Controlled Wetting Properties through Heterogeneous Surfaces Containing Two-level Nanofeatures.
ABSTRACT: Addressing the direct control of surface wettability has been a significant challenge for a variety of applications from self-cleaning surfaces to phase-change applications. Surface wettability has been traditionally modulated by installing surface nanostructures or changing their chemistry. Among numerous nanofabrication efforts, the chemical oxidation method is considered a promising approach because it allows cost-effective, quick, and direct control of the morphologies and chemical compositions of the grown nanofeatures. Despite the wide applicability of the surface oxidation method, the precise control of wetting behaviors through the growth of nanostructures has yet to be addressed. Here, we investigate the wetting characteristics of heterogeneous surfaces that contain two-level features (i.e., nanograsses and nanoflowers) with different petal shapes and structural chemistry. The difference in growth rates between nanograsses and nanoflowers creates a time-evolving morphology that can be classified by grass-dominated or flower-dominated regimes, which induces a wide range of water contact angles from 120 to 20°. The following study systematically quantifies the structural details and chemistry of nanostructures associated with their wetting characteristics. This investigation of heterogeneous surfaces will pave the way for selective growth of copper nanostructures and thus a direct control of surface wetting properties for use in future copper-based thermal applications.
Project description:Surfaces with reversible wettability have broad applications but remain challenging since the switching process is usually energy intensive and complex. In this paper, a pyramid shaped Cu2S film with hierarchical micro/nanostructures is formed on a commercial copper mesh. This film is formed by a spontaneous redox sulfuration reaction and results in a roughened surface, which enables reversible wetting transition between superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. This switching occurs by simple processes such as alternately storing in air or using an ethanol solution treatment and yields cyclic wettability switching for many cycles. This convenient wetting transition behavior, as well as strong stability and efficient oil/water separation with efficiency exceeding 98%, renders it as a potentially useful mesh material for switchable surfaces.
Project description:Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1) to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2) to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3) to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.
Project description:Nature shows many examples of surfaces with extraordinary wettability,which can often be associated with particular air-trapping surface patterns. Here,robust non-wetting surfaces have been created by femtosecond laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The laser-created surface structure resembles a forest of entangled fibers, which support structural superhydrophobicity even when the surface chemistry is changed by gold coating. SEM analysis showed that the degree of entanglement of hairs and the depth of the forest pattern correlates positively with accumulated laser fluence and can thus be influenced by altering various laser process parameters. The resulting fibrous surfaces exhibit a tremendous decrease in wettability compared to smooth PTFE surfaces; droplets impacting the virgin or gold coated PTFE forest do not wet the surface but bounce off. Exploratory bioadhesion experiments showed that the surfaces are truly air-trapping and do not support cell adhesion. Therewith, the created surfaces successfully mimic biological surfaces such as insect wings with robust anti-wetting behavior and potential for antiadhesive applications. In addition, the fabrication can be carried out in one process step, and our results clearly show the insensitivity of the resulting non-wetting behavior to variations in the process parameters,both of which make it a strong candidate for industrial applications.
Project description:Biological creatures with unique surface wettability have long served as a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers. More specifically, materials exhibiting extreme wetting properties, such as superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use in various applications, such as self-cleaning fabrics, anti-fog windows, anti-corrosive coatings, drag-reduction systems, and efficient water transportation. In particular, the engineering of surface wettability by manipulating chemical properties and structure opens emerging biomedical applications ranging from high-throughput cell culture platforms to biomedical devices. This review describes design and fabrication methods for artificial extreme wetting surfaces. Next, we introduce some of the newer and emerging biomedical applications using extreme wetting surfaces. Current challenges and future prospects of the surfaces for potential biomedical applications are also addressed.
Project description:Titanium implant surface etching has proven an effective method to enhance cell attachment. Despite the frequent use of hydrofluoric (HF) acid, many questions remain unresolved, including the optimal etching time and its effect on surface and biological properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of HF acid etching time on Ti topography, surface chemistry, wettability, and cell adhesion. These data are useful to design improved acid treatment and obtain an improved cell response. The surface topography, chemistry, dynamic wetting, and cell adhesiveness of polished Ti surfaces were evaluated after treatment with HF acid solution for 0, 2; 3, 5, 7, or 10 min, revealing a time-dependent effect of HF acid on their topography, chemistry, and wetting. Roughness and wetting increased with longer etching time except at 10 min, when roughness increased but wetness decreased. Skewness became negative after etching and kurtosis tended to 3 with longer etching time. Highest cell adhesion was achieved after 5-7 min of etching time. Wetting and cell adhesion were reduced on the highly rough surfaces obtained after 10-min etching time.
Project description:This research aims to develop multilayer sandwich-structured electrospun nanofiber (ENF) membranes using biodegradable polymers. Hydrophilic regenerated cellulose (RC) and hydrophobic poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-based novel multilayer sandwich-structures were created by electrospinning on various copper collectors, including copper foil and 30-mesh copper gauzes, to modify the surface roughness for tunable wettability. Different collectors yielded various sizes and morphologies of the fabricated ENFs with different levels of surface roughness. Bead-free thicker fibers were collected on foil collectors. The surface roughness of the fine fibers collected on mesh collectors contributed to an increase in hydrophobicity. An RC-based triple-layered structure showed a contact angle of 48.2°, which is comparable to the contact angle of the single-layer cellulosic fabrics (47.0°). The polar shift of RC membranes on the wetting envelope is indicative of the possibility of tuning the wetting behavior by creating multilayer structures. Wettability can be tuned by creating multilayer sandwich structures consisting of RC and PLA. This study provides an important insight into the manipulation of the wetting behavior of polymeric ENFs in multilayer structures for applications including chemical protective clothing.
Project description:Dragonfly wings are of great interest to researchers investigating biomimetic designs for antiwetting and antibacterial surfaces. The waxy epicuticular layer on the membrane of dragonfly wings possesses a unique surface nanoarchitecture that consists of irregular arrays of nanoscale pillars. This architecture confers superhydrophobic, self-cleaning, antiwetting, and antibiofouling behaviors. There is some evidence available that suggests that lifestyle factors may have influenced the evolution of the wing nanostructures and, therefore, the resulting properties of the wings; however, it appears that no systematic studies have been performed that have compared the wing surface features across a range of dragonfly species. Here, we provided a comparison of relevant wing surface characteristics, including chemical composition, wettability, and nanoarchitecture, of seven species of dragonfly from three families including Libellulidae, Aeshnidae, and Gomphidae. The characteristic nanopillar arrays were found to be present, and the chemical composition and the resultant wing surface superhydrophobicity were found to be well-conserved across all of the species studied. However, subtle differences were observed between the height, width, and density of nanofeatures and water droplet bouncing behavior on the wing surfaces. The results of this research will contribute to an understanding of the physical and chemical surface features that are optimal for the design of antiwetting and antibacterial surfaces.
Project description:In this study, the effects of nanosecond-pulsed laser and pattern design were researched on the wettability of titanium material. Nanosecond-pulsed laser and heat treatment are used to fabricate superhydrophobic titanium surfaces. The effects of laser power (1?3 W) and step size (50?300 µm) on a microscale patterned titanium surface (line pattern and grid pattern) were investigated to explain the relation between microstructure and superhydrophobicity. The surface morphologies and wettability of the surfaces were analyzed by three-dimensional confocal microscopy and a contact angle meter. The results show that the laser power and pattern design affected the apparent contact angle (CA) and sliding angle (SA). The maximum step size, which could show superhydrophobicity with apparent CA > 150° and SA < 10°, was increased when the laser power increased from 1 to 3 W. Grid pattern showed isotropic wetting behavior, but line pattern showed both isotropic and anisotropic wetting behavior according to step size and laser power. Furthermore, when choosing the proper laser power and step size, the wetting properties of superhydrophobic surface such as lotus effect (apparent CA > 150° and SA < 10°) and petal effect (apparent CA > 150° and no SA) and isotropic/anisotropic behavior can be controlled for applications of water droplet control.
Project description:Droplets slip and bounce on superhydrophobic surfaces, enabling remarkable functions in biology and technology. These surfaces often contain microscopic irregularities in surface texture and chemical composition, which may affect or even govern macroscopic wetting phenomena. However, effective ways to quantify and map microscopic variations of wettability are still missing, because existing contact angle and force-based methods lack sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here, we introduce wetting maps that visualize local variations in wetting through droplet adhesion forces, which correlate with wettability. We develop scanning droplet adhesion microscopy, a technique to obtain wetting maps with spatial resolution down to 10?µm and three orders of magnitude better force sensitivity than current tensiometers. The microscope allows characterization of challenging non-flat surfaces, like the butterfly wing, previously difficult to characterize by contact angle method due to obscured view. Furthermore, the technique reveals wetting heterogeneity of micropillared model surfaces previously assumed to be uniform.
Project description:Since its discovery, the wetting transparency of graphene, the transmission of the substrate wetting property over graphene coating, has gained significant attention due to its versatility for potential applications. Yet, there have been debates on the interpretation and validity of the wetting transparency. Here, we present a theory taking two previously disregarded factors into account and elucidate the origin of the partial wetting transparency. We show that the liquid bulk modulus is crucial to accurately calculate the van der Waals interactions between the liquid and the surface, and that various wetting states on rough surfaces must be considered to understand a wide range of contact angle measurements that cannot be fitted with a theory considering the flat surface. In addition, we reveal that the wetting characteristic of the substrate almost vanishes when covered by any coating as thick as graphene double layers. Our findings reveal a more complete picture of the wetting transparency of graphene as well as other atomically thin coatings, and can be applied to study various surface engineering problems requiring wettability-tuning.