The redox-dependent regulation of satellite cells following aseptic muscle trauma (SpEED): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Muscle satellite cells (SCs) are crucial for muscle regeneration following muscle trauma. Acute skeletal muscle damage results in inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may be implicated in SCs activation. Protection of these cells from oxidative damage is essential to ensure sufficient muscle regeneration. The aim of this study is to determine whether SCs activity under conditions of aseptic skeletal muscle trauma induced by exercise is redox-dependent. METHODS/DESIGN:Based on the SCs content in their vastus lateralis skeletal muscle, participants will be classified as either high or low respondents. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, repeated-measures design, participants will then receive either placebo or N-acetylcysteine (alters redox potential in muscle) during a preliminary 7-day loading phase, and for eight consecutive days following a single bout of intense muscle-damaging exercise. In both trials, blood samples and muscle biopsies will be collected, and muscle performance and soreness will be measured at baseline, pre-exercise, 2 and 8 days post exercise. Biological samples will be analyzed for redox status and SCs activity. Between trials, a 4-week washout period will be implemented. DISCUSSION:This study is designed to investigate the impact of redox status on SCs mobilization and thus skeletal muscle potential for regeneration under conditions of aseptic inflammation induced by exercise. Findings of this trial should provide insight into (1) molecular pathways involved in SCs recruitment and muscle healing under conditions of aseptic skeletal muscle trauma present in numerous catabolic conditions and (2) whether skeletal muscle's potential for regeneration depends on its basal SCs content. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03711838 . Registered on 19 Oct 2018.
Project description:Background and Purpose: The exhaustion of muscle satellite cells (SCs) is correlated with muscle diseases, including sarcopenia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Exercise benefits skeletal muscle homeostasis and promotes proliferation of SCs. Elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying the muscle function-improving effect of exercise has important implications in regenerative medicine. Methods: Herein, we investigated the effect of 4-week treadmill training on skeletal muscle and SCs in mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was utilized to detect the morphometry of skeletal muscles. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were conducted to analyze the abundance and cell cycle of SCs. RNA sequencing was performed to elucidate the transcriptional regulatory network of SCs. The ChIP-PCR assay was used to detect enrichment of H3K27ac at the promoters of Akt. Results: We observed that exercise resulted in muscle hypertrophy and improved muscle regeneration in mice. Unexpectedly, exercise promoted cell cycling but suppressed the Akt-mTOR pathway in SCs. Proliferative SCs in "exercised mice" required suppressed mTOR activity to limit mitochondrial metabolism, maintaining the "limited activation status" of SCs against exhaustion. Mechanistically, exercise upregulated the expression of Igfbp7, thereby impeding the phosphorylation of Akt and resulting in inhibited mTOR activity and limited mitochondrial metabolism. The limited mitochondrial metabolism resulted in hypoacetylation of histone 3 and reduced enrichment of H3K27ac at promoters of Akt, decreasing the transcription of Akt. Moreover, repeatedly injured mice showed a preserved SC pool and improved muscle regeneration by the suppression of Akt-mTOR signaling. Conclusions: The findings of our study show that exercise protects proliferative SCs against exhaustion via the Igfbp7-Akt-mTOR axis. These findings establish a link between mechanical signaling, mitochondrial metabolism, epigenetic modification, and stem cell fate decisions; thus, present potential therapeutic targets for muscle diseases correlated with SC exhaustion.
Project description:Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults (n = 14) and children (n = 11) received daily either 37?mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72?h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72?h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK), and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation (p < 0.01). In adults, CK activity increased at 72?h after exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72?h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72?h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.
Project description:Satellite cells (SCs) are stem cells that mediate skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. Here, we observe that adult quiescent SCs and their activated descendants expressed the homeodomain transcription factor Six1. Genetic disruption of Six1 specifically in adult SCs impaired myogenic cell differentiation, impaired myofiber repair during regeneration, and perturbed homeostasis of the stem cell niche, as indicated by an increase in SC self-renewal. Six1 regulated the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and Myogenin, but not Myf5, which suggests that Six1 acts on divergent genetic networks in the embryo and in the adult. Moreover, we demonstrate that Six1 regulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway during regeneration via direct control of Dusp6 transcription. Muscles lacking Dusp6 were able to regenerate properly but showed a marked increase in SC number after regeneration. We conclude that Six1 homeoproteins act as a rheostat system to ensure proper regeneration of the tissue and replenishment of the stem cell pool during the events that follow skeletal muscle trauma.
Project description:Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury is characterized by a non-recoverable loss of muscle fibers due to ablative surgery or severe orthopaedic trauma, that results in chronic functional impairments of the soft tissue. Currently, the effects of VML on the oxidative capacity and adaptability of the remaining injured muscle are unclear. A better understanding of this pathophysiology could significantly shape how VML-injured patients and clinicians approach regenerative medicine and rehabilitation following injury. Herein, the data indicated that VML-injured muscle has diminished mitochondrial content and function (i.e., oxidative capacity), loss of mitochondrial network organization, and attenuated oxidative adaptations to exercise. However, forced PGC-1α over-expression rescued the deficits in oxidative capacity and muscle strength. This implicates physiological activation of PGC1-α as a limiting factor in VML-injured muscle's adaptive capacity to exercise and provides a mechanistic target for regenerative rehabilitation approaches to address the skeletal muscle dysfunction.
Project description:Satellite cells (SCs) represent a distinct population of stem cells, essential for maintenance, growth and regeneration of adult skeletal muscle. SCs are mononuclear and are located between the basal lamina and the plasma membrane of myofibers. They are typically characterized by presence of the transcription factor paired-box 7 (PAX7) that is widely used as a satellite cell marker. Under normal physiological conditions SCs are quiescent but are activated by insults such as injury, disease or exercise. Once activated, satellite cells proliferate and subsequently differentiate into myoblasts to finally fuse to form new myofibers or with preexisting myofibers to repair or rebuild the skeletal muscle. A minority of SCs retains stem cell characteristics and self-renews to assure future bouts of regeneration throughout most of adult life. While a comprehensive picture of the regulatory events controlling SC fate has not yet been achieved, several factors were recently identified playing important roles in functional processes. One example is the arginine methyltransferase Prmt5 that is known to have multiple roles in germ cells and is involved in the maintenance of ES cell pluripotency. We have previously shown that Prmt5 is required for muscle stem cell proliferation and regenerative myogenesis due to direct epigenetic regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21. Here we provide a dataset that investigates the loss of Prmt5 in isolated Pax7(+) primary SCs using the Pax7(CreERT2)/Prmt5(loxP/loxP) knockout mouse model. RNA-Seq raw and analyzed data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE66822.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Myopathic changes are commonly described in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients, including muscular atrophy and weakness. Satellite cells (SCs) play a major role in skeletal muscle maintenance and regeneration after injury. A mouse model of resistance to thyroid hormone-TR?1PV demonstrated impaired skeletal muscle regeneration after injury with significant reduction of SCs, suggesting that exhaustion of the SC pool contributes to the impaired regeneration. To test this hypothesis, SC activation and proliferation were analyzed in vivo in response to skeletal muscle injury and during aging.<h4>Methods</h4>SCs of TR?1PV male mice were analyzed four days after cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury, and they were compared to wild-type (WT) male animals. TR?-knockdown C2C12 myoblasts were injected into injured skeletal muscle, and four days after transplantation, the in vivo behavior was compared to control C2C12 myoblasts. Skeletal muscle regeneration was compared in younger and older TR?1PV and WT animals.<h4>Results</h4>The total number of SCs in skeletal muscle of TR?1PV mice was significantly lower than control, both before and shortly after muscle injury, with significant impairment of SC activation, consistent with SC pool exhaustion. TR?-knockdown myoblasts showed impaired in vivo proliferation and migration. TR?1PV mice had skeletal muscle loss and significant impairment in skeletal muscle regeneration with aging. This translated to a significant reduction of the SC pool with aging compared to WT mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>TR? plays an important role in the maintenance of the SC pool. Impaired skeletal muscle regeneration in TR?1PV mice is associated with insufficient SC activation and proliferation, as well as the progressive loss of the SC pool with aging. Regulation of the SC pool and SC proliferation provides a therapeutic target to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration and possibly slow age-associated sarcopenia.
Project description:Aberrant regeneration or fibrosis in muscle is the denouement of deregulated cellular and molecular events that alter original tissue architecture due to accumulation of excessive extracellular matrix. The severity of the insult to the skeletal muscle determines the nature of regeneration. Numerous attempts at deciphering the mechanism underlying fibrosis and the subsequent strategies of drug therapies have yielded temporary solutions. Our intent is to understand the interaction between the myofibroblasts (MFs) and the satellite cells (SCs), during skeletal muscle regeneration. We hypothesize that MFs contribute to the impairment of SCs function by exhibiting an antagonistic influence on their proliferation. A modified laceration based skeletal muscle injury model in mouse was utilized to evaluate the dynamics between the SCs and MFs during wound healing. We show that the decline in MFs' number through inhibition of PDGFR? signaling consequently promotes proliferation of the SCs and exhibits improved skeletal muscle remodeling. We further conclude that in situ administration of PDGFR? inhibitor prior to onset of fibrosis may attenuate aberrant regeneration. This opens new possibility for the early treatment of muscle fibrosis by specific targeting of MFs rather than transplantation of SCs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Satellite cells (SCs) are critical to skeletal muscle regeneration. Inactivation of SCs is linked to skeletal muscle loss. Transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) is associated with muscular dysfunction as muscle-specific deletion of Tfr1 results in growth retardation, metabolic disorder, and lethality, shedding light on the importance of Tfr1 in muscle physiology. However, its physiological function regarding skeletal muscle ageing and regeneration remains unexplored.<h4>Methods</h4>RNA sequencing is applied to skeletal muscles of different ages to identify Tfr1 associated to skeletal muscle ageing. Mice with conditional SC ablation of Tfr1 were generated. Between Tfr1<sup>SC/WT</sup> and Tfr1<sup>SC/KO</sup> (n = 6-8 mice per group), cardiotoxin was intramuscularly injected, and transverse abdominal muscle was dissected, weighted, and cryosectioned, followed by immunostaining, haematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson staining. These phenotypical analyses were followed with functional analysis such as flow cytometry, tread mill, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscopy to identify pathological pathways that contribute to regeneration defects.<h4>Results</h4>By comparing gene expression between young (2 weeks old, n = 3) and aged (80 weeks old, n = 3) mice among four types of muscles, we identified that Tfr1 expression is declined in muscles of aged mice (~80% reduction, P < 0.005), so as to its protein level in SCs of aged mice. From in vivo and ex vivo experiments, Tfr1 deletion in SCs results in an irreversible depletion of SCs (~60% reduction, P < 0.005) and cell-autonomous defect in SC proliferation and differentiation, leading to skeletal muscle regeneration impairment, followed by labile iron accumulation, lipogenesis, and decreased Gpx4 and Nrf2 protein levels leading to reactive oxygen species scavenger defects. These abnormal phenomena including iron accumulation, activation of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, and lipid peroxidation are orchestrated with the occurrence of ferroptosis in skeletal muscle. Ferroptosis further exacerbates SC proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration. Ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor, could not rescue ferroptosis. However, intramuscular administration of lentivirus-expressing Tfr1 could partially reduce labile iron accumulation, decrease lipogenesis, and promote skeletal muscle regeneration. Most importantly, declined Tfr1 but increased Slc39a14 protein level on cellular membrane contributes to labile iron accumulation in skeletal muscle of aged rodents (~80 weeks old), leading to activation of ferroptosis in aged skeletal muscle. This is inhibited by ferrostatin-1 to improve running time (P = 0.0257) and distance (P = 0.0248).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Satellite cell-specific deletion of Tfr1 impairs skeletal muscle regeneration with activation of ferroptosis. This phenomenon is recapitulated in skeletal muscle of aged rodents and human sarcopenia. Our study provides mechanistic information for developing novel therapeutic strategies against muscular ageing and diseases.
Project description:Progressive weight loss combined with skeletal muscle atrophy, termed cachexia, is a common comorbidity associated with cancer that results in adverse consequences for the patient related to decreased chemotherapy responsiveness and increased mortality. Cachexia's complexity has provided a barrier for developing successful therapies to prevent or treat the condition, since a large number of systemic disruptions that can regulate muscle mass are often present. Furthermore, considerable effort has focused on investigating how tumor derived factors and inflammatory mediators directly signal skeletal muscle to disrupt protein turnover regulation. Currently, there is developing appreciation for understanding how cancer alters skeletal muscle's complex microenvironment and the tightly regulated interactions between multiple cell types. Skeletal muscle microenvironment interactions have established functions in muscle response to regeneration from injury, growth, aging, overload-induced hypertrophy, and exercise. This review explores the growing body of evidence for immune cell modulation of the skeletal muscle microenvironment during cancer-induced muscle wasting. Emphasis is placed on the regulatory network that integrates physiological responses between immune cells with other muscle cell types including satellite cells, fibroblast cells, and endothelial cells to regulate myofiber size and plasticity. The overall goal of this review is to provide an understanding of how different cell types that constitute the muscle microenvironment and their signaling mediators contribute to cancer and chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting.
Project description:The remarkable regeneration capability of skeletal muscle depends on the coordinated proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells (SCs). The self-renewal of SCs is critical for long-term maintenance of muscle regeneration potential. Hypoxia profoundly affects the proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal of cultured myoblasts. However, the physiological relevance of hypoxia and hypoxia signaling in SCs in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SCs are in an intrinsic hypoxic state in vivo and express hypoxia-inducible factor 2A (HIF2A). HIF2A promotes the stemness and long-term homeostatic maintenance of SCs by maintaining their quiescence, increasing their self-renewal, and blocking their myogenic differentiation. HIF2A stabilization in SCs cultured under normoxia augments their engraftment potential in regenerative muscle. Conversely, HIF2A ablation leads to the depletion of SCs and their consequent regenerative failure in the long-term. In contrast, transient pharmacological inhibition of HIF2A accelerates muscle regeneration by increasing SC proliferation and differentiation. Mechanistically, HIF2A induces the quiescence and self-renewal of SCs by binding the promoter of the Spry1 gene and activating Spry1 expression. These findings suggest that HIF2A is a pivotal mediator of hypoxia signaling in SCs and may be therapeutically targeted to improve muscle regeneration.