Systematic review with network meta-analysis: indirect comparison of the efficacy of vonoprazan and proton-pump inhibitors for maintenance treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Long-term maintenance treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is important to prevent relapse. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used for both treatment and maintenance therapy of GERD. Recently, a potassium-competitive acid blocker vonoprazan was launched in Japan. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of vonoprazan and other PPIs for GERD maintenance. METHODS:A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PPIs, vonoprazan, and placebo for GERD maintenance published in English or Japanese were selected. Among them, studies conducted at the recommended dose and for the recommended use, and containing information on maintenance rate based on endoscopic assessment, were included. The comparative efficacies of treatments were estimated by performing a Bayesian network meta-analysis, which assessed the consistency assumption. Outcomes were number or rate of patients who maintained remission. RESULTS:Of 4001 articles identified, 22 RCTs were eligible for analysis. One study published as an abstract was hand-searched and added. The consistency hypothesis was not rejected for the analysis. The odds ratio of vonoprazan 10 mg to each PPI was 13.92 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.70-114.21) to esomeprazole 10 mg; 5.75 (95% CI 0.59-51.57) to rabeprazole 10 mg; 3.74 (95% CI 0.70-19.99) to lansoprazole 15 mg; and 9.23 (95% CI 1.17-68.72) to omeprazole 10 mg. CONCLUSIONS:The efficacy of vonoprazan in GERD maintenance treatment may be higher than that of some PPIs. However, a direct comparison of vonoprazan and PPIs is required to confirm these effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vonoprazan is a potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) that is frequently used in Japan for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, and treatment of post endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) complications. We sought to determine if vonoprazan was superior to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for treating ESD-induced ulcers (as assessed by ulcer healing and shrinkage ratios) and preventing delayed bleeding over various treatment durations (2, 4, and 8 weeks). METHODS:We collected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that discussed the effectiveness of vonoprazan and PPIs on ESD-induced ulcers and bleeding from PubMed, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar. Studies were selected according to pre-established eligibility criteria and data were extracted separately by 2 researchers with double-check. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale to assess observational studies. Meta-analyses, based on the random-effects model, were conducted to compare differences in ulcer shrinkage ratios (%) and odds ratios (ORs) for ulcer healing and delayed bleeding. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Egger regression test. Heterogeneity was assessed using I statistics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of results. The evidential quality of the findings was assessed using the GRADE profiler. RESULTS:Thirteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. The OR effect sizes of vonoprazan relative to PPIs for ulcer healing were 1.33 (P?=?.13) with a 95% CI (0.33-3.21) at 4 weeks and 1.48 (P?=?.09) with a 95% CI (0.81-5.20) at 8 weeks. The overall effect size for the shrinkage ratio was 12.24% (P?=?.16) with a 95% CI (-4.96-29.44) at 2 weeks. The effect size of its subgroup of H. pylori-positive patients was 19.51% (P?<?.001) with a 95% CI (11.91-27.12). The overall OR for the occurrence of delayed bleeding was 0.66 (P?=?.26) with a 95% CI (0.32-1.35). After excluding combination drug studies, the overall ORs between vonoprazan and PPIs on ulcer healing and delayed bleeding were 1.44 and 0.76, respectively. CONCLUSION:During the first 2 weeks of treatment, vonoprazan was more effective than PPIs for treating H. pylori-positive patients with ESD-induced gastric ulcers.
Project description:Potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) is a class of drug that competitively blocks the potassium-binding site of H+, K+-adenosine triphosphate (ATP)ase. Although the history of this class of drugs started over 30 years ago, clinical use of two P-CABs, revaprazan and vonoprazan, were only recently approved in Korea and Japan, respectively. Among them, vonoprazan has several advantages over conventional proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), including rapid onset of action, long duration of acid suppression, fewer interindividual variations in terms of acid suppression, and minimum dietary influence on its action. These advantages of vonoprazan have been proved in clinical trials conducted for license approvals for several acid-related diseases. In this review article, current evidence of vonoprazan in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) will be summarized. Since the clinical trial data, as well as postmarketed clinical data, have consistently demonstrated superiority of vonoprazan over conventional PPIs in terms of achieving healing of mucosal breaks and maintaining the healing, it may provide an excellent, if not complete, option for fulfilling some of the unmet needs for current GERD therapy. The safety problem of vonoprazan is also discussed, as more pronounced hypergastrinemia inevitably ensues with its use.
Project description:Preoperative factors predicting symptomatic improvement after transoral fundoplication (TF) in chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients with persistent symptoms on proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy have not been elucidated fully.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 158 consecutive patients who underwent TF with the EsophyX device between January 2010 and June 2012 in 14 community centers. Variables included age, gender, body mass index, GERD duration, PPIs therapy duration, presence of hiatal hernia, esophagitis, Hill grade, quality of life scores (QOL) on PPIs, % total time pH < 4, and DeMeester score on reflux testing off PPIs.All patients suffered from typical GERD symptoms. Additionally, 78% (124/158) of patients suffered from atypical symptoms. Six percent (10/158) with recurrent GERD symptoms refractory to PPI therapy underwent revisional procedure (9 laparoscopic Nissen, 1 TF). Median follow-up was 22 (range 10-43) months. For patients with typical symptoms, univariate analyses revealed 4 preoperative factors predictive of successful outcomes: age ? 50 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-4.8, p = 0.014], GERD Health-related Quality of Life score (GERD-HRQL) ? 15 on PPIs (OR = 6.0, CI = 1.2-29.4, p = 0.026, Reflux Symptom Index score > 13 on PPIs (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.1-5.2, p = 0.027), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptom Score ? 18 on PPIs (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.2-5.8, p = 0.018). Age and GERD-HRQL score remained significant predictors by multivariate analysis. For patients with atypical symptoms, only GERD-HRQL score ? 15 on PPIs (OR = 9.9, CI = 0.9-4.6, p = 0.036) was associated with successful outcomes.Elevated preoperative QOL scores on PPIs and age ? 50 were most closely associated with successful outcome of TF in patients with persistent symptoms despite medical therapy.
Project description:To compare vonoprazan 10 and 20 mg vs lansoprazole 15 mg as maintenance therapy in healed erosive esophagitis (EE).A total of 607 patients aged ? 20 years, with endoscopically-confirmed healed EE following 8 wk of treatment with vonoprazan 20 mg once daily, were randomized 1:1:1 to receive lansoprazole 15 mg (n = 201), vonoprazan 10 mg (n = 202), or vonoprazan 20 mg (n = 204), once daily. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of endoscopically-confirmed EE recurrence during a 24-wk maintenance period. The secondary endpoint was the EE recurrence rate at Week 12 during maintenance treatment. Additional efficacy endpoints included the incidence of heartburn and acid reflux, and the EE healing rate 4 wk after the initiation of maintenance treatment. Safety endpoints comprised adverse events (AEs), vital signs, electrocardiogram findings, clinical laboratory results, serum gastrin and pepsinogen?I/II levels, and gastric mucosa histopathology results.Rates of EE recurrence during the 24-wk maintenance period were 16.8%, 5.1%, and 2.0% with lansoprazole 15 mg, vonoprazan 10 mg, and vonoprazan 20 mg, respectively. Vonoprazan was shown to be non-inferior to lansoprazole 15 mg (P < 0.0001 for both doses). In a post-hoc analysis, EE recurrence at Week 24 was significantly reduced with vonoprazan at both the 10 mg and the 20 mg dose vs lansoprazole 15 mg (5.1% vs 16.8%, P = 0.0002, and 2.0% vs 16.8%, P < 0.0001, respectively); by contrast, the EE recurrence rate did not differ significantly between the two doses of vonoprazan (P = 0.1090). The safety profiles of vonoprazan 10 and 20 mg were similar to that of lansoprazole 15 mg in patients with healed EE. Treatment-related AEs were reported in 11.4%, 10.4%, and 10.3% of patients in the lansoprazole 15 mg, vonoprazan 10 mg, and vonoprazan 20 mg arms, respectively.Our findings confirm the non-inferiority of vonoprazan 10 and 20 mg to lansoprazole 15 mg as maintenance therapy for patients with healed EE.
Project description:<b>Background and study aims?</b> Few reports exist about long-term outcomes of transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) for treating refractory gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). <b>Methods?</b> A literature search of four major scientific databases was performed up to May 2020 for studies reporting on more than 3-year outcomes of TIF. Data on atient satisfaction, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) daily consumption, PPI use reduction, GERD health-related quality-of-life (GERD-HRQL) score, and normalization of heartburn and regurgitation scores were pooled and summarized with forest plots. Publication bias and heterogeneity were explored. <b>Results?</b> Overall, eight studies (418 patients, 232 men; 55.5?%) with a mean follow-up of 5.3 years (range: 3-10 years) were included. The pooled proportion of patient-reported satisfaction before and after TIF was 12.3?% (95?% CI:12.3-35.1?%, I <sup>2</sup> ?=?87.4?%) and 70.6?% (95?% CI:51.2-84.6, I <sup>2</sup> ?=?80?%), respectively, corresponding to an odds ratio of 21.4 (95?% CI:3.27-140.5). Pooled rates of patients completely off PPIs and on occasional PPIs were 53.8?% (95?%CI: 42.0?%-65.1?%) and 75.8?% (95?%CI: 67.6-82.6), respectively. The pooled estimated mean GERD-HRQL scores off PPI before and after TIF werey 26.1 (95?%CI: 21.5-30.7; range: 20.0-35.5) and 5.9, respectively (95?%CI:0.35.1-11.4; range: 5.3-9.8; <i>P</i> ?<?0.001). The overall pooled rates of heartburn and regurgitation scores normalization were 73.0?% (95?%CI: 0.62-0.82) and 86?%, respectively (95?%CI: 75.0-91.0?%). <b>Conclusion?</b> Our study shows that TIF appears to offer a long-term safe therapeutic option for selected patients with GERD who refuse life-long medical therapy or surgery, are intolerant to PPIs, or are at increased surgical risk.
Project description:Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are used for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the clinical evidence for treatment is poor. We evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of different doses of PPIs, H2RAs and placebo in adults with GERD. Six online databases were searched through September 1, 2016. All related articles were included and combined with a Bayesian network meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The GRADE systems were employed to assess the main outcome. Ninety-eight RCTs were identified, which included 45,964 participants. Our analysis indicated that the full/standard dose of esomeprazole at 40?mg per day was the most efficient in healing among nine different dosages of PPIs and H2RAs. The main efficacy outcome did not change after adjustments for the area, age, level of disease from endoscopy, year of publication, pharmaceutical industry sponsorship, Intention-to-treat (ITT)/per-protocol (PP), withdrawal rate, pre-set select design bias, single blinded and unblinded studies, study origination in China, study arms that included zero events, inconsistency node or discontinued drug were accounted for in the meta-regressions and sensitivity analyses. This research suggests that the full/standard doses (40?mg per day) of esomeprazole should be recommended as first-line treatments for GERD in adults for short-term therapy.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to investigate whether implementing a myofascial release (MFR) protocol designed to restore the myofascial properties of the diaphragm has any effect on the symptoms, quality of life, and consumption of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) drugs by patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We randomized 30 patients with GERD into a MFR group or a sham group. Changes in symptomatology and quality of life were measured with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index. Need of PPIs was measured as the milligrams of drug intake over the 7 days prior to each assessment. All variables were assessed at baseline, one week and 4 weeks after the end of the treatment. At week 4, patients receiving MFR showed significant improvements in symptomatology (mean difference-1.1; 95% CI: -1.7 to -0.5), gastrointestinal quality of life (mean difference 18.1; 95% CI: 4.8 to 31.5), and PPIs use (mean difference-97?mg; 95% CI: -162 to -32), compared to the sham group. These preliminary findings indicate that the application of the MFR protocol we used in this study decreased the symptoms and PPIs usage and increased the quality of life of patients with non-erosive GERD up to four weeks after the end of the treatment.
Project description:Vonoprazan is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker which may provide clinical benefit in acid-related disorders.To verify the non-inferiority of vonoprazan vs. lansoprazole in patients with erosive oesophagitis (EE), and to establish its long-term safety and efficacy as maintenance therapy.In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group comparison study, patients with endoscopically confirmed EE (LA Classification Grades A-D) were randomly allocated to receive vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg once daily after breakfast. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with healed EE confirmed by endoscopy up to week 8. In addition, subjects who achieved healed EE in the comparison study were re-randomised into a long-term study to investigate the safety and efficacy of vonoprazan 10 or 20 mg as maintenance therapy for 52 weeks.Of the 409 eligible subjects randomised, 401 completed the comparison study, and 305 entered the long-term maintenance study. The proportion of patients with healed EE up to week 8 was 99.0% for vonoprazan (203/205) and 95.5% for lansoprazole (190/199), thus verifying the non-inferiority of vonoprazan (P < 0.0001). Vonoprazan was also effective in patients with more severe EE (LA Classification Grades C/D) and CYP2C19 extensive metabolisers. In the long-term maintenance study, there were few recurrences (<10%) of EE in patients treated with vonoprazan 10 or 20 mg. Overall, vonoprazan was well-tolerated.The non-inferiority of vonoprazan to lansoprazole in EE was verified in the comparison study, and vonoprazan was well-tolerated and effective during the long-term maintenance study.
Project description:This phase I, randomized, 4-period, 4-sequence, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, crossover study assessed the effects of vonoprazan on the QT/QTc interval in healthy subjects. Subjects received single oral doses of vonoprazan 40 mg, vonoprazan 120 mg, moxifloxacin 400 mg (positive control/open label), and placebo. The primary end point was time-matched, placebo-corrected, baseline-adjusted mean Fridericia-corrected QT interval (ddQTcF). Of 64 subjects (mean age, 37.8 years; 50% male), 63 received all four regimens. One subject discontinued due to nondrug-related adverse event of tonsillitis. Assay sensitivity was established; lower bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for ddQTcF was >5 ms between 1.5 and 12 h following moxifloxacin administration. For both doses of vonoprazan, the one-sided upper 95% CI ddQTcF did not exceed 10 ms. There was no correlation between plasma vonoprazan concentrations and increases in ddQTcF. Vonoprazan was well tolerated. No severe adverse events/deaths were reported. (European Clinical Trials Database Registry: 2011-004003-20.).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Standard treatment for patients with erosive esophagitis (EE) is proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), but some patients are resistant to PPIs. We aimed to evaluate the acid-inhibitory effects and efficacy of a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker (vonoprazan) in patients with PPI-resistant EE. METHODS:This randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of vonoprazan evaluated gastric and esophageal pH over a 24-hour period as the primary endpoint and EE healing rate as the secondary endpoint. Following a 7 to 14-day run-in period (lansoprazole 30 mg treatment), patients with endoscopically confirmed PPI-resistant EE received vonoprazan 20 mg or 40 mg for 8 weeks. RESULTS:Patients were randomized to receive vonoprazan 20 mg (n = 9) or 40 mg (n = 10). Over a 24-hour period; both groups showed a significant increase from baseline in the percentage of time gastric pH ? 4, referred to as pH 4 holding time ratio (HTR): an increase from 73.21% to 96.46% in the 20 mg group, and from 69.97% to 100.00% in the 40 mg group. Increases from baseline in esophageal pH 4 HTRs were not significant. The 40 mg group showed greater increases in gastric and esophageal pH 4 HTRs compared with the 20 mg group, but differences between groups were not significant. After 8 weeks' treatment, the healing rate in subjects with baseline EE grades A-D was 60.0% (3/5 patients) in the 20 mg group and 71.4% (5/7 patients) in the 40 mg group. Vonoprazan was generally well tolerated. One patient (40 mg group) experienced four treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (unrelated to study drug), leading to study discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS:Vonoprazan 20 mg and 40 mg effectively inhibited gastric acid secretion over a 24-hour period with significantly increased gastric pH 4 HTR, and resulted in an EE healing rate > 60.0% in this study. Vonoprazan treatment may be valuable for patients with PPI-resistant EE.