Prediction of massive transfusion in trauma patients in the surgical intensive care units (THAI-SICU study).
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:After damage control surgery, trauma patients are transferred to intensive care units to restore the physiology. During this period, massive transfusion might be required for ongoing bleeding and coagulopathy. This research aimed to identify predictors of massive blood transfusion in the surgical intensive care units (SICUs). METHODS:This is an analysis of the THAI-SICU study which was a prospective cohort that was done in the 9-university-based SICUs in Thailand. The study included only patients admitted due to trauma mechanisms. Massive transfusion was defined as received ≥10 units of packed red blood cells on the first day of admission. Patient characteristics and physiologic data were analyzed to identify the potential factors. A multivariable regression was then performed to identify the significant model. RESULTS:Three hundred and seventy patients were enrolled. Sixteen patients (5%) received massive transfusion in the SICUs. The factors that significantly predicted massive transfusion were an initial sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) ≥9 (risk difference (RD) 0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.22, p = 0.01); intra-operative blood loss ≥ 4900 mL (RD 0.33, 95% CI: 0.04-0.62, p = 0.02) and intra-operative blood transfusion ≥ 10 units (RD 0.45, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.84, p = 0.02). The probability to have massive transfusion was 0.976 in patients who had these 3 factors. CONCLUSION:Massive blood transfusion in the SICUs occurred in 5%. An initial SOFA ≥9, intra-operative blood loss ≥4900 mL, and intra-operative blood transfusion ≥10 units were the significant factors to predict massive transfusion in the SICUs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients' demographic and epidemiological characteristics, local variations in clinicians' knowledge and experience and types of surgery can influence peri-operative transfusion practices. Sharing data on transfusion practices and recipients may improve patients' care and implementation of Patient Blood Management (PBM). MATERIALS AND METHODS:This was a multicentre, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study that included 61 centres. Clinical and transfusion data of patients undergoing major elective surgery were collected; transfusion predictors and patients' outcomes were analysed. RESULTS:Of 6,121 patients, 1,579 (25.8%) received a peri-operative transfusion. A total of 5,812 blood components were transfused: red blood cells (RBC), fresh-frozen plasma and platelets in 1,425 (23.3%), 762 (12.4%) and 88 (1.4%) cases, respectively). Pre-operative anaemia was identified in 2,019 (33%) patients. Half of the RBC units were used by patients in the age group 45-69 years. Specific procedures with the highest RBC use were coronary artery bypass grafting (16.9% of all units) and hip arthroplasty (14.9%). Low haemoglobin concentration was the most common indication for intra-operative RBC transfusion (57%) and plasma and platelet transfusions were mostly initiated for acute bleeding (61.3% and 61.1%, respectively). The RBC transfusion rate in study centres varied from 2% to 72%. RBC transfusion was inappropriate in 99% (n=150/151) of pre-operative, 23% (n=211/926) of intra-operative and 43% (n=308/716) of post-operative RBC transfusion episodes. Pre-operative haemoglobin, increased blood loss, open surgery and duration of surgery were the main independent predictors of intra-operative RBC transfusion. Low pre-operative haemoglobin concentration was independently associated with post-operative pulmonary complications. CONCLUSIONS:These findings identified areas for improvement in peri-operative transfusion practice and PBM implementation in Turkey.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether MRI features are able to predict massive hemorrhage of patients with placenta accreta spectrum (PAS). A total of 40 patients with suspected PAS after ultrasound examination were subjected to MRI. Of these, 29 patients were confirmed as having PAS. MRI data were analyzed independently by two radiologists in a blinded manner. Inter-observer agreement was determined. The 29 confirmed patients were divided into two groups (moderate and massive hemorrhage) according to the estimated blood loss (EBL) and blood transfusion, and the MRI features were compared between the two groups. The EBL, as well as blood transfusion, between the patients with and without each MRI feature were compared. The inter-observer agreement between the two radiologists for the 11 MRI features had statistical significance (P<0.05). Intra-placental thick dark bands and markedly heterogeneous placenta were the most important MRI features in predicting massive hemorrhage and blood transfusion (P<0.05). The difference in EBL between the patients with and without focal defect of the uteroplacental interface (UPI) was significant (P<0.05). The differences in blood transfusion between the patients with and without myometrial thinning, disruption of the inner layer of the UPI, increased placental vascularity and increased vascularity at the UPI were significant (P<0.05). These results indicate that MRI features may predict massive hemorrhage of patients with PAS, which may be helpful for pre-operative preparation of PAS patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obstetric hemorrhage is a major cause of maternal death during cesarean delivery. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-operative cell salvage (IOCS) in cesarean section. METHODS:We included a total of 361 patients diagnosed with central placenta previa who underwent cesarean section from May 2016 to December 2018. In this study, 196 patients received autologous transfusion using IOCS (IOCS group) and 165 patients accepted allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT group). Propensity score matched analysis was performed to balance differences in the baseline variables between the IOCS group and ABT group. Patients in the IOCS group were matched 1:1 to patients in the ABT group. RESULTS:After propensity score matching, 137 pairs of cases between the two groups were successfully matched and no significant differences in baseline characteristics were found between the IOCS group and ABT group. Patients in the IOCS group were associated with significantly shorter length of hospital stay, compared with ABT group (8.9?±?4.1 days vs. 10.3?±?5.2 days, t?=?-2.506, P?=?0.013). The postoperative length of hospital stay was 5.3?±?1.4 days for patients in the IOCS group and 6.6?±?3.6 days for those in the ABT group (t?=?-4.056, P?<?0.001). The post-operative hemoglobin level in the IOCS group and ABT group was 101.3?±?15.4 and 96.3?±?16.6?g/L, respectively, which were significantly different (t?=?2.615, P?=?0.009). Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion was significantly lower at 0 unit (range: 0-11.5 units) in the IOCS group when compared with 2 units (range: 1-20 units) in the ABT group (P?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This retrospective observational study using propensity score matched analysis suggested that IOCS was associated with shorter length of postoperative hospital stay and higher post-operative hemoglobin levels during cesarean delivery.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Massive transfusion in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) was not investigated. We developed a new scoring system to predict massive transfusion and to enhance care and early resource mobilization. <b>Methods:</b> Massive transfusion was defined as transfusion with ?10 units of red blood cells within the first 24?h. Data were extracted from a 10-year, six-hospital database. Logistic regression was applied to derive a risk score for massive transfusion using data from 2006 to 2010, in 24,736 patients (developmental cohort). The score was then validated using data from 2011 to 2015 in 27,449 patients (validation cohort). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was performed to assess prediction accuracy. <b>Results:</b> Five characteristics were independently associated (<i>p</i>?<?.001) with massive transfusion: presence of band-form cells among white blood cells (band form >0), international normalized ratio (INR) >1.5, pulse >100 beats per minute or systolic blood pressure <100?mmHg (shock), haemoglobin <8.0?g/dL and endoscopic therapy. The new scoring system successfully discriminated well between UGIB patients requiring massive transfusion and those who did not in both cohorts (AUROC: 0.831, 95%CI: 0.827-0.836; AUROC: 0.822, 95% CI: 0.817-0.826, respectively). <b>Conclusions:</b> The new scoring system predicts massive transfusion requirement in patients with UGIB well. Key messages Massive transfusion is a life-saving management in massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding. How to identify patients requiring massive transfusion in upper gastrointestinal bleeding is poorly documented. Approximately 3.9% of upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients require massive transfusion. A new scoring system is developed to identify patients requiring massive transfusion with high accuracy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Donor blood transfusion has been identified as a potential risk factor for primary graft dysfunction and by extension early mortality. We sought to define the contributing risk of donor transfusion on early mortality for lung transplant. METHODS:Donor and recipient data were abstracted from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database updated through June 30, 2014, which included 86,398 potential donors and 16,255 transplants. Using the United Network for Organ Sharing 4-level designation of transfusion (no blood, 1-5 units, 6-10 units, and >10 units, massive), we analyzed all-cause mortality at 30-days with the use of logistic regression adjusted for confounders (ischemic time, donor age, recipient diagnosis, lung allocation score and recipient age, and recipient body mass index). Secondary analyses assessed 90-day and 1-year mortality and hospital length of stay. RESULTS:Of the 16,255 recipients transplanted, 8835 (54.35%) donors received at least one transfusion. Among those transfused, 1016 (6.25%) received a massive transfusion, defined as >10 units. Those donors with massive transfusion were most commonly young trauma patients. After adjustment for confounding variables, donor massive transfusion was associated significantly with an increased risk in 30-day (P = .03) and 90-day recipient mortality (P = .01) but not 1-year mortality (P = .09). There was no significant difference in recipient length of stay or hospital-free days with respect to donor transfusion. CONCLUSIONS:Massive donor blood transfusion (>10 units) was associated with early recipient mortality after lung transplantation. Conversely, submassive donor transfusion was not associated with increased recipient mortality. The mechanism of increased early mortality in recipients of lungs from massively transfused donors is unclear and needs further study but is consistent with excess mortality seen with primary graft dysfunction in the first 90 days posttransplant.
Project description:The amount of blood loss in a primary cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) seems to vary in different reported studies. We carried out a prospective study to determine the factors affecting the peri-operative blood loss, hidden blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in a primary cemented total knee arthroplasty. The factors analysed were gender, diagnosis, tourniquet time and body mass index (BMI). We included a total of 66 consecutive patients who underwent primary TKA by a single surgeon (A.M). There was significantly more peri-operative blood loss in male patients than in females (p=0.001, Student's t test). The patients with rheumatoid arthritis did not show any statistical difference in peri-operative blood loss compared with that in patients with osteoarthritis. The tourniquet time and the surgical time showed a positive correlation with peri-operative blood loss. The BMI did not show any correlation with peri-operative blood loss. The incidence of blood transfusion was significantly higher in patients with rheumatoid knees as their pre-operative haemoglobin value was low. The amount of hidden blood loss in our series was 38%. We concluded that gender and tourniquet time plays a role in blood loss in TKA, but diagnosis (advanced osteoarthritis [OA] or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) does not. The blood transfusion depends on both pre-operative haemoglobin value and intra-operative blood loss. The post-operative transfusion trigger can be brought to 8.0 g% in a haemodynamically stable patient.
Project description:As outcome to severe trauma is frequently affected by massive blood loss and consecutive hemorrhagic shock, replacement of red blood cell (RBC) units remains indispensable. Administration of RBC units is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in patients with trauma. The impact of massive blood transfusion or uncrossmatched blood transfusion on the patients' immune response in the early posttraumatic period remains unclear.Thirteen patients presenting with blunt multiple injuries (Injury Severity Score >16) were studied. Monocytes were obtained on admission and at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after trauma. Biotinylated complementary RNA targets were hybridized to Affymetrix HG U 133A microarrays. The data were analyzed by a supervised analysis based on whether the patients received massive blood transfusions, and then subsequently, by hierarchical clustering, and by Ingenuity pathway analysis.Supervised analysis identified 224 probe sets to be differentially expressed (p < 0.001) in patients who received massive blood transfusion, when compared with those who did not. In addition, 331 probe sets were found differentially expressed (p < 0.001) in patients who received uncrossmatched RBC units in comparison with those who exclusively gained crossmatched ones. Functional pathway analysis of the respectively identified gene expression profiles suggests a contributory role by the AKT/PI3Kinase pathway, the mitogen-activated protein-kinase pathway, the Ubiquitin pathway, and the diverse inflammatory networks.We exhibited for the first time a serial, sequential screening analysis of monocyte messenger RNA expression patterns in patients with multiple trauma indicating a strongly significant association between the patients' genomic response in blood monocytes and massive or uncrossmatched RBC substitution.
Project description:The reality of finite resources has a real-world impact on a patient's ability to receive life-saving care in resource-poor settings. Blood for transfusion is an example of a scarce resource. Very few studies have looked at predictors of survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. We used data from a rural hospital in Kenya to develop a prediction model of survival among patients receiving massive transfusion.Patients who received five or more units of whole blood within 48 hours between 2004 and 2010 were identified from a blood registry in a rural hospital in Kenya. Presenting characteristics and in-hospital survival were collected from charts. Using stepwise selection, a logistic model was developed to predict who would survive with massive transfusion versus those who would die despite transfusion. An ROC curve was created from this model to quantify its predictive power.Ninety-five patients with data available met inclusion criteria, and 74% survived to discharge. The number of units transfused was not a predictor of mortality, and no threshold for futility could be identified. Preliminary results suggest that initial blood pressure, lack of comorbidities, and indication for transfusion are the most important predictors of survival. The ROC curve derived from our model demonstrates an area under the curve (AUC) equal to 0.757, with optimism of 0.023 based on a bootstrap validation.This study provides a framework for making prioritization decisions for the use of whole blood in the setting of massive bleeding. Our analysis demonstrated an overall survival rate for patients receiving massive transfusion that was higher than clinical perception. Our analysis also produced a preliminary model to predict survival in patients with massive bleeding. Prediction analyses can contribute to more efficient prioritization decisions; these decisions must also include other considerations such as equity, acceptability, affordability and sustainability.
Project description:Objectives Bleeding is the most common complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Injudicious transfusion is frequently performed in current practice, even though it is not always needed. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors of blood loss in the PCNL procedure and evaluate the perioperative transfusion practice. Methods A prospective study of PCNL was randomly performed by two consultants of endo-urology at our institution. The inclusion criteria were adults with kidney pelvic stones >20 mm or stone in inferior calyx >10 mm or staghorn stone. Those with coagulopathy, under anti-coagulant treatment or open conversion were excluded. A full blood count was taken at baseline and during 12, 24, 36, 72-hours post-operatively. Factors such as stone burden, sex, body surface area, shifting of hematocrit level and amount of blood transfused were analyzed statistically using line regression to identify the predictive factors of total blood loss (TBL). Results Eighty-five patients were enrolled in this study. Mean TBL was 560.92 ± 428.43 mL for both endo-urology surgeons. Stone burden was the most influential factor for TBL (p=0.037). Our results revealed that TBL (mL) = -153.379 + 0.229 × stone burden (mm2) + 0.203 x baseline serum hematocrit (%); thus considerably predicted the need for blood transfusion. A total of 87.1% patients did not receive perioperative transfusion, 3.5% received intra-operative transfusion, 7.1% received post-operative transfusion, 23% had both intra and post-operative transfusion, resulting in a cross-matched transfusion ratio of 7.72. Mean perioperative blood transfused was 356.00 ± 145.88 mL.
Project description:The Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial was a randomized clinical trial comparing survival after transfusion of two different blood component ratios for emergency resuscitation of traumatic massive hemorrhage. Transfusion services supporting the study were expected to provide thawed plasma, platelets, and red blood cells within 10 minutes of request.At the 12 Level 1 trauma centers participating in PROPPR, blood components transfused and delivery times were tabulated, with a focus on universal donor (UD) plasma management. The adequacy of site plans was assessed by comparing the bedside blood availability times to study goals and the new American College of Surgeons guidelines.Eleven of 12 sites were able to consistently deliver 6 units of thawed UD plasma to their trauma-receiving unit within 10 minutes and 12 units in 20 minutes. Three sites used blood group A plasma instead of AB for massive transfusion without complications. Approximately 4700 units of plasma were given to the 680 patients enrolled in the trial. No site experienced shortages of AB plasma that limited enrollment. Two of 12 sites reported wastage of thawed AB plasma approaching 25% of AB plasma prepared.Delivering UD plasma to massively hemorrhaging patients was accomplished consistently and rapidly and without excessive wastage in high-volume trauma centers. The American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program guidelines for massive transfusion protocol UD plasma availability are practicable in large academic trauma centers. Use of group A plasma in trauma resuscitation needs further study.