An experimental comparative study of drilling efficiency and temperature elevation with unmodified and modified medical drills in pig tibia bone.
ABSTRACT: Background:There are no medical drill specifications capable of achieving bone drilling in a short time under low-thrust and low-speed drilling. Gekkou-drill® is an industrial drill that enables drilling with low cutting resistance by its characteristic point design. Our aims were to develop Gekkou-modified drills by processing to the points of currently available medical drills and to verify whether these modified drills enable less invasive drilling procedure for bone tissue in thermal exposure compared with unmodified medical drills. Materials and methods:Two commercially available 3.2-mm drills were compared before and after Gekkou modification. Drilling of pig tibias was performed at speeds of 300, 800, and 1,500 rpm and a uniform thrust force of 10 N. Temperature at the entry point for bone drilling was measured using a digital thermometer system. The feed rates were calculated using cortical thickness and monitoring data of the digital force gauge. Results:Two unmodified drills could not penetrate the cortical bone on the near side at 300 rpm, even after 5 min of drilling. The maximum temperatures with modified drills were 54.6 °C and 46.2 °C at 300 rpm. At medium to high speeds, those were statistically significantly lower than with unmodified drills (58.5 °C vs. 90.5 °C at 800 rpm, 62.6 °C vs. 80.8 °C and 73.9 °C vs. 104.6 °C at 1,500 rpm). The feed rates for modified drills were 4.9-6.9 times as high as unmodified drills at 800 rpm, and 3.4 to 4.5 times at 1,500 rpm. On the other hand, the feed rates of modified drills at 300 rpm were equal to or higher than those of unmodified drills at 1500 rpm. Conclusion:Gekkou-modified drills clearly suppressed the temperature rise and increased the feed rate compared with conventional drills. Furthermore, it was notable that these modified drills had higher performance even at conditions of low thrust and low speed.
Project description:Composite materials are widely employed in the naval, aerospace and transportation industries owing to the combination of being lightweight and having a high modulus of elasticity, strength and stiffness. Drilling is an operation generally used in composite materials to assemble the final product. Damages such as the burr at the drill entrance and exit, geometric deviations and delamination are typically found in composites subjected to drilling. Drills with special geometries and pilot holes are alternatives used to improve hole quality as well as to increase tool life. The present study is focused on the drilling of a sandwich composite material (two external aluminum plates bound to a polyethylene core). In order to minimize thrust force and burr height, the influence of drill geometry, the pilot hole and the cutting parameters was assessed. Thrust force and burr height values were collected and used to perform an analysis of variance. The results indicated that the tool and the cutting speed were the parameters with more weight on the thrust force and for burr height they were the tool and the interaction between tool and feed. The results indicated that drilling with a pilot hole of Ø4 mm exhibited the best performance with regard to thrust force but facilitated plastic deformation, thus leading to the elevation of burr height, while the lowest burr height was obtained using the Brad and Spur drill geometry.
Project description:This paper presents a study of hole quality and energy consumption in the process of drilling a thermoplastic polymeric material, polyether-ether-ketone, reinforced with 30% glass fibers (PEEK-GF30). PEEK-GF30's capacity to be machined has focused on turning operations. Studies of drilling involving thermoplastic polymeric materials have considered materials with other types of matrices, or reinforcement. In this study, quantities such as maximum and mean surface roughness, delamination, maximum thrust force, maximum momentum, and energy required during the process were determined for three types of drill bits, and the most influential factors for each variable were identified using an ANOVA multifactor analysis. The highest quality and lowest energy consumption were achieved for a drill bit rotation speed of 7000 rpm and a feed rate of 400 mm/min with a tungsten carbide (WC) drill bit coated with titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). Although a WC drill bit with a diamond point reduces delamination, the roughness increases, thus, the choice of the drill bit type depends on the roughness allowed. A WC drill bit coated with TiAlN produces a good surface finish that can eliminate subsequent operations and requires less energy; thus, this type of drill bit is the most attractive of the types evaluated.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:An in vitro study was made to compare mean thermal variation according to the material, design and wear of the surgical drills used during dental implant site preparation. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Three study groups (stainless steel drills with straight blades; diamond-like carbon-coated drills with straight blades; and diamond-like carbon-coated drills with twisted blades) were tested to compare material, design and wear of the surgical drill in terms of overall mean values (complete sequence of drills) and specific mean values (each drill separately). The groups comprised four drills: initial, pilot, progressive and final drill. Implant site configuration was performed through an intermittent and gradual drilling technique without irrigation at 800 rpm in standardized synthetic blocks. Maximum axial loading of two kilograms was controlled by an automatic press. Each surgical drill was submitted to 50 drillings and was sterilized every five uses. A thermographic camera analyzed the mean thermal changes. The software-controlled automatic press kept systematic drilling, axial loading and operational speed constant without any human intervention. Student's t-test, ANOVA and multiple linear regression models were performed. The level of significance was 5% (p = 0.05). RESULTS:The overall mean comparison between the stainless steel and diamond-like carbon-coated materials showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05), though specific mean comparison showed statistically significant differences between the drills of the different groups (p < 0.05). The twisted blades exhibited less overall and specific mean thermal variation than straight blades for the progressive and final drills (p < 0.01). In addition, the initial and pilot drills showed a greater mean thermal change than the progressive and final drills. The mean thermal variation was seen to increase during the 50 drillings. CONCLUSIONS:Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the drill material did not significantly influence the overall mean thermal variation except for the pilot drill. The drill design affected overall and specific mean thermal variation since the twisted blades heated less than the straight blades. The initial and pilot drills increased the specific mean thermal variation with respect to the progressive and final drills. In addition, all drills in each group produced a gradual increase in mean temperature during the 50 drillings.
Project description:The characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced laminates have widened their use from aerospace to domestic appliances, and new possibilities for their usage emerge almost daily. In many of the possible applications, the laminates need to be drilled for assembly purposes. It is known that a drilling process that reduces the drill thrust force can decrease the risk of delamination. In this work, damage assessment methods based on data extracted from radiographic images are compared and correlated with mechanical test results-bearing test and delamination onset test-and analytical models. The results demonstrate the importance of an adequate selection of drilling tools and machining parameters to extend the life cycle of these laminates as a consequence of enhanced reliability.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A neuronavigation interface with extended function as compared with current systems was developed to aid during temporal bone surgery. The interface, named EVADE, updates the prior anatomical image and visualizes the bone drilling process virtually in real-time without need for intra-operative imaging. Furthermore, EVADE continuously calculates the distance from the drill tip to segmented temporal bone critical structures (e.g. the sigmoid sinus and facial nerve) and produces audiovisual warnings if the surgeon drills in too close vicinity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and surgical utility of EVADE in physical phantoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed 228 measurements assessing the position accuracy of tracking a navigated drill in the operating theatre. A mean target registration error of 1.33±0.61 mm with a maximum error of 3.04 mm was found. Five neurosurgeons each drilled two temporal bone phantoms, once using EVADE, and once using a standard neuronavigation interface. While using standard neuronavigation the surgeons damaged three modeled temporal bone critical structures. No structure was hit by surgeons utilizing EVADE. Surgeons felt better orientated and thought they had improved tumor exposure with EVADE. Furthermore, we compared the distances between surface meshes of the virtual drill cavities created by EVADE to actual drill cavities: average maximum errors of 2.54±0.49 mm and -2.70±0.48 mm were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that EVADE gives accurate feedback which reduces risks of harming modeled critical structures compared to a standard neuronavigation interface during temporal bone phantom drilling.
Project description:This paper focuses on the effect of the drill geometry on the drilling of woven Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite (CFRPs). Although different geometrical effects can be considered in drilling CFRPs, the present work focuses on the influence of point angle and wear because they are the important factors influencing hole quality and machining forces. Surface quality was evaluated in terms of delamination and superficial defects. Three different point angles were tested representative of the geometries commonly used in the industry. Two wear modes were considered, being representative of the wear patterns commonly observed when drilling CFRPs: flank wear and honed cutting edge. It was found that the crossed influence of the point angle and wear were significant to the thrust force. Delamination at the hole entry and exit showed opposite trends with the change of geometry. Also, cutting parameters were checked showing the feed's dominant influence on surface damage.
Project description:As hotspots of local biodiversity in the deep sea, preservation of cold-water coral reef communities is of great importance. In European waters the most extensive reefs are found at depths of 300 - 500 m on the continental margin. In Norwegian waters many of these reefs are located in areas of interest for oil and gas exploration and production. In this study drilling was carried out in the Morvin drill field in proximity to a number of small Lophelia pertusa coral reefs (closest reefs 100 m upstream and 350 m downstream of point of waste drill material release). In a novel monitoring study, ROV video surveys of 9 reefs were conducted prior, during, immediately after and >1 year after drilling operations. Behavior of coral polyps inhabiting reefs exposed to differing concentrations of drill cuttings and drilling fluids (waste drilling material) were compared. Levels of expected exposure to these waste materials were determined for each reef by modelling drill cutting transport following release, using accurate in-situ hydrodynamic data collected during the drilling period and drill cutting discharge data as parameters of a dispersal model. The presence / absence of associate reef species (Acesta excavata, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis) were also determined from each survey video. There were no significant differences in Lophelia pertusa polyp behavior in corals modelled to have been exposed to pulses of >25 ppm drill cutting material and those modelled to be exposed to negligible concentrations of material. From the video data collected, there were no observed degradations of reef structure over time, nor reductions of associate fauna abundance, regardless of modelled exposure concentration at any of the surveyed reefs. This study focused exclusively on adult fauna, and did not assess the potential hazard posed by waste drilling material to coral or other larvae. Video data was collected by various ROV's, using different camera and lighting setups throughout the survey campaign, making comparison of observations prior, during and post drilling problematic. A standardization of video monitoring in future monitoring campaigns is recommended.
Project description:Thin boron doped diamond (BDD) film is deposited from trimethyl borate/acetone/hydrogen mixture on Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) micro drills by using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. The boron peak on Raman spectrum confirms the boron incorporation in diamond film. This film is used as an interlayer for subsequent CVD of micro-crystalline diamond (MCD) film. The Rockwell indentation test shows that boron doping could effectively improve the adhesive strength on substrate of as deposited thin diamond films. Dry drilling of graphite is chosen to check the multilayer (BDD + MCD) film performance. For the sake of comparison, machining tests are also carried out under identical conditions using BDD and MCD coated micro drills with no interlayer. The wear mechanism of the tools has been identified and correlated with the criterion used to evaluate the tool life. The results show that the multilayer (BDD + MCD) coated micro drill exhibits the longest tool life. Therefore, thin BDD interlayer is proved to be a new viable alternative and a suitable option for adherent diamond coatings on micro cutting tools.
Project description:The preservation of bone viability at an osteotomy site is a critical variable for subsequent implant osseointegration. Recent biomechanical studies evaluating the consequences of site preparation led us to rethink the design of bone-cutting drills, especially those intended for implant site preparation. We present here a novel drill design that is designed to efficiently cut bone at a very low rotational velocity, obviating the need for irrigation as a coolant. The low-speed cutting produces little heat and, consequently, osteocyte viability is maintained. The lack of irrigation, coupled with the unique design of the cutting flutes, channels into the osteotomy autologous bone chips and osseous coagulum that have inherent osteogenic potential. Collectively, these features result in robust, new bone formation at rates significantly faster than those observed with conventional drilling protocols. These preclinical data have practical implications for the clinical preparation of osteotomies and alveolar bone reconstructive surgeries.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>Maintaining neonatal resuscitation skills among health workers in low-resource settings will require continuous quality improvement efforts. We aimed to evaluate the effect of skill drills and feedback on neonatal resuscitation and the optimal number of skill drills required to maintain the ventilation skill in a simulated setting.<h4>Methods</h4>An observational study was conducted for a period of 3?months in a referral hospital of Nepal. Sixty nursing staffs were trained on Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) 2.0 and daily skill drills using a high-fidelity manikin. The high-fidelity manikin had different clinical case scenarios and provided feedback as "well done" or "improvement required" based on the ventilation performance. Adequate ventilation was defined as bag-and-mask ventilation at the rate of 40-60 breaths per minute. The effective ventilation was defined as adequate ventilation with a "well done" feedback. We assessed the correlation of the number of skill drills and clinical case scenario with adequate ventilation rate using Pearson's correlation. We assessed the correlation of the number of skill drills performed by each participant with effective ventilation using the Mann-Whitney test.<h4>Results</h4>Among the total of 60 nursing staffs, all of them were competent with an average score of 12.73?±?1.09 out of 14 (p?<?0.001) on bag-and-mask ventilation skill checklist. Among the trained staffs, 47 staffs participated in daily skill drills who performed a total of 331 skill drills and 68.9% of the ventilations were done adequately. Among the 47 nursing staffs who performed the skill drills, 228 (68.9%) drills were conducted at a ventilation rate of 40-60 breaths per minute. There was no correlation in the adequate ventilation with the skill drill category (p?=?0.88) and the level of skill performed (p?=?0.28). Out of 47 participants performing the skill drills, 74.5% of them had done effective ventilation with a mean average of 8 skill drills (SD?±?4.78) (p value 0.032).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In a simulated setting, participants who had an average skill drill of 8 in 3 months had effective ventilation. We demonstrated optimal skill drill sessions to maintain the neonatal resuscitation competency. Further evaluation will be required to validate the findings in a scale-up setting.