the RDRP, the product of ORF2 was identified as a minor virion-associated polypeptide of estimated molecular mass of 92 kDa. No CP-RDRP fusion protein with calculated molecular mass of 165 kDa was detected. The predicted start codon of the RDRP ORF (2605-AUG-2607) overlaps with the stop codon (2606-UGA-2608) of the CP ORF, suggesting RDRP is expressed by an internal initiation mechanism. Hv190SV is associated with a debilitating disease of its phytopathogenic fungal host. Knowledge of its genome organization and expression will be valuable for understanding its role in pathogenesis and for potential exploitation in the development of biocontrol measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Only very few viruses of Oomycetes have been studied in detail. Isometric virions were found in different isolates of the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, the downy mildew pathogen of sunflower. However, complete nucleotide sequences and data on the genome organization were lacking. METHODS: Viral RNA of different P. halstedii isolates was subjected to nucleotide sequencing and analysis of the viral genome. The N-terminal sequence of the viral coat protein was determined using Top-Down MALDI-TOF analysis. RESULTS: The complete nucleotide sequences of both single-stranded RNA segments (RNA1 and RNA2) were established. RNA1 consisted of 2793 nucleotides (nt) exclusive its 3' poly(A) tract and a single open-reading frame (ORF1) of 2745 nt. ORF1 was framed by a 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of 18 nt and a 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of 30 nt. ORF1 contained motifs of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) and showed similarities to RdRp of Scleropthora macrospora virus A (SmV A) and viruses within the Nodaviridae family. RNA2 consisted of 1526 nt exclusive its 3' poly(A) tract and a second ORF (ORF2) of 1128 nt. ORF2 coded for the single viral coat protein (CP) and was framed by a 5' UTR of 164 nt and a 3' UTR of 234 nt. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF2 was verified by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS experiments. Top-Down MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the N-terminal sequence of the CP. The N-terminal sequence represented a region within ORF2 suggesting a proteolytic processing of the CP in vivo. The CP showed similarities to CP of SmV A and viruses within the Tombusviridae family. Fragments of RNA1 (ca. 1.9 kb) and RNA2 (ca. 1.4 kb) were used to analyze the nucleotide sequence variation of virions in different P. halstedii isolates. Viral sequence variation was 0.3% or less regardless of their host's pathotypes, the geographical origin and the sensitivity towards the fungicide metalaxyl. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed the presence of a single and new virus type in different P. halstedii isolates. Insignificant viral sequence variation indicated that the virus did not account for differences in pathogenicity of the oomycete P. halstedii.
Project description:Double-stranded (ds)RNA fungal viruses are currently assigned to six different families. Those from the family Totiviridae are characterized by nonsegmented genomes and single-layer capsids, 300-450 Å in diameter. Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S (HvV190S), prototype of recently recognized genus Victorivirus, infects the filamentous fungus Helminthosporium victoriae (telomorph: Cochliobolus victoriae), which is the causal agent of Victoria blight of oats. The HvV190S genome is 5179 bp long and encompasses two large, slightly overlapping open reading frames that encode the coat protein (CP, 772 aa) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, 835 aa). To our present knowledge, victoriviruses uniquely express their RdRps via a coupled termination-reinitiation mechanism that differs from the well-characterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A (ScV-L-A, prototype of genus Totivirus), in which the RdRp is expressed as a CP/RdRp fusion protein due to ribosomal frameshifting. Here, we used transmission electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to determine the structures of HvV190S virions and two types of virus-like particles (capsids lacking dsRNA and capsids lacking both dsRNA and RdRp) at estimated resolutions of 7.1, 7.5, and 7.6 Å, respectively. The HvV190S capsid is thin and smooth, and contains 120 copies of CP arranged in a "T?=?2" icosahedral lattice characteristic of ScV-L-A and other dsRNA viruses. For aid in our interpretations, we developed and used an iterative segmentation procedure to define the boundaries of the two, chemically identical CP subunits in each asymmetric unit. Both subunits have a similar fold, but one that differs from ScV-L-A in many details except for a core ?-helical region that is further predicted to be conserved among many other totiviruses. In particular, we predict the structures of other victoriviruses to be highly similar to HvV190S and the structures of most if not all totiviruses including, Leishmania RNA virus 1, to be similar as well.
Project description:Mycoviruses are wide spread throughout almost all groups of fungi but only a small number of mycoviruses can attenuate the growth and virulence of their fungal hosts. Alternaria alternata is an ascomycete fungus that causes leaf spot diseases on various crop plants. In this study, we identified a novel ssRNA mycovirus infecting an A. alternata f. sp. mali strain isolated from an apple orchard in China. Sequence analyses revealed that this virus is related to hypoviruses, in particular to Wuhan insect virus 14, an unclassified hypovirus identified from insect meta-transcriptomics, as well as other hypoviruses belonging to the genus Hypovirus, and therefore this virus is designed as Alternaria alternata hypovirus 1 (AaHV1). The genome of AaHV1 contains a single large open-reading frame encoding a putative polyprotein (?479 kDa) with a cysteine proteinase-like and replication-associated domains. Curing AaHV1 from the fungal host strain indicated that the virus is responsible for the slow growth and reduced virulence of the host. AaHV1 defective RNA (D-RNA) with internal deletions emerging during fungal subcultures but the presence of D-RNA does not affect AaHV1 accumulation and pathogenicities. Moreover, AaHV1 could replicate and confer hypovirulence in Botryosphaeria dothidea, a fungal pathogen of apple white rot disease. This finding could facilitate better understanding of A. alternata pathogenicity and is relevant for development of biocontrol methods of fungal diseases.
Project description:Umbelopsis ramanniana is an oleaginous fungus belonging to the Mucoromycotina subphylum. Our group had previously detected four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bands in the U. ramanniana NRRL 1296 strain by gel electrophoresis. Here we describe the molecular characterization of its dsRNA elements as well as the discovery of four novel dsRNA viruses: Umbelopsis ramanniana virus 1 (UrV1), Umbelopsis ramanniana virus 2 (UrV2), Umbelopsis ramanniana virus 3 (UrV3), and Umbelopsis ramanniana virus 4 (UrV4). Full genomes of UrV1, UrV3, and UrV4 were determined using the full-length amplification of cDNAs (FLAC) technique; they contain two open reading frames (ORF), which putatively encode the coat protein (CP) and the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. In case of UrV2, a partial ORF encoding a partial RdRp gene could be determined. Based on the phylogeny inferred from the RdRp sequences, UrV1 and UrV4 belong to the genus Totivirus, while UrV2 may belong to the genus Victorivirus. UrV3 nested to a novel, unclassified group of Totiviridae, which is related to the genus Totivirus. Hybridization analysis revealed that the dsRNA molecules of UrV1 and UrV4 correspond to the same 5.0-kbp electrophoretic band, whilst the probe for the UrV3 hybridized to the largest, 5.3-kbp and the 3.0-kbp bands of the dsRNA pattern of U. ramanniana. Interestingly, the probe for the UrV2 sequence did not hybridized to any dsRNA bands, but it could be amplified from the isolated 3.0-kbp fragment. By transmission electron microscopy, two different isometric virus particles with about 50 and 35 nm in diameter were detected in U. ramanniana NRRL 1296 indicating that this strain harbor multiple viruses. Beside U. ramanniana, dsRNA elements were also detected in other Umbelopsis isolates with different patterns consisting of 2 to 4 discrete and different sized (0.7-5.3-kbp) dsRNA molecules. Based on a hybridization analysis with UrV1 CP and RdRp probes, the bands with the size of around 5.0-kbp, which were present in all tested Umbelopsis strains, are presumed as possible full mycovirus genomes.
Project description:Many important pathogens of crops worldwide are members of section Alternaria within the genus Alternaria. Representative species in this section such as Alternaria alternata, Alternaria tenuissima, and Alternaria arborescens show high variability, intermediate characters and plasticity in morphological features, which makes species identification difficult. The aim of this study was to characterize Alternaria species associated with pistachio and wild relatives in Turkey using molecular phylogenetics. One hundred isolates of Alternaria spp. from pistachio and wild relatives from Turkey were investigated. In addition, standard morphological reference isolates and Alternaria blight pathogens of pistachio from USA were included. Sequence data from major allergen a1, ATPase, endopolygalacturanase, and anonymous regions OPA1.3 and SCAR2 were obtained. Gene trees were estimated based on maximum parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and bayesian inference methods. Species tree estimation was performed based on Yule speciation and strict molecular clock assumption. Among the collection of Alternaria spp. from Turkey, only one A. arborescens isolate and three isolates which were morphologically A. alternata/A. arborescens intermediate types, but, phylogenetically close to A. arborescens were discovered. While A. alternata and A. tenuissima formed one phylogenetic species, A. alternata/tenuissima were phylogenetically distinct from A. arborescens. Furthermore, a TaqI restriction site in the endopolygalacturanase gene was explored as a novel diagnosis for identification of A. alternata/tenuissima and A. arborescens. All these molecular phylogenetic approaches allow to distinguish morphologically similar Alternaria pathogens and molecular phylogenies of Alternaria pathogens from pistachio and wild relatives in Turkey are described for the first time.
Project description:Alternaria species are considered some of the most important fungi responsible for allergenic morbidity in humans. The Alternaria protein that elicits the most intense allergic reaction in humans is Alt a 1, yet no biological function has been identified for this protein. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization and virtual Northern blots were used to identify and characterize an Alt a 1 homolog in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. RNA was extracted from A. brassicicola spores germinated in water and on leaf surfaces of the Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg for 24 h and used to create cDNA by PCR. Double-stranded cDNA was then used in suppression subtractive hybridization to identify differentially expressed genes. mRNA transcript levels were assessed by virtual Northern blotting. A sequence with significant homology (90% amino acid, 92% cDNA) to the Alt a 1 subunit from Alternaria alternata was identified. Virtual Northern blots demonstrated that this homolog, designated Alt b 1 precursor, was highly up-regulated during the infection process of A. brassicicola on Arabidopsis: The full-length cDNA sequence of Alt b 1 was 815 bp, with an open reading frame of 477 bp. In this preliminary study, we identified a homolog of the major Alternaria allergen precursor, Alt a 1, in A. brassicicola, designated Alt b 1. This isoallergen is differentially expressed during fungal pathogenesis on Arabidopsis, suggesting a possible biological role in pathogenesis.
Project description:Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus causing disease on many important agricultural crops. Two novel mycoviruses, namely Botrytis cinerea hypovirus 1 (BcHV1) and Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 1 (BcFV1), were fully sequenced. The genome of BcHV1 is 10,214 nt long excluding a poly-A tail and possesses one large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein possessing several conserved domains including RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), showing homology to hypovirus-encoded polyproteins. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BcHV1 may belong to the proposed genus Betahypovirus in the viral family Hypoviridae. The genome of BcFV1 is 8411 nt in length excluding the poly A tail and theoretically processes two major ORFs, namely ORF1 and ORF2. The larger ORF1 encoded polypeptide contains protein domains of an RdRp and a viral helicase, whereas the function of smaller ORF2 remains unknown. The BcFV1 was phylogenetically clustered with other fusariviruses forming an independent branch, indicating BcFV1 was a member in Fusariviridae. Both BcHV1 and BcFV1 were capable of being transmitted horizontally through hyphal anastomosis. Infection by BcHV1 alone caused attenuated virulence without affecting mycelial growth, significantly inhibited infection cushion (IC) formation, and altered expression of several IC-formation-associated genes. However, wound inoculation could fully rescue the virulence phenotype of the BcHV1 infected isolate. These results indicate the BcHV1-associated hypovirulence is caused by the viral influence on IC-formation-associated pathways.