Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel pyrazolines and isoxazolines derived from cuminaldehyde.
ABSTRACT: Two series of novel cuminaldehyde derivatives containing pyrazoline and isoxazoline moieties have been designed and synthesized. All of the compounds were characterized via1H-NMR,13C-NMR, and HRMS. The antifungal activities were evaluated against six plant-pathogenic fungi. 3-(2-Fluorophenyl)-5-(4-isopropylphenyl) isoxazoline (2d) and 1-acetyl-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-isopropylphenyl)-2-pyrazoline (3d) displayed higher antifungal activities than commercial fungicides against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Physalospora piricola and Pyricularia oryzae. The title compounds (2d and 3d) with strong antifungal activities are worth being further evaluated in vivo and in the field.
Project description:Hypervalent iodine-mediated olefin functionalization provides a rapid gateway towards accessing both various heterocyclic cores and functional groups. In this regard, we have developed a Ritter-type alkene functionalization utilizing a PhI(OAc)2 ((diacetoxyiodo)benzene, PIDA)/Lewis acid combination in order to access isoxazoline and pyrazoline cores. Based on allyl ketone oximes and allyl ketone tosylhydrazones, we have developed an alkene oxyamidation and amido-amidation protocol en route to accessing both isoxazoline and pyrazoline cores. Additionally, acetonitrile serves as both the solvent and an amine source in the presence of this PIDA/Lewis acid combination. This operationally straightforward and metal-free protocol provides an easy access to isoxazoline and pyrazoline derivatives.
Project description:A series of structurally diverse 4-bromo spiro-isoxazolines possessing a variety of aromatic and aliphatic substituents at the 3 position, were synthesized through a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition followed by intramolecular cyclization of a pendant hydroxyl or carboxylic acid group. The biochemical antiproliferative activity was evaluated in vitro by using two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and two prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and DU-145) using the MTT viability assay, and the IC50 values were obtained. Spiro-isoxazoline derivatives bearing a p-chloro or an o-dichloro aromatic substituent at the 3-position of the isoxazoline showed considerable antitumor activities in all four cell lines with IC50 value ranging from 43?M to 56?M.
Project description:The versatile precursor 2-acetyl-4-allyl-1-hydroxy naphthalene was synthesized efficiently via Claisen rearrangement 2-acetyl-1-allyloxynaphthalene. The Claisen-Schmidt condensation of latter precursor afforded the corresponding chalcones which were exploited to synthesize a series of potential heterocycles such as pyrazoline, isoxazoline, benzocoumarin and benzoflavone. The synthesized products showed potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chalcone 3c, naphthyl pyrazoline 6b and hydroxycoumarin 13 exhibited the highest activity as antioxidants. Their binding mode showed specialized recognition of hydroxycoumarin 13 with the triad key amino acids at the active site of the oxidoreductase enzyme (PDB code 1DXO). 1-Hydroxynaphth-2-yl pyrazoline (6b) revealed the highest efficacy against both Gram positive and negative bacterial species. In silico molecular docking of pyrazoline 6b endorsed its proper binding at the active site of the 2EX6 enzyme which explains its potent antibacterial activity in comparison with standard ampicillin.
Project description:A series of (R)-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carboxamide derivatives containing a diacylhydrazine moiety were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by melting points, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis (EA). Their antifungal and insecticidal activities were evaluated. The antifungal activity result indicated that most title compounds against Cercospora arachidicola, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora capsici, and Physalospora piricola exhibited apparent antifungal activities at 50 mg/L, and better than chlorothalonil or carbendazim. The EC50 values of (R)-N'-benzoyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carbohydrazide (I-5) against six tested phytopathogenic fungi were comparable to those of chlorothalonil. The CoMSIA model showed that a proper hydrophilic group in the R1 position, as well as a proper hydrophilic and electron-donating group in the R2 position, could improve the antifungal activity against Physalospora piricola, which contributed to the further optimization of the structures. Meanwhile, most title compounds displayed good insecticidal activities, especially compound (R)-N'-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carbohydrazide (III-3). The insecticidal mechanism results indicated that compound III-3 can serve as effective insect Ca2+ level modulators by disrupting the cellular calcium homeostasis in Mythimna separata.
Project description:Candida is the most common fungal class, causing both superficial and invasive diseases in humans. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of fungal infections in humans, C. auris is a new emergent serious pathogen causing complications similar to those of C. albicans. Both C. albicans and C. auris are associated with high mortality rates, mainly because of their multidrug-resistance patterns against most available antifungal drugs. Although several compounds were designed against C. albicans, very few or none were tested on C. auris. Therefore, it is urgent to develop novel effective antifungal drugs that can accommodate not only C. albicans, but also other Candida spp., particularly newly emergent one, including C. auris. Inspired by the significant broad-spectrum antifungal activities of the essential oil cuminaldehyde and the reported wide incorporation of azoles in the antifungal drugs, a series of compounds (UoST1-11) was designed and developed. The new compounds were designed to overcome the toxicity of the aldehyde group of cuminaldehyde and benefit from the antifungal selectivity of azoles. The new developed UoST compounds showed significant anti-Candida activities against both Candida species. The best candidate compound, UoST5, was further formulated into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). The new formula, UoST5-NPs, showed similar activities to the nanoparticles-free drug, while providing only 25% release after 24 h, maintainng prolonged activity up to 48 h and affording no toxicity. In conclusion, new azole formulations with significantly enhanced activities against C. albicans and C. auris, while maintaining prolonged action and no toxicities at lower concentrations, were developed.
Project description:Oxidative stress is one of the main causes of significant severe diseases. The discovery of new potent antioxidants with high efficiency and low toxicity is a great demand in the field of medicinal chemistry. Herein, we report the design, synthesis molecular modelling and biological evaluation of novel hybrids containing pyrazole, naphthalene and pyrazoline/isoxazoline moiety. Chalcones <b>2a-e</b> were synthesized efficiently and were used as starting materials for synthesis of a variety of heterocycles. A novel series of pyrazoline <b>3a-e</b>, phenylpyrazoline <b>4a-e</b>, isoxazoline <b>5a-e</b> and pyrazoline carbothioamide derivatives <b>6a-e</b> were synthesized and screened for <i>in vitro</i> antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide radical scavenging assay as well as 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) inhibition activity. Compounds <b>3a, 4e, 5b, 5c, 6a, 6c,</b> and <b>6e</b> showed excellent radical scavenging activity in all three methods in comparison with ascorbic acid and 15-LOX inhibition potency using quercetin as standard then were subjected to <i>in vivo</i> study. Catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assayed in liver of treated rats. Compounds <b>5b, 5c,</b> and <b>6e</b> showed significant <i>in vivo</i> antioxidant potentials compared to control group at dose of 100?mg/kg B.W. Molecular docking of compound <b>6a</b> endorsed its proper binding at the active site pocket of the human 15-LOX which explains its potent antioxidant activity in comparison with standard ascorbic acid.
Project description:Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are important agents of urinary tract infections that can often evolve to severe infections. The rise of antibiotic-resistant strains has driven the search for novel therapies to replace the use or act as adjuvants of antibiotics. In this context, plant-derived compounds have been widely investigated. Cuminaldehyde is suggested as the major antimicrobial compound of the cumin seed essential oil. However, this effect is not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the in silico and in vitro activities of cuminaldehyde, as well as its ability to potentiate ciprofloxacin effects against S. aureus and E. coli. In silico analyses were performed by using different computational tools. The PASS online and SwissADME programmes were used for the prediction of biological activities and oral bioavailability of cuminaldehyde. For analysis of the possible toxic effects and the theoretical pharmacokinetic parameters of the compound, the Osiris, SwissADME and PROTOX programmes were used. Estimations of cuminaldehyde gastrointestinal absorption, blood brain barrier permeability and skin permeation by using SwissADME; and drug likeness and score by using Osiris, were also evaluated The in vitro antimicrobial effects of cuminaldehyde were determined by using microdilution, biofilm formation and time-kill assays. In silico analysis indicated that cuminaldehyde may act as an antimicrobial and as a membrane permeability enhancer. It was suggested to be highly absorbable by the gastrointestinal tract and likely to cross the blood brain barrier. Also, irritative and harmful effects were predicted for cuminaldehyde if swallowed at its LD50. Good oral bioavailability and drug score were also found for this compound. Cuminaldehyde presented antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects against S. aureus and E. coli.. When co-incubated with ciprofloxacin, it enhanced the antibiotic antimicrobial and anti-biofilm actions. We suggest that cuminaldehyde may be useful as an adjuvant therapy to ciprofloxacin in S. aureus and E. coli-induced infections.
Project description:Isoxazoline-linked porphyrins have been synthesized by a regioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between vinylporphyrin <b>2</b> and nitrile oxides. The steric interaction directed the reaction trajectory, in which only the product with a link between the 5-position of the isoxazoline and the ?-position of porphyrin was observed. The isoxazoline-porphyrins <b>3a</b>,<b>b</b> have been characterized by absorption, emission, <sup>1</sup>H NMR and mass spectra. Later, the crystal structure of <b>3a</b> was obtained and confirmed the basic features of the NMR-derived structure. Furthermore, a pair of enantiomers of <b>3a</b> presented in the crystal, which formed a dimeric complex through intermolecular coordination between the Zn<sup>2+</sup> center and the carbonyl group of the second molecule.
Project description:New ?,?-unsaturated ketones 4a,b; 5a-c; and 6a,b; as well as 4-H pyran 7; pyrazoline 8a,b; isoxazoline 9; pyridine 10-11; and quinoline-4-carboxylic acid 12a,b derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antitumour activity against HepG2, MCF-7, HeLa, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Antioxidant activity was investigated by the ability of these compounds to scavenge the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+). Compounds 6a, 6b, 7, and 8b exhibited potent antitumour activities against all tested cell lines with [IC50] ?5.5-18.1 µ?), in addition to significantly high ABTS•+ scavenging activities. In vitro EGFR kinase assay for 6a, 6b, 7, and 8b as the most potent antitumour compounds showed that; compounds 6b, and 7 exhibited worthy EGFR inhibition activity with IC50 values of 0.56 and 1.6?µM, respectively, while compounds 6a and 8b showed good inhibition activity with IC50 values of 4.66 and 2.16?µM, respectively, compared with sorafenib reference drug (IC50?=?1.28?µM). Molecular modelling studies for compounds 6b, 7, and 8b were conducted to exhibit the binding mode towards EGFR kinase, which showed similar interaction with erlotinib.
Project description:A series of novel myrtenal derivatives bearing 1,2,4-triazole moiety were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Their structures were confirmed by using UV-vis, FTIR, NMR, and ESI-MS analysis. Antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria solani, Cercospora arachidicola, and Gibberella zeae at 50 µg/mL. Compounds 6c (R = i-Pr), 6l (R = o-NO? Bn), and 6a (R = Et) exhibited excellent antifungal activity against P. piricola with inhibition rates of 98.2%, 96.4%, and 90.7%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin with a 96.0% inhibition rate, which served as a positive control.