Tris DBA palladium is an orally available inhibitor of GNAQ mutant uveal melanoma in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Uveal melanoma is a rare but often lethal malignancy and is the leading cause of death due to an ophthalmic condition. Uveal melanoma is often diagnosed at a late stage and has a strong propensity to hepatic metastasis. Recently, the most common driver mutations in uveal melanoma have been identified, predominantly in the G-proteins GNAQ. This pattern differs from that of cutaneous melanoma in which Braf and Nras predominate. There are no current clinically used agents that target GNAQ mutations, unlike the use of Braf inhibitors in cutaneous melanoma. We tested the novel agent Tris DBA palladium and found that it was markedly more effective against GNAQ mutant melanomas than wild type uveal melanomas. Given that ARF6 has recently been discovered as a node in GNAQ mutations, we evaluated the efficacy of Tris DBA palladium on ARF6 signaling and found that it was effective in inhibiting ARF6 activation. Finally, Tris DBA palladium was orally effective against GNAQ mutant melanoma in vivo. Tris DBA Palladium deserves further evaluation as a systemic agent for uveal melanoma.
Project description:Melanocytic tumors originating in the central nervous system (MT-CNS) are rare tumors that generally have a favorable prognosis, however malignant tumors do occur. Pathogenetically MT-CNS are not well characterized. Similar to uveal melanoma and blue nevi, they frequently harbor activating GNAQ or GNA11 mutations. Rare NRAS mutations have also been reported. Other mutations have not yet been described. We analyzed 19 MT-CNS, 7 uveal melanomas and 19 cutaneous melanomas using a targeted next generation sequencing approach analyzing 29 genes known to be frequently mutated in other melanocytic tumors (in particular uveal and cutaneous melanomas). In concordance with previous studies, cutaneous melanoma samples showed frequent NRAS or BRAF mutations, as well as mutations in other genes (e.g. NF1, RAC1, PIK3CA, ARID1A). Metastasized uveal melanomas exhibited mutations in GNAQ, GNA11 and BAP1. In contrast, MT-CNS almost exclusively demonstrated mutations in GNAQ (71 %) or GNA11 (12 %). Interestingly both GNA11 mutations identified were detected in MT-CNS diagnosed as intermediate grade melanocytomas which also recurred. One of these recurrent cases also harbored an inactivating BAP1 mutation and was found to have lost one copy of chromosome 3. Our findings show that while MT-CNS do have GNAQ or GNA11 mutations, they rarely harbor other recurrent mutations found in uveal or cutaneous melanomas. Considering chromosome 3 and BAP1 loss are robust markers of poor prognosis in uveal melanoma, it will prove interesting to determine whether these genomic alterations are also of prognostic significance in MT-CNS.
Project description:Uveal melanomas are molecularly distinct from cutaneous melanomas and lack mutations in BRAF, NRAS, KIT, and NF1. Instead, they are characterized by activating mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, two highly homologous ? subunits of G?q/11 heterotrimeric G proteins, and in PLCB4 (phospholipase C ?4), the downstream effector of G?q signaling. We analyzed genomics data from 136 uveal melanoma samples and found a recurrent mutation in CYSLTR2 (cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2) encoding a p.Leu129Gln substitution in 4 of 9 samples that lacked mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, and PLCB4 but in 0 of 127 samples that harbored mutations in these genes. The Leu129Gln CysLT2R mutant protein constitutively activates endogenous G?q and is unresponsive to stimulation by leukotriene. Expression of Leu129Gln CysLT2R in melanocytes enforces expression of a melanocyte-lineage signature, drives phorbol ester-independent growth in vitro, and promotes tumorigenesis in vivo. Our findings implicate CYSLTR2 as a uveal melanoma oncogene and highlight the critical role of G?q signaling in uveal melanoma pathogenesis.
Project description:PURPOSE:Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous neoplasm, composed of subpopulations of tumor cells with distinct molecular and biological phenotypes and genotypes. In this study, to determine the genetic heterogeneity between primary and metastatic melanoma in Korean melanoma patients, we evaluated several well-known genetic alterations of melanoma. In addition, to elucidate the clinical relevance of each genetic alteration and heterogeneity between primary and metastatic lesions, clinical features and patient outcome were collected. Materials and Methods:In addition to clinical data, BRAF, NRAS, GNAQ/11 mutation and KIT amplification data was acquired from an archived primary Korean melanoma cohort (KMC) of 188 patients. Among these patients, 43 patients were included for investigation of tumor heterogeneity between primary melanoma and its corresponding metastatic lesions. RESULTS:Overall incidence of genetic aberrations of the primary melanomas in KMC was 17.6% of BRAF V600, 12.6% of NRAS mutation, and 28.6% of KIT amplification. GNAQ/11 mutation was seen in 66.6% of the uveal melanoma patients. Patients with BRAF mutation were associated with advanced stage and correlated to poor prognosis (p < 0.01). Among 43 patients, 55.8% showed heterogeneity between primary and metastatic lesion. The frequency of BRAF mutation and KIT amplification significantly increased in the metastatic lesions compared to primary melanomas. <GNAQ/11 mutation showed 100% homogeneity in uveal melanoma patients. CONCLUSION:Our data demonstrated heterogeneity between primary melanomas and corresponding metastatic lesions for BRAF, NRAS mutation and KIT amplification. However, GNAQ/11 mutation was genetically homogeneous between primary and metastatic melanoma lesions in uveal melanoma.
Project description:Somatic mutations in GNAQ gene were described as being the main oncogenic activation in uveal melanomas, whereas mutations in BRAF gene have been described as a key genetic alteration that contributes to skin melanoma development. We have previously reported differential activation of the MAPK and AKT/mTOR signalling pathways in uveal and skin melanomas harbouring, respectively, GNAQ and BRAF mutations. The aim of this work was to compare the functional effect of GNAQ and BRAF mutations in mTOR and MAPK pathway activation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this work, we performed transient transfection of HEK293 cells with BRAF(WT), BRAF(V 600E), GNAQ(WT), GNAQ(Q209P) and GNAQ(Q209L) vectors. We treated melanoma cell lines displaying different BRAF and GNAQ mutational status with the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 and with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and evaluated the effects in the growth of the cell lines and in mTOR and MAPK pathway effectors expression. At variance with the significant increase in the level of pmTOR Ser2448 and pS6 Ser235/236 proteins observed in cells transfected with BRAF vectors, no significant alteration in mTOR pathway effectors was observed in cells transfected with the three GNAQ expressing vectors. Also, GNAQ overexpression enhances Stat3 activation, which might mediate GNAQ oncogenic effects. None of the vectors led to significant differences in proliferation or apoptosis in the transfected cell lines. Cell lines harbouring a BRAF mutation were more sensitive to RAD001 treatment. U0126 leads to the reduction of MAPK and mTOR pathways activation in all cell lines tested. Our results indicate that GNAQ and BRAF activation drive distinct intracellular signalling pathways that may be useful for therapeutic decisions in human melanomas.
Project description:IGF1R and CD44 are overexpressed in most advanced melanomas so we designed chemotherapeutic nanoparticles to target those receptors. Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium (Tris DBA-Pd) is a novel inhibitor of N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT-1) and has proven in vivo activity against melanoma. However, poor solubility impairs its effectiveness. To improve its therapeutic efficacy and overcome drug resistance in advanced melanomas, we synthesized Tris DBA-Pd hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (Tris DBA-Pd HANP) and evaluated them against in vivo xenografts of LM36R, an aggressive BRAF mutant human melanoma resistant to BRAF inhibitors. We treated xenografted mice in four arms: empty HANPs, free Tris DBA-Pd, Tris DBA-Pd HANPs, and Tris DBA-Pd HANPs with IGF1R antibody. The Tris DBA-Pd HANP group was the most responsive to treatment and showed the greatest depletion of CD44-positive cells on IHC. Surprisingly, the HANP containing IGF1R antibody was less effective than particles without antibody, possibly due to steric hindrance of IGF1R and CD44 binding. Tris DBA-Pd nanoparticles are an effective therapy for CD44-positive tumors like melanoma, and further development of these nanoparticles should be pursued.
Project description:Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular cancer. There are no effective therapies for metastatic disease. Mutations in GNAQ, the gene encoding an alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, are found in 40% of uveal melanomas.We sequenced exon 5 of GNAQ and GNA11, a paralogue of GNAQ, in 713 melanocytic neoplasms of different types (186 uveal melanomas, 139 blue nevi, 106 other nevi, and 282 other melanomas). We sequenced exon 4 of GNAQ and GNA11 in 453 of these samples and in all coding exons of GNAQ and GNA11 in 97 uveal melanomas and 45 blue nevi.We found somatic mutations in exon 5 (affecting Q209) and in exon 4 (affecting R183) in both GNA11 and GNAQ, in a mutually exclusive pattern. Mutations affecting Q209 in GNA11 were present in 7% of blue nevi, 32% of primary uveal melanomas, and 57% of uveal melanoma metastases. In contrast, we observed Q209 mutations in GNAQ in 55% of blue nevi, 45% of uveal melanomas, and 22% of uveal melanoma metastases. Mutations affecting R183 in either GNAQ or GNA11 were less prevalent (2% of blue nevi and 6% of uveal melanomas) than the Q209 mutations. Mutations in GNA11 induced spontaneously metastasizing tumors in a mouse model and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.Of the uveal melanomas we analyzed, 83% had somatic mutations in GNAQ or GNA11. Constitutive activation of the pathway involving these two genes appears to be a major contributor to the development of uveal melanoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
Project description:Uveal melanoma (UM) is characterized by mutually exclusive activating mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, CYSLTR2, and PLCB4, four genes in a linear pathway to activation of PLC? in almost all tumors and loss of BAP1 in the aggressive subset. We generated mice with melanocyte-specific expression of GNA11Q209L with and without homozygous Bap1 loss. The GNA11Q209L mice recapitulated human Gq-associated melanomas, and they developed pigmented neoplastic lesions from melanocytes of the skin and non-cutaneous organs, including the eye and leptomeninges, as well as at atypical sites, including the lymph nodes and lungs. The addition of Bap1 loss increased tumor proliferation and cutaneous melanoma size. Integrative transcriptome analysis of human and murine melanomas identified RasGRP3 to be specifically expressed in GNAQ/GNA11-driven melanomas. In human UM cell lines and murine models, RasGRP3 is specifically required for GNAQ/GNA11-driven Ras activation and tumorigenesis. This implicates RasGRP3 as a critical node and a potential target in UM.
Project description:Malignant melanoma arising from different body compartments may be associated with differing aetiological factors and clinical behaviour, and may manifest diverse molecular genetic profiles. Although many studies have focused on cutaneous melanoma, little is known of mucosal and other types of melanoma. In particular, malignant melanoma of soft parts is different from other melanomas in many respects, yet manifests a common melanocytic differentiation. Mutation of BRAF is now known to be common in cutaneous melanomas, and raises possible new therapeutic options of anti-RAF treatment for these patients. Few data are available for non-cutaneous melanomas.To study the incidence of BRAF and NRAS mutations in melanomas arising in diverse internal organs.Fifty one melanomas from various internal organs were investigated for BRAF and NRAS mutation by direct DNA sequencing.BRAF and NRAS mutations were found in two and five mucosal melanomas arising from the aerodigestive and female genital tracts (n = 36). Their occurrence is mutually exclusive, giving a combined mutation incidence rate of 19.4% in mucosal melanomas. Both BRAF and NRAS mutations were absent in malignant melanoma of soft parts (n = 7). BRAF mutation was also absent in uveal melanoma (n = 6), but was seen in two of five cutaneous melanomas. The incidence of BRAF or combined BRAF/NRAS mutations in all non-cutaneous groups was significantly lower than published rates for cutaneous melanomas.Each melanoma subtype may have a unique oncogenetic pathway of tumour development, and only a small fraction of non-cutaneous melanomas may benefit from anti-RAF treatment.
Project description:Blue nevi are melanocytic tumors originating in the cutaneous dermis. Malignant tumors may arise in association with or resembling blue nevi, so called 'blue nevus-like melanoma', which can metastasize and result in patient death. Identifying which tumors will behave in a clinically aggressive manner can be challenging. Identifying genetic alterations in such tumors may assist in their diagnosis and prognostication. Blue nevi are known to be genetically related to uveal melanomas (eg, both harboring GNAQ and GNA11 mutations). In this study, we analyzed a large cohort (n=301) of various morphologic variants of blue nevi and related tumors including tumors diagnosed as atypical blue nevi (n=21), and blue nevus-like melanoma (n=12), screening for all gene mutations known to occur in uveal melanoma. Similar to published reports, we found the majority of blue nevi harbored activating mutations in GNAQ (53%) or GNA11 (15%). In addition, rare CYSLTR2 (1%) and PLCB4 (1%) mutations were identified. EIF1AX, SF3B1, and BAP1 mutations were also detected, with BAP1 and SF3B1 R625 mutations being present only in clearly malignant tumors (17% (n=2) and 25% (n=3) of blue nevus-like melanoma, respectively). In sequencing data from a larger cohort of cutaneous melanomas, this genetic profile was also identified in tumors not originally diagnosed as blue nevus-like melanoma. Our findings suggest that the genetic profile of coexistent GNAQ or GNA11 mutations with BAP1 or SF3B1 mutations can aid the histopathological diagnosis of blue nevus-like melanoma and distinguish blue nevus-like melanoma from conventional epidermal-derived melanomas. Future studies will need to further elucidate the prognostic implications and appropriate clinical management for patients with tumors harboring these mutation profiles.
Project description:Approximately 10% of melanoma cases are familial, but only 25-40% of familial melanoma cases can be attributed to germ-line mutations in the CDKN2A - the most significant high-risk melanoma susceptibility locus identified to date. The pathogenic mutation(s) in most of the remaining familial melanoma pedigrees have not yet been identified. The most common mutations in nevi and sporadic melanoma are found in BRAF and NRAS, both of which result in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. However, these mutations are not found in uveal melanomas or the intradermal melanocytic proliferations known as blue nevi. Rather, multiple studies report a strong association between these lesions and somatic mutations in Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha (GNAQ), Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha-11 (GNA11), and BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1). Recently, germ-line mutations in BAP1, the gene encoding a tumor suppressing deubiquitinating enzyme, have been associated with predisposition to a variety of cancers including uveal melanoma, but no studies have examined the association of germ-line mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 with uveal melanoma and blue nevi. We have now done so by sequencing exon 5 of both of these genes in 13 unique familial melanoma pedigrees, members of which have had either uveal or cutaneous melanoma and/or blue nevi. Germ-line DNA from a total of 22 individuals was used for sequencing; however no deleterious mutations were detected. Nevertheless, such candidate gene studies and the discovery of novel germ-line mutations associated with an increased MM susceptibility can lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved in melanocyte transformation, formulation of risk assessment, and the development of specific drug therapies.