The muscle pre-activity timing of the hamstrings and quadriceps during 180° and 360° rotational jump landings in healthy female subjects.
ABSTRACT: Background/Objective:The muscle activity before the initial contact between during jump landings is referred to as the pre-activity. The muscle pre-activity that occur during jump landing are considered to be an important predictor of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. ACL injury prevention programs have been widely conducted; these programs are generally focused on increasing the muscle pre-activity and include rotational jump landing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the timing of the muscle pre-activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps during 180° and 360° rotational jump landing. Methods:The participants were 10 healthy females. Electromyography was conducted on the knee joint muscles of the left leg (the non-dominant leg) during clockwise 180° and 360° rotational jump landings. Results:The muscle pre-activities during 180° rotational jump landing was VM: 35.68?±?11.22 msec, RF: 38.05?±?14.77 msec, VL: 47.10?±?19.96 msec, BF: 115.63?±?30.48 msec and SM: 136.45?±?47.52 msec. And the muscle pre-activities during 360° rotational jump landing was VM: 45.25?±?17.41 msec, RF: 42.38?±?13.35 msec, VL: 48.75?±?19.20 msec, BF: 132.20?±?46.74 msec and SM: 140.70?±?40.64 msec. For both the 180° rotational jump landing and the 360° jump landing, the pre-activities of the hamstrings occurred significantly earlier than those of the quadriceps (p?
Project description:Increasing quadriceps:hamstring muscular co-contraction at the knee may reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The purpose of this investigation was to examine muscle activation in the quadriceps and hamstrings and peak kinematics of the knee, hip, and trunk when performing a single-leg drop (SLD) on to a Bosu ball (unstable surface) compared with on to the floor (stable surface).(1) The SLD on an unstable surface would lower the quadriceps to hamstrings electromyographic (EMG) activation ratio (Q:H EMG activation ratio) compared with being performed on the floor. (2) Lower Q:H EMG activation ratio would be caused by a relative increase in hamstring activation, with no significant change in quadriceps activation.Controlled laboratory study.Thirty-nine Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) female athletes performed 3 SLDs per leg onto a Bosu ball and onto the floor. Muscle activity of the vastus lateralis and lateral hamstrings were used to estimate peak quadriceps and hamstring activation, along with the Q:H EMG activation ratio. Kinematic measures at the knee, hip, and trunk were also estimated. Differences between landings were assessed using a 2-level analysis of variance (limb and surface).The maximum Q:H EMG activation ratio was significantly reduced when athletes performed an SLD onto the Bosu ball (20%, P < 0.001) compared with the floor. Peak hamstring activity was higher when athletes landed on a Bosu ball (18% higher, P = 0.029) compared with when they landed on the floor.Compared with landing on the floor (a stable surface), landing on a Bosu ball (unstable surface) changed the athlete's co-contraction at the knee and increased hamstring activity. However, landing on a Bosu ball also decreased the athlete's knee flexion, which was an undesired effect.These findings highlight the potential utility of unstable surfaces as a training tool to reduce the risk of ACL injury in female athletes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Current evidence suggests that the loss of mechanoreceptors after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears might be compensated by increased cortical motor planning. This occupation of cerebral resources may limit the potential to quickly adapt movements to unforeseen external stimuli in the athletic environment. To date, studies investigating such neural alterations during movement focused on simple, anticipated tasks with low ecological validity. This trial, therefore, aims to investigate the cortical and biomechanical processes associated with more sport-related and injury-related movements in ACL-reconstructed individuals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:ACL-reconstructed participants and uninjured controls will perform repetitive countermovement jumps with single leg landings. Two different conditions are to be completed: anticipated (n=35) versus unanticipated (n=35) successful landings. Under the anticipated condition, participants receive the visual information depicting the requested landing leg prior to the jump. In the unanticipated condition, this information will be provided only about 400 msec prior to landing. Neural correlates of motor planning will be measured using electroencephalography. In detail, movement-related cortical potentials, frequency spectral power and functional connectivity will be assessed. Biomechanical landing quality will be captured via a capacitive force plate. Calculated parameters encompass time to stabilisation, vertical peak ground reaction force, and centre of pressure path length. Potential systematic differences between ACL-reconstructed individuals and controls will be identified in dependence of jumping condition (anticipated/ unanticipated, injured/uninjured leg and controls) by using interference statistics. Potential associations between the cortical and biomechanical measures will be calculated by means of correlation analysis. In case of statistical significance (?<0.05.) further confounders (cofactors) will be considered. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The independent Ethics Committee of the University of Frankfurt (Faculty of Psychology and Sports Sciences) approved the study. Publications in peer-reviewed journals are planned. The findings will be presented at scientific conferences. TRIAL STATUS:At the time of submission of this manuscript, recruitment is ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03336060; Pre-results.
Project description:A multifactorial combination of predictors may increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in athletes. The objective of this twin study was to examine these risk factors to identify commonalities in risk factors that predisposed female fraternal twins to ACL injury.Female twins in high-risk sports were prospectively measured prior to an injury for neuromuscular control using three-dimensional motion analysis during landing, hamstrings and quadriceps muscular strength on a dynamometer and joint laxity using a modified Beighton-Horan index and a Compu-KT arthrometer. Intraoperative measures of femoral intercondylar notch width were recorded during ACL reconstruction.Abduction angles were increased at one knee in both of the twin sister athletes relative to uninjured controls at initial contact and at maximum displacement during landing. The twin female athletes that went on to ACL injury also demonstrated decreased peak knee flexion motion at both knees than uninjured females during landing. The twin athletes also had increased joint laxity and decreased hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios compared to controls. Femoral intercondylar notch widths were also below the control mean in the twin siblings.Prescreened mature female twins that subsequently experienced ACL injury demonstrated multiple potential risk factors including: increased knee abduction angles, decreased knee flexion angles, increased general joint laxity, decreased H/Q ratios and femoral intercondylar notch width.
Project description:Muscle activation during landing is paramount to stabilise lower limb joints and avoid abnormal movement patterns. Delayed muscle activity onset measured by electromyography (EMG) has been suggested to be associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to test the hypothesis if ACL-injured patients display different results for muscle onset timing during standard deceleration tasks compared to healthy control participants. PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases were systematically searched over the period from January 1980 to February 2015, yielding a total of 1461 citations. Six studies meeting inclusion criteria underwent quality assessment, data extraction and re-computing procedures for the meta-analysis. The quality was rated "moderate" for 2 studies and "poor" for 4. Patients included and procedures used were highly heterogeneous. The tasks investigated were single leg hopping, decelerating from running or walking, tested on a total of 102 ACL-injured participants and 86 controls. EMG analyses of the muscles vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, lateral and medial hamstrings revealed trivial and non-significant standardised mean differences (SMD<0.20; p>0.05) between patients and control participants. Furthermore, no differences were found between the contralateral leg of patients and controls for muscle activity onset of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (SMD<0.20; p>0.05). Based on 3 studies, the involved legs of ACL-injured patients showed overall earlier muscle activity onset compared to control participants for the medial gastrocnemius (SMD = 0.5; p = 0.05). Similar results were found for the lateral gastrocnemius (SMD = 2.1; p<0.001), with a greater effect size but based only on a single study. We conclude that there are no differences between leg muscles of ACL-injured patients and healthy controls regarding the muscle activity onset during landing. However, current evidence is scarce and weak, which highlights the need for further research in this area.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Injury prevention neuromuscular training (NMT) programs reduce the risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, variation in program characteristics limits the potential to delineate the most effective practices to optimize injury risk reduction. PURPOSE:To evaluate the common and effective components included in ACL NMT programs and develop an efficient, user-friendly tool to assess the quality of ACL NMT programs. STUDY DESIGN:Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS:Study inclusion required (1) a prospective controlled trial study design, (2) an NMT intervention aimed to reduce incidence of ACL injury, (3) a comparison group, (4) ACL injury incidence, and (5) female participants. The following data were extracted: year of publication, study design, sample size and characteristics, and NMT characteristics including exercise type and number per session, volume, duration, training time, and implementer training. Analysis entailed both univariate subgroup and meta-regression techniques using random-effects models. RESULTS:Eighteen studies were included in the meta-analyses, with a total of 27,231 participants, 347 sustaining an ACL injury. NMT reduced the risk for ACL injury from 1 in 54 to 1 in 111 (odds ratio [OR], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.37-0.69]). The overall mean training volume was 18.17 hours for the entire NMT (24.1 minutes per session, 2.51 times per week). Interventions targeting middle school or high school-aged athletes reduced injury risk (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24-0.60) to a greater degree than did interventions for college- or professional-aged athletes (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48-0.89). All interventions included some form of implementer training. Increased landing stabilization and lower body strength exercises during each session improved prophylactic benefits. A meta-regression model and simple checklist based on the aforementioned effective components (slope = -0.15, P = .0008; intercept = 0.04, P = .51) were developed to allow practitioners to evaluate the potential efficacy of their ACL NMT and optimize injury prevention effects. CONCLUSION:Considering the aggregated evidence, we recommend that ACL NMT programs target younger athletes and use trained implementers who incorporate lower body strength exercises (ie, Nordic hamstrings, lunges, and heel-calf raises) with a specific focus on landing stabilization (jump/hop and hold) throughout their sport seasons. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Clinicians, coaches, athletes, parents, and practitioners can use the developed checklist to gain insight into the quality of their current ACL NMT practices and can use the tool to optimize programming for future ACL NMT to reduce ACL injury risk.
Project description:Persistent quadriceps muscle weakness is common after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanisms underlying these chronic strength deficits are not clear. This study examined quadriceps strength in people 2-15 years post-ACL reconstruction and tested the hypothesis that chronic quadriceps weakness is related to levels of voluntary quadriceps muscle activation, antagonistic hamstrings moment, and peripheral changes in muscle. Knee extensor strength and activation were evaluated in 15 ACL reconstructed and 15 matched uninjured control subjects using an interpolated triplet technique. Electrically evoked contractile properties were used to evaluate peripheral adaptations in the quadriceps muscle. Antagonistic hamstrings moments were predicted using a practical mathematical model. Knee extensor strength and evoked torque at rest were significantly lower in the reconstructed legs (p?<?0.05). Voluntary activation and antagonistic hamstrings activity were similar across legs and between groups (p?>?0.05). Regression analyses indicated that side-to-side differences in evoked torque at rest explained 71% of the knee extensor strength differences by side (p?<?0.001). Voluntary activation and antagonistic hamstrings moment did not contribute significantly (p?>?0.05). Chronic quadriceps weakness in this sample was primarily related to peripheral changes in the quadriceps muscle, not to levels of voluntary activation or antagonistic hamstrings activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Causes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are multifactorial. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention should thus be approached from a multifactorial perspective as well. Training to resist fatigue is an underestimated aspect of prevention programs given that the presence of fatigue may play a crucial role in sustaining an ACL injury. OBJECTIVES:The primary objective of this literature review was to summarize research findings relating to the kinematic and kinetic effects of fatigue on single-leg landing tasks through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Other objectives were to critically appraise current approaches to examine the effects of fatigue together with elucidating and proposing an optimized approach for measuring the role of fatigue in ACL injury prevention. METHODS:A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed (1978-November 2017), CINAHL (1992-November 2017), and EMBASE (1973-November 2017). The inclusion criteria were: (1) full text, (2) published in English, German, or Dutch, (3) healthy subjects, (4) average age ≥ 18 years, (5) single-leg jump landing task, (6) evaluation of the kinematics and/or kinetics of the lower extremities before and after a fatigue protocol, and (7) presentation of numerical kinematic and/or kinetic data. Participants included healthy subjects who underwent a fatigue protocol and in whom the effects of pre- and post-fatigue on three-dimensional lower extremity kinematic and kinetics were compared. Methods of data collection, patient selection, blinding, prevention of verification bias, and study design were independently assessed. RESULTS:Twenty studies were included, in which four types of single-leg tasks were examined: the single-leg drop vertical jump, the single-leg drop landing, the single-leg hop for distance, and sidestep cutting. Fatigue seemed to mostly affect initial contact (decreased angles post-fatigue) and peak (increased angles post-fatigue) hip and knee flexion. Sagittal plane variables at initial contact were mostly affected under the single-leg hop for distance and sidestep cutting conditions whilst peak angles were affected during the single-leg drop jump. CONCLUSIONS:Training to resist fatigue is an underestimated aspect of prevention programs given that the presence of fatigue may play a crucial role in sustaining an ACL injury. Considering the small number of variables affected after fatigue, the question arises whether the same fatigue pathways are affected by the fatigue protocols used in the included laboratory studies as are experienced on the sports field.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic and knee kinematic measurements from male and female anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-intact (ACLINT) and ACL-reconstructed (ACLREC) subjects during a jump-cut maneuver using biplanar videoradiography.Twenty subjects were recruited; 10 ACLINT (5 men and 5 women) and 10 ACLREC (4 men and 6 women, 5 yr postsurgery). Each subject performed a jump-cut maneuver by landing on a single leg and performing a 45° side-step cut. Ground reaction force (GRF) was measured by a force plate and expressed relative to body weight. Six-degree-of-freedom knee kinematics were determined from a biplanar videoradiography system and an optical motion capture system.ACLINT female subjects landed with a larger peak vertical GRF (P < 0.001) compared with ACLINT male subjects. ACLINT subjects landed with a larger peak vertical GRF (P ? 0.036) compared with ACLREC subjects. Regardless of ACL reconstruction status, female subjects underwent less knee flexion angle excursion (P = 0.002) and had an increased average rate of anterior tibial translation (0.05%·ms ± 0.01%·ms, P = 0.037) after contact compared with male subjects. Furthermore, ACLREC subjects had a lower rate of anterior tibial translation compared with ACLINT subjects (0.05%·ms ± 0.01%·ms, P = 0.035). Finally, no striking differences were observed in other knee motion parameters.Women permit a smaller amount of knee flexion angle excursion during a jump-cut maneuver, resulting in a larger peak vertical GRF and increased rate of anterior tibial translation. Notably, ACLREC subjects also perform the jump cut maneuver with lower GRF than ACLINT subjects 5 yr postsurgery. This study proposes a causal sequence whereby increased landing stiffness (larger peak vertical GRF combined with less knee flexion angle excursion) leads to an increased rate of anterior tibial translation while performing a jump-cut maneuver.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is not known whether the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is susceptible to fatigue failure as a result of repetitive loading or whether certain knee morphologic characteristics increase that risk. HYPOTHESES:The number of knee loading cycles required to fail an ACL by fatigue failure is unaffected by the magnitude of the external load delivered to the knee joint. Furthermore, sex, ACL cross-sectional area, and lateral tibial slope will not affect the number of loading cycles to ACL failure. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:Knee pairs from 10 cadaveric donors (5 female) of similar age, height, and weight were imaged with 3-T magnetic resonance imaging to measure lateral tibial slope and ACL cross-sectional area. One knee from each pair was then subjected to repeated application of a load of 3 times body weight (3*BW), while the other knee was subjected to a 4*BW load, both involving impulsive compression force, knee flexion moment, and internal tibial torque combined with realistic trans-knee muscle forces. The resulting 3-dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and kinetics were recorded, along with ACL relative strain and quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle forces. The loading cycle was repeated until the ACL ruptured, a 3-mm increase in cumulative anterior tibial translation occurred, or a minimum of 50 trials was reached. RESULTS:Eight of 10 knees failed under the 4*BW load (mean ± SD cycles to failure, 21 ± 18), while 5 of 10 knees failed under the 3*BW load (mean ± SD cycles to failure, 52 ± 10). Four knees exhibited a 3-mm increase in anterior tibial translation, 7 knees developed partial or complete visible ACL tears, and 2 knees developed complete ACL tibial avulsions. A Cox regression showed that the number of cycles to ACL failure was influenced by the simulated landing force (P = .012) and ACL cross-sectional area (P = .022). Donor sex and lateral tibial slope did not influence the number of cycles to ACL failure. CONCLUSION:The human ACL is susceptible to fatigue failure when pivot landings of 3*BW or more load the knee repeatedly within a short time span. An ACL with a smaller cross-sectional area is at greater risk for this type of failure. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:The results show that the human knee can only withstand a certain number of 3*BW or greater jump loading cycles within a short time period before the ACL will fail. Therefore, limiting the increase in the number and severity of pivot landing maneuvers performed over a week of training would make sense from an injury prevention viewpoint.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a clinical tool often used in research and practice to identify athletes presenting high injury-risk biomechanical patterns during a jump-landing task.<h4>Objective</h4>To systematically review the literature addressing the psychometric properties of the LESS.<h4>Data sources</h4>Three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) were searched on March 28, 2018, using the term "Landing Error Scoring System."<h4>Study selection</h4>All studies using the LESS as main outcome measure and addressing its reliability, validity against motion capture system, and predictive validity were included. Original English-language studies published in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed. Studies using modified versions of the LESS were excluded.<h4>Study design</h4>Systematic literature review.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>Level 4.<h4>Data extraction</h4>Study design, population, LESS testing procedures, LESS scores, statistical analysis, and main results were extracted from studies using a standardized template.<h4>Results</h4>Ten studies met inclusion criteria and were appraised using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale adapted for cross-sectional studies. The overall LESS score demonstrated good-to-excellent intrarater (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.82-0.99), interrater (ICC, 0.83-0.92), and intersession reliability (ICC, 0.81). The validity of the overall LESS score against 3-dimensional jump-landing biomechanics was good when individuals were divided into 4 quartiles based on LESS scores. The validity of individual LESS items versus 3-dimensional motion capture data was moderate-to-excellent for most of the items addressing key risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The predictive value of the LESS for ACL and other noncontact lower-extremity injuries remains uncertain based on the current scientific evidence.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The LESS is a reliable screening tool. However, further work is needed to improve the LESS validity against motion capture system and confirm its predictive validity for ACL and other noncontact lower-extremity injuries.