Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus Composition at Species Level and Gut Microbiota Diversity in Infants before 6 Weeks.
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to investigate the effects of different delivery and feeding modes on the gut microbiota composition of early infants with special emphasis on Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus profiles at species level. 16S rRNA V3-V4 regions, bifidobacterial, and lactobacilli groEL genes from infant feces were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Gut microbiota abundance was significantly different, where standard vaginally delivered (SVD) and breast-fed (BF) groups were higher in comparison with caesarean section (CS), milk-powder-fed (MPF), and mixed-fed (MF) groups. The genus unclassified Enterobacteriaceae was dominant, followed by Bifidobacterium, which was highly abundant in SVD and BF groups. The dominant Bifidobacterium species in all groups were B. longum subsp. longum, B. longum subsp. infantis and B. animalis subsp. lactis. B. dentium and the diversity of Bifidobacterium in SVD and BF groups were significantly higher. For Lactobacillus profiles, L. rhamnosus and L. gasseri were dominant among all the groups, while Lactobacillus species in CS and MPF groups were more diverse. Functional predictions showed significant differences between delivery mode and feeding groups, such as phosphotransferase system as well as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. In early infants with different delivery and feeding methods, gut microbiota-particularly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli communities-showed significant differences, with strong implications for physiological functions.
Project description:The developing intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is considered to play an important role in the priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Generally, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus predominate the microbiota of breast-fed infants. In intervention trials it has been shown that lactobacilli can exert beneficial effects on, for example, diarrhea and atopy. However, the Lactobacillus species distribution in breast-fed or formula-fed infants has not yet been determined in great detail. For accurate enumeration of different lactobacilli, duplex 5' nuclease assays, targeted on rRNA intergenic spacer regions, were developed for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The designed and validated assays were used to determine the amounts of different Lactobacillus species in fecal samples of infants receiving a standard formula (SF) or a standard formula supplemented with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides in a 9:1 ratio (OSF). A breast-fed group (BF) was studied in parallel as a reference. During the 6-week intervention period a significant increase was shown in total percentage of fecal lactobacilli in the BF group (0.8% +/- 0.3% versus 4.1% +/- 1.5%) and the OSF group (0.8% +/- 0.3% versus 4.4% +/- 1.4%). The Lactobacillus species distribution in the OSF group was comparable to breast-fed infants, with relatively high levels of L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, and L. casei. The SF-fed infants, on the other hand, contained more L. delbrueckii and less L. paracasei compared to breast-fed infants and OSF-fed infants. An infant milk formula containing a specific mixture of prebiotics is able to induce a microbiota that closely resembles the microbiota of BF infants.
Project description:The aim of the present experiment is to study the effects of oral ingestion of a mixture of two probiotic bacteria on sperm quality and progenies. Three homogeneous groups of juvenile zebrafish were created. Once having reached adulthood (3 months postfertilization; mpf), each group received different feeding regimens: a standard diet (control), a maltodextrin-supplemented diet (vehicle control), or a probiotic-supplemented diet (a mixture (1:1) of <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> CECT8361 and <i>Bifidobacterium longum</i> CECT7347). The feeding regime lasted 4.5 months. Growth parameters (weight and length) were determined at 3, 5, and 7.5 mpf. Sperm motility was evaluated using computer-assisted sperm analysis at 5 and 7.5 mpf. Progeny survival, hatching rate, and malformation rate were also evaluated. Results showed that probiotic-supplemented diet improved growth parameters compared with the standard diet. The highest percentage of motile spermatozoa was reported in the probiotic-fed group. Concomitantly, the percentage of fast sperm subpopulation was significantly lower in samples derived from control males. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in progeny survival between the probiotic-fed group and the control group at three developmental times (24 hours postfertilization (hpf), 5 days postfertilization (dpf) and 7 dpf). In conclusion, in zebrafish, prolonged ingestion of a mixture of <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> CECT8361 and <i>Bifidobacterium longum</i> CECT7347 has positive effects on growth, sperm quality, and progeny survival.
Project description:The current study investigates whether probiotic fermented milk (PFM) and yogurt consumption (YC) are related to both the ingested bacteria taxa and the overall gut microbiota (GM) composition in healthy adults. PFM and YC habits were analyzed in 260 subjects (51% male) by specific questionnaires, and the following groups were considered: (1) PFM groups: nonconsumers (PFM-NC, n = 175) and consumers (PFM, n = 85), divided as follows: Bifidobacterium-containing PFM (Bif-PFM; n = 33), Lactobacillus-containing PFM (Lb-PFM; n = 14), and mixed Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-containing PFM (Mixed-PFM; n = 38); (2) PFM-NC were classified as: yogurt nonconsumers (Y-NC; n = 40) and yogurt consumers (n = 135). GM was analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing. PFM consumers showed higher Bifidobacteria taxa levels compared to NC, from phylum through to species. Specifically, Bif-PFM consumption was related to higher B. animalis levels (p < 0.001), whereas Lb-PFM consumption was associated to higher levels of Bifidobacterium (p < 0.045) and B. longum (p = 0.011). YC was related to higher levels of the yogurt starter Streptococcus thermophilus (p < 0.001). Lactobacilli and the overall GM were not related either to YC or PFM consumption. According to these results, healthy adults might benefit from PFM intake by increasing Bifidobacterium levels.
Project description:Food allergy (FA) and, in particular, IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy is associated with compositional and functional changes of gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the gut microbiota of cow's milk allergic (CMA) infants with that of cow's milk sensitized (CMS) infants and Healthy controls. The effect of the intake of a mixture of <i>Bifidobacterium longum</i> subsp. <i>longum</i> BB536, <i>Bifidobacterium breve</i> M-16V and <i>Bifidobacterium longum</i> subsp. <i>infantis</i> M-63 on gut microbiota modulation of CMA infants and probiotic persistence was also investigated. Gut microbiota of CMA infants resulted to be characterized by a dysbiotic status with a prevalence of some bacteria as <i>Haemophilus</i>, <i>Klebsiella</i>, <i>Prevotella</i>, <i>Actinobacillus</i> and <i>Streptococcus</i>. Among the three strains administered, <i>B.</i><i>longum</i> subsp. <i>infantis</i> colonized the gastrointestinal tract and persisted in the gut microbiota of infants with CMA for 60 days. This colonization was associated with perturbations of the gut microbiota, specifically with the increase of <i>Akkermansia</i> and <i>Ruminococcus</i>. Multi-strain probiotic formulations can be studied for their persistence in the intestine by monitoring specific bacterial probes persistence and exploiting microbiota profiling modulation before the evaluation of their therapeutic effects.
Project description:Increasing evidence has indicated that oxidative stress is associated with the health of infants. Bifidobacterium, especially B. longum subsp. longum strains, are abundant in the gut microbiota of infants, which may have the potential to ameliorate oxidative damage. Thus, this study aimed to isolate and screen B. longum subsp. longum strains with probiotic characters and antioxidant properties as infants’ dietary supplements. In this study, 24 B. longum subsp. longum strains were isolated from 15 healthy infants identified via 16S rRNA and heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) sequences. B. longum subsp. longum B13, F2, K4, K5, K10, K13, and K15 strains were selected based on high values obtained from autoaggregation, hydrophobicity, and adhesion assays to HT-29 cells. Among these seven strains, B. longum subsp. longum F2, K5, K10, and K15 were selected according to the high tolerance of gastrointestinal tract conditions compared to Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12. Among these four strains, B. longum subsp. longum K5 was susceptible to common antibiotics and showed the highest intestinal epithelial cell proliferation of CCD 841 CoN. Additionally, B. longum subsp. longum K5 showed a strong antioxidant capacity, and its supernatant exhibited better activity of reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and DPPH radical scavenging than that of the intact cells with cell-free extracts. The findings indicated that B. longum subsp. longum K5 could be used as a probiotic candidate in infant nutrition.
Project description:Members of the bacterial genus Bifidobacterium generally dominate the fecal microbiota of infants. The species Bifidobacterium longum is prevalent, but the B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis strains that are known to colonize the infant bowel are not usually differentiated in microbiota investigations. These subspecies differ in their capacities to metabolize human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) and may have different ecological and symbiotic roles in humans. Quantitative PCR provides a quick analytical method by which to accurately ascertain the abundances of target species in microbiotas and microcosms. However, amplification targets in DNA extracted from samples need to be dependably differential. We evaluated the tuf gene sequence as a molecular target for quantitative PCR measurements of the abundances of B. longum subsp. infantis and B. longum subsp. longum in fecal microbiotas. This approach resulted in the detection of a tuf gene variant (operational taxonomic unit 49 [OTU49]) in Chinese infants that has sequence similarities to both B. longum subsp. infantis and B. longum subsp. longum We compared the genome sequence and growth and transcriptional characteristics of an OTU49 isolate cultured in HMO medium to those of other B. longum subsp. infantis cultures. We concluded from these studies that OTU49 belongs to B. longum subsp. infantis, that dependable quantitative PCR (qPCR) differentiation between the B. longum subspecies cannot be achieved by targeting tuf gene sequences, and that functional genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism might be better targets because they delineate ecological functions.IMPORTANCE High-throughput DNA sequencing methods and advanced bioinformatics analysis have revealed the composition and biochemical capacities of microbial communities (microbiota and microbiome), including those that inhabit the gut of human infants. However, the microbiology and function of natural ecosystems have received little attention in recent decades, so an appreciation of the dynamics of gut microbiota interactions is lacking. With respect to infants, rapid methodologies, such as quantitative PCR, are needed to determine the prevalences and proportions of different bifidobacterial species in observational and microcosm studies in order to obtain a better understanding of the dynamics of bifidobacterial nutrition and syntrophy, knowledge that might be used to manipulate the microbiota and perhaps ensure the better health of infants.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third-largest solid component of milk. Their structural complexity renders them nondigestible to the host but liable to hydrolytic enzymes of the infant colonic microbiota. Bifidobacteria and, frequently, Bifidobacterium longum strains predominate the colonic microbiota of exclusively breast-fed infants. Among the three recognized subspecies of B. longum, B. longum subsp. infantis achieves high levels of cell growth on HMOs and is associated with early colonization of the infant gut. The B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 genome features five distinct gene clusters with the predicted capacity to bind, cleave, and import milk oligosaccharides. Comparative genomic hybridizations (CGHs) were used to associate genotypic biomarkers among 15 B. longum strains exhibiting various HMO utilization phenotypes and host associations. Multilocus sequence typing provided taxonomic subspecies designations and grouped the strains between B. longum subsp. infantis and B. longum subsp. longum. CGH analysis determined that HMO utilization gene regions are exclusively conserved across all B. longum subsp. infantis strains capable of growth on HMOs and have diverged in B. longum subsp. longum strains that cannot grow on HMOs. These regions contain fucosidases, sialidases, glycosyl hydrolases, ABC transporters, and family 1 solute binding proteins and are likely needed for efficient metabolism of HMOs. Urea metabolism genes and their activity were exclusively conserved in B. longum subsp. infantis. These results imply that the B. longum has at least two distinct subspecies: B. longum subsp. infantis, specialized to utilize milk carbon, and B. longum subsp. longum, specialized for plant-derived carbon metabolism.
Project description:Bifidobacterium longum strains predominate in the colonic microbiota of breast-fed infants. Here we report the complete genome sequence of B. longum subsp. longum KACC 91563, isolated from feces of neonates. A single circular chromosome of 2,385,301 bp contains 1,980 protein-coding genes, 56 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA operons.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are abundant in the feces of babies during the exclusively-milk-diet period of life. Bifidobacterium longum is reported to be a common member of the infant fecal microbiota. However, B. longum is composed of three subspecies, two of which are represented in the bowel microbiota (B. longum subsp. longum; B. longum subsp. infantis). B. longum subspecies are not differentiated in many studies, so that their prevalence and relative abundances are not accurately known. This may largely be due to difficulty in assigning subspecies identity using DNA sequences of 16S rRNA or tuf genes that are commonly used in bacterial taxonomy. METHODS:We developed a qPCR method targeting the sialidase gene (subsp. infantis) and sugar kinase gene (subsp. longum) to differentiate the subspecies using specific primers and probes. Specificity of the primers/probes was tested by in silico, pangenomic search, and using DNA from standard cultures of bifidobacterial species. The utility of the method was further examined using DNA from feces that had been collected from infants inhabiting various geographical regions. RESULTS:A pangenomic search of the NCBI genomic database showed that the PCR primers/probes targeted only the respective genes of the two subspecies. The primers/probes showed total specificity when tested against DNA extracted from the gold standard strains (type cultures) of bifidobacterial species detected in infant feces. Use of the qPCR method with DNA extracted from the feces of infants of different ages, delivery method and nutrition, showed that subsp. infantis was detectable (0-32.4% prevalence) in the feces of Australian (n = 90), South-East Asian (n = 24), and Chinese babies (n = 91), but in all cases at low abundance (<0.01-4.6%) compared to subsp. longum (0.1-33.7% abundance; 21.4-100% prevalence). DISCUSSION:Our qPCR method differentiates B. longum subspecies longum and infantis using characteristic functional genes. It can be used as an identification aid for isolates of bifidobacteria, as well as in determining prevalence and abundance of the subspecies in feces. The method should thus be useful in ecological studies of the infant gut microbiota during early life where an understanding of the ecology of bifidobacterial species may be important in developing interventions to promote infant health.
Project description:Recent research has indicated that in addition to the unique genotype each individual may also have a unique microbiota composition. Difference in microbiota composition may emerge from both its species and strain constituents. It is important to know the precise composition especially for the gut microbiota (GM), since it can contribute to the health assessment, personalized treatment, and disease prevention for individuals and groups (cohorts). The existing methods for species and strain composition in microbiota are not always precise and usually not so easy to use. Probiotic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus make an essential component of human GM. Previously we have shown that in certain Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species the RelBE and MazEF superfamily of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems may be used as functional biomarkers to differentiate these groups of bacteria at the species and strain levels. We have composed a database of TA genes of these superfamily specific for all lactobacilli and bifidobacteria species with complete genome sequence and confirmed that in all Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species TA gene composition is species and strain specific. To analyze composition of species and strains of two bacteria genera, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, in human GM we developed TAGMA (toxin antitoxin genes for metagenomes analyses) software based on polymorphism in TA genes. TAGMA was tested on gut metagenomic samples. The results of our analysis have shown that TAGMA can be used to characterize species and strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in metagenomes.