The Correlation of Clinicopathological Features With the Status of Surgical Margins in Renal Cell Cancer Patients Following Nephron-Sparing Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of various clinicopathological variables with positive surgical margins (PSMs) in renal cell cancer (RCC) patients after nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was performed to identify studies that compared PSMs with negative surgical margins (NSMs) and were published up to December 2018. Outcomes of interest included perioperative and postoperative variables, and the data were pooled by odds ratios (ORs)/standard mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the strength of such associations. STATA 12.0 software was used for all statistical analyses. Results: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 studies including 47,499 patients with RCC were analyzed. The results showed that higher Furhman grade (pooled OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14-1.37; P < 0.001), higher pathological stage (pooled OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 2.05-3.50; P < 0.001), non-clear cell RCC (non-ccRCC) histology (pooled OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.72-0.84; P < 0.001), and non-white race (pooled OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.99; P = 0.026) were significantly associated with high risk of PSMs. However, age (pooled SMD = 0.09; 95% CI: -0.01-0.20; P = 0.078), gender (female vs. male) (pooled OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.96-1.12; P = 0.377), tumor laterality (left vs. right) (pooled OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.84-1.42; P = 0.501), tumor focality (unifocal vs. multifocal) (pooled OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.23-1.90; P = 0.445), tumor size (pooled SMD = 0.03; 95% CI: -0.10-0.15; P = 0.685), and surgical approach (open vs. non-open) (pooled OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.62-1.42; P = 0.763) had no relationship with PSMs. Sensitivity analysis showed that all models were stable, and no publication bias was observed in our study. Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that the presence of PSMs was associated with higher Furhman grade and higher pathological stage. Additionally, non-white patients with non-ccRCC histology had a high risk of PSMs after NSS. Further multicenter and long-term follow-up studies are required to verify these findings.
Project description:Background and Objectives: Published data from individual studies present conflicting evidence about the relationship between clinicopathological risk factors and oncological outcomes in renal cell cancer (RCC) following nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). This study was conducted to explore the potential risk factors for RCC progress after NSS. Methods: Studies published in PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE were systematically reviewed from inception to March 2019 to determine risk factors for RCC following NSS. The predictive ability of identified predictors was assessed by hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A fixed-effect or random-effect was used to pool the estimates. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore the source of heterogeneity. Results: Seventeen studies including 38,522 patients with RCC were analyzed. The meta-analysis indicated that positive surgical margin (pooled HR = 1.47; 95% CI:1.24-1.73; P < 0.001), higher Fuhrman grade (pooled HR = 1.58; 95% CI:1.10-2.28; P = 0.013), higher pathological stage (pooled HR = 1.72; 95% CI:1.40-2.12; P < 0.001) and large tumor size (pooled HR = 1.09; 95% CI:1.03-1.16; P = 0.003) were significantly associated with recurrence risk. However, age (pooled HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 1.00-1.01; P = 0.257), sex (male vs. female) (pooled HR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.89-1.21; P = 0.605) and surgical approach (laparoscope vs. open) (pooled HR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.59-1.07; P = 0.129) had no effect on recurrence after NSS. In addition, we found that positive surgical margin was significantly associated with recurrence-free survival (pooled HR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.32-2.66; P < 0.001) and overall mortality (pooled HR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.07-1.23; P < 0.001), as well as large tumor size for recurrence-free survival (pooled HR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.06-1.30; P = 0.002)and overall mortality (pooled HR = 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02; P = 0.004). Conclusions: Unfavorable pathological characteristics were distinctly related to worse oncological outcomes in RCC patients following NSS. These results may contribute to proposed prediction models for RCC patients to aid in counseling and risk stratification.
Project description:: Immunotherapy based on anti PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors has proven to be more effective than sunitinib in the first-line setting of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RCC patients with sarcomatoid histology (sRCC) have a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) of first-line anti PD-1/PDL-1 agents vs. sunitinib, presenting efficacy data in the sub-group of sRCC patients. The systematic research was conducted on Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase and updated until 31th January, 2020. Abstracts from ESMO and ASCO (2010-2019) were also reviewed. Full texts and abstracts reporting about RCTs testing first-line anti-PD-1/ PD-L1 agents vs. sunitinib in RCC were included if sRCC sub-group analyses of either PFS (progression-free survival), OS (overall survival) or radiological response rate were available. Pooled data from 3814 RCC patients in the ITT (intention-to-treat) population and from 512 sRCC patients were included in the quantitative synthesis. In the sRCC sub-group vs. the ITT population, pooled estimates of the PFS-HRs were 0.57 (95%: 0.45-0.74) vs. 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70-0.89), respectively, with a statistically meaningful interaction favoring the sRCC sub-group (pooled ratio of the PFS-HRs = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.50-0.82; p < 0.001). Pooled estimates of the difference in CR-R (complete response-rate) achieved with anti-PD-1/PDL-1 agents vs. sunitinib were + 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04-0.16) vs. + 0.04 (95% CI: 0.00-0.07) in the sRCC vs. the non-sRCC sub groups, with a statistically meaningful difference of + 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.10; p = 0.007) favoring the sRCC sub-group. Sarcomatoid histology may be associated with improved efficacy of anti PD-1/PDL-1 agents vs. sunitinib in terms of PFS and CR-R.
Project description:CD44 is a marker of cancer stem-like cells in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the prognostic value of CD44 in RCC remains controversial. This study evaluated the correlation of CD44 expression with the clinicopathological features of RCC through a meta-analysis. We systematically searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Embase for relevant studies until February 2015. We collected and analysed data on clinical stage, Fuhrman grade, microvascular invasion, recurrence, five-year overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Twenty studies involving 1672 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. Results showed that high CD44 expression in RCC was a poor prognostic marker for five-year OS (RR?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.60-0.78) in a fixed-effects model and for five-year DSS (RR?=?0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.80) and five-year DFS (RR?=?0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93) in a random-effects model. CD44 expression also correlated with Furhman grade (RR?=?0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.77), tumour recurrence (RR?=?7.42, 95% CI 3.74-14.70) and MVI (Microvascular invasion) (RR?=?3.63, 95% CI 1.97-6.71). This meta-analysis suggests that CD44 is a prognostic marker in RCC. High CD44 expression correlates with high Fuhrman grade, recurrence, MVI and poor prognosis.
Project description:In the current Tumour-Node-Metastasis (TNM) classification system for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), both renal sinus fat invasion (SFI) and perinephric fat invasion (PFI) are defined as T3a, suggesting that the prognosis should be similar for the two pathologic findings. Several studies, however, have reported a worse prognosis for SFI in patients with a T3a tumor. In order to compare the prognosis of these two pathologic findings (SFI versus. PFI) in a more comprehensive way, this meta-analysis was performed.To identify relevant studies, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus database were searched from the inception until October 2014. A meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.2 and STATA 11. Pooled Odds ratio (OR) and/or hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to examine the risk or hazard association.A total of 6 studies including 1031 patients qualified for analysis. T3a RCC patients with SFI were significantly associated with poor cancer specific survival(CSS) (HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.19-1.83; P<0.001) compared to those with PFI. In T3aNx/N0M0 subgroup, SFI patients also showed a worse prognosis than those with PFI (CSS, HR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.21-3.12; P = 0.006). T3a RCC patients with SFI had higher Furhman grade, greater possibility of lymph node metastasis, sarcomatoid differentiation and tumour necrosis. Main limitation is the relatively small number of included studies.The present meta-analysis suggested that SFI is associated with worse CSS in patients with pT3a RCC. However, due to the small number of included studies, future studies with a large sample size are required to further verify our findings.
Project description:This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of physical and procedural interventions for reducing pain and related outcomes during vaccination.Databases were searched using a broad search strategy to identify relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Data were extracted according to procedure phase (preprocedure, acute, recovery, and combinations of these) and pooled using established methods.A total of 31 studies were included. Acute infant distress was diminished during intramuscular injection without aspiration (n=313): standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.18, -0.46). Injecting the most painful vaccine last during vaccinations reduced acute infant distress (n=196): SMD -0.69 (95% CI: -0.98, -0.4). Simultaneous injections reduced acute infant distress compared with sequential injections (n=172): SMD -0.56 (95% CI: -0.87, -0.25). There was no benefit of simultaneous injections in children. Less infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined occurred with vastus lateralis (vs. deltoid) injections (n=185): SMD -0.70 (95% CI: -1.00, -0.41). Skin-to-skin contact in neonates (n=736) reduced acute distress: SMD -0.65 (95% CI: -1.05, -0.25). Holding infants reduced acute distress after removal of the data from 1 methodologically diverse study (n=107): SMD -1.25 (95% CI: -2.05, -0.46). Holding after vaccination (n=417) reduced infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined: SMD -0.65 (95% CI: -1.08, -0.22). Self-reported fear was reduced for children positioned upright (n=107): SMD -0.39 (95% CI: -0.77, -0.01). Non-nutritive sucking (n=186) reduced acute distress in infants: SMD -1.88 (95% CI: -2.57, -1.18). Manual tactile stimulation did not reduce pain across the lifespan. An external vibrating device and cold reduced pain in children (n=145): SMD -1.23 (95% CI: -1.58, -0.87). There was no benefit of warming the vaccine in adults. Muscle tension was beneficial in selected indices of fainting in adolescents and adults.Interventions with evidence of benefit in select populations include: no aspiration, injecting most painful vaccine last, simultaneous injections, vastus lateralis injection, positioning interventions, non-nutritive sucking, external vibrating device with cold, and muscle tension.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age. This study aimed to compare the effects of lifestyle interventions on anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters in adolescent girls with PCOS. METHODS:PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science was systematically searched to retrieve studies investigating the effects of lifestyle modifications in adolescent girls with PCOS, which were published up to December 2019. The primary outcome was Body Mass Index (BMI) and secondary outcomes were all manifestations of PCOS, including clinical, metabolic, and hormonal parameters. Random effect meta-analysis was applied for significant results. Publication bias was assessed using the Egger test. RESULTS:This study showed significant improvements in luteinizing hormone (LH) (Pooled SMD?=?-?0.1.23; 95% CI, -?2.44 to -?0.03), and Free Androgen Index (FAI) levels (Pooled SMD?=?-?0.78 95% CI, -?0.1.42 to -?0.13) in adolescent girls receiving lifestyle intervention compared to baseline. This study also revealed that diet modifications alone were associated with a significant decrease in Body Mass Index (BMI) (Pooled SMD?=?-?0.45; 95% CI, -?0.76 to -?0.13), and FG score (Pooled SMD?=?-?0.81; 95% CI, -?1.33 to -?0.28). Exercise interventions were associated with significant changes in the menstrual cycles (Pooled SMD?=?1.16; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.61), Ferriman-Gallwey (FG) score (Pooled SMD?=?-?0.57; 95% CI, -?0.99 to -?0.15), LH (Pooled SMD?=?-?056; 95% CI, -?0.98 to -?0.14), Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) (Pooled SMD?=?-?0.81; 95% CI, -?0.1.24 to -?0.38), and Triglyceride (TG) levels (Pooled SMD?=?-?0.32; 95% CI, -?0.62 to -?0.02). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis concluded lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, can improve some clinical, metabolic, and hormonal parameters in adolescent girls with PCOS.
Project description:Studies had investigated the associations between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) and lipid levels, but the results were controversial. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and lipid levels and the susceptibility to CAD.All relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to analyze the strength of the association between PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and the susceptibility to CAD. At the same time, the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95 % CI was used for the meta-analysis of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and lipid levels. The publication bias was examined by using Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test.A total of seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. For CAD association, the pooled effects indicated that the G allele carriers had higher risk of CAD than non-carriers in dominant genetic model (OR:1.601, 95 % CI: 1.314-1.951, P?<?0.001), as well as in allelic genetic model (OR: 1.546, 95 % CI: 1.301-1.838, P?<?0.001). When the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity and HWE was performed, the positive result existed in most of the subgroups. For lipid levels association, the pooled effects indicated that the G allele carriers had higher TC and LDL-C levels than the non-carriers (for TC, SMD: 0.126, 95 % CI: 0.023-0.229, P?=?0.016; for LDL-C, SMD: 0.170, 95 % CI: 0.053-0.287, P?=?0.004, respectively). There was no difference in the levels of TG and HDL-C between the G carriers and the non-carriers in the whole population (SMD: 0.031, 95 % CI: -0.048-0.110, P?=?0.440; SMD: -0.123, 95 % CI: -0.251-0.006, P?=?0.061, respectively). When the studies were stratified by ethnicity and type of study, the G carriers had higher TC levels than the non-carriers (SMD: 0.126, 95 % CI: 0.014-0.238, P?=?0.027) in the non-Asian subgroup. The similar results existed in cohort subgroup. The association between PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and LDL-C levels was significant in all subgroups. Meanwhile, the G carriers had higher TG levels than the non-carriers (SMD: 0.113, 95 % CI: 0.012-0.214, P?=?0.028) in the case-control subgroup. AG?+?GG genotypes had lower HDL-C levels than AA genotype in Asian subgroup (SMD: -0.224, 95 % CI: -0.423- -0.025, P?=?0.027) and in case-control subgroup (SMD: -0.257, 95 % CI: -0.467--0.048, P?=?0.016).The present meta-analysis concluded that PCSK9 E670G polymorphism was associated with CAD risk and lipid levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator that plays an important role in angiogenesis, tumor growth, and tumor metastasis. The associations between five polymorphisms of VEGF (rs3025039, rs699947, rs10434, rs1570360, and rs2010963) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk have been extensively investigated, but the currently available results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To obtain a more accurate assessment of the associations, we conducted a meta-analysis in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Relevant studies were collected systemically from the following three electronic databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science, and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure). Statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.2 in a fixed- or random-effects model. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to establish the strength of associations. RESULTS:A total of eight case-control studies with 1,936 RCC cases and 2,770 controls fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for this meta-analysis. The pooled OR indicated that rs699947 polymorphism was significantly associated with RCC risk in all genetic models. A significant association was also found between the rs3025039 polymorphism and RCC risk in a homozygous model (TT vs CC: OR =1.38, 95% CI =1.11-1.72, P=0.004), a dominant model (CT+TT vs CC: OR =1.21, 95% CI =1.05-1.39, P=0.01), and a recessive model (TT vs CC+CT: OR =1.28, 95% CI =1.04-1.57, P=0.02). After a subgroup analysis of ethnicity in the allele contrast model of rs3025039 polymorphism, we found a significant relationship in the allele contrast model (T vs C: OR =1.21, 95% CI =1.05-1.40, P=0.007) in the Asian population. With regard to rs10434 polymorphism, significant association was observed only in a homozygous model (GG vs AA: OR =0.75, 95% CI =0.57-0.98, P=0.03). As to rs1570360 or rs2010963, we did not observe any relationship between the two polymorphisms and RCC risk in our study. CONCLUSION:Our meta-analysis confirmed the fact that rs699947, rs3025039, and rs10434 polymorphisms were significantly relevant to elevated RCC risk. In the meanwhile, this study also demonstrated that the allele contrast model of rs3025039 polymorphism was likely to be associated with risk of RCC in the Asian population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammatory marker, was suggested to be predictive of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Here, we investigated whether NLR levels on admission could predict the severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients.<h4>Methods</h4>A literature search was conducted on 23 July 2020 to retrieve all published articles, including grey literature and preprints, investigating the association between on-admission NLR values and severity or mortality in COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the overall standardized mean difference (SMD) in NLR values and the pooled risk ratio (RR) for severity and mortality with the 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI).<h4>Results</h4>A total of 38 articles, including 5699 patients with severity outcomes and 6033 patients with mortality outcomes, were included. The meta-analysis showed that severe and non-survivors of COVID-19 had higher on-admission NLR levels than non-severe and survivors (SMD 0.88; 95%CI 0.72-1.04; I<sup>2</sup> = 75.52% and 1.87; 95%CI 1.25-2.49; I<sup>2</sup> = 97.81%, respectively). Regardless of the different NLR cut-off values, the pooled mortality RR in patients with elevated vs. normal NLR levels was 2.74 (95%CI 0.98-7.66).<h4>Conclusion</h4>High NLR levels on admission were associated with severe COVID-19 and mortality. Further studies need to focus on determining the optimal cut-off value for NLR before clinical use.
Project description:Up to 15% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients experience severe clinical presentation, resulting in acute respiratory distress (ARDS) and finally death. N-terminal natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with ARDS. However, whether or not this peptide can help discriminate high-risk COVID-19 patients remains unclear. Therefore, in this meta-analysis, we summarized the available evidence on NT-proBNP in patients admitted for COVID-19. Pooled mean, mean differences (MD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) were the summary metrics. Thirteen studies were finally selected for this analysis with a total of 2248 patients, of which 507 had a severe condition (n = 240) or died (n = 267). Pooled mean NT-proBNP levels on admission were 790.57 pg/mL (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 532.50 to 1048.64) in patients that experienced a severe clinical condition or died, and 160.56 pg/mL (95% CI: 118.15 to 202.96) in non-severe patients (SMD: 1.05; 95% (CI): 0.83 to 1.28; p < 0.001; I2 74%; and MD was 645.84 pg/mL (95% CI: 389.50-902.18). Results were consistent in studies categorizing patients as non-survivors versus survivors (SMD: 1.17; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.40; p < 0. 001; I2: 51%), and in those classifying populations in severe versus non-severe clinical condition (SMD: 0.94 95% CI 0.56 to 1.32; p < 0.001; I2: 81%; pinteraction = 0.30). In conclusion, our results suggest that assessing NT-proBNP may support physicians in discriminating high-risk COVID-19 patients.