Adipocyte deficiency of ACE2 increases systolic blood pressures of obese female C57BL/6 mice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Obesity increases the risk for hypertension in both sexes, but the prevalence of hypertension is lower in females than in males until menopause, despite a higher prevalence of obesity in females. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which cleaves the vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II (AngII), to generate the vasodilator, angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), contributes to sex differences in obesity-hypertension. ACE2 expression in adipose tissue was influenced by obesity in a sex-specific manner, with elevated ACE2 expression in obese female mice. Moreover, estrogen stimulated adipose ACE2 expression and reduced obesity-hypertension in females. In this study, we hypothesized that deficiency of adipocyte ACE2 contributes to obesity-hypertension of females. METHODS:We generated a mouse model of adipocyte ACE2 deficiency. Male and female mice with adipocyte ACE2 deficiency or littermate controls were fed a low (LF) or a high fat (HF) diet for 16 weeks and blood pressure was quantified by radiotelemetry. HF-fed mice of each sex and genotype were challenged by an acute AngII injection, and blood pressure response was quantified. To translate these findings to humans, we performed a proof-of-principle study in obese transwomen in which systemic angiotensin peptides and blood pressure were quantified prior to and after 12 weeks of gender-affirming 17?-estradiol hormone therapy. RESULTS:Adipocyte ACE2 deficiency had no effect on the development of obesity in either sex. HF feeding increased systolic blood pressures (SBP) of wild-type male and female mice compared to LF-fed controls. Adipocyte ACE2 deficiency augmented obesity-induced elevations in SBP in females, but not in males. Obese female, but not obese male mice with adipocyte ACE2 deficiency, had an augmented SBP response to acute AngII challenge. In humans, plasma 17?-estradiol concentrations increased in obese transwomen administered 17?-estradiol and correlated positively with plasma Ang-(1-7)/AngII balance, and negatively to SBP after 12 weeks of 17?-estradiol administration. CONCLUSIONS:Adipocyte ACE2 protects female mice from obesity-hypertension, and reduces the blood pressure response to systemic AngII. In obese transwomen undergoing gender-affirming hormone therapy, 17?-estradiol administration may regulate blood pressure via the Ang-(1-7)/AngII balance.
Project description:Obesity promotes hypertension, but it is unclear if sex differences exist in obesity-related hypertension. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) converts angiotensin II (AngII) to angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-[1-7]), controlling peptide balance. We hypothesized that tissue-specific regulation of ACE2 by high-fat (HF) feeding and sex hormones contributes to sex differences in obesity-hypertension.HF-fed females gained more body weight and fat mass than males. HF-fed males exhibiting reduced kidney ACE2 activity had increased plasma angiotensin II levels and decreased plasma Ang-(1-7) levels. In contrast, HF-fed females exhibiting elevated adipose ACE2 activity had increased plasma Ang-(1-7) levels. HF-fed males had elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure that were abolished by losartan. In contrast, HF-fed females did not exhibit increased systolic blood pressure until females were administered the Ang-(1-7) receptor antagonist, D-Ala-Ang-(1-7). Deficiency of ACE2 increased systolic blood pressure in HF-fed males and females, which was abolished by losartan. Ovariectomy of HF-fed female mice reduced adipose ACE2 activity and plasma Ang-(1-7) levels, and promoted obesity-hypertension. Finally, estrogen, but not other sex hormones, increased adipocyte ACE2 mRNA abundance.These results demonstrate that tissue-specific regulation of ACE2 by diet and sex hormones contributes to sex differences in obesity-hypertension.
Project description:Adipocytes express angiotensin receptors, but the direct effects of angiotensin II (AngII) stimulating this cell type are undefined. Adipocytes express angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR) and AT2R, both of which have been implicated in obesity. In this study, we determined the effects of adipocyte AT1aR deficiency on adipocyte differentiation and the development of obesity in mice fed low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets. Mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the aP2 promoter were bred with AT1aR-floxed mice to generate mice with adipocyte AT1aR deficiency (AT1aR(aP2)). AT1aR mRNA abundance was reduced significantly in both white and brown adipose tissue from AT1aR(aP2) mice compared with nontransgenic littermates (AT1aR(fl/fl)). Adipocyte AT1aR deficiency did not influence body weight, glucose tolerance, or blood pressure in mice fed either LF or high-fat diets. However, LF-fed AT1aR(aP2) mice exhibited striking adipocyte hypertrophy even though total fat mass was not different between genotypes. Stromal vascular cells from AT1aR(aP2) mice differentiated to a lesser extent to adipocytes compared with controls. Conversely, incubation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with AngII increased Oil Red O staining and increased mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) via AT1R stimulation. These results suggest that reductions in adipocyte differentiation in LF-fed AT1aR(aP2) mice resulted in increased lipid storage and hypertrophy of remaining adipocytes. These results demonstrate that AngII regulates adipocyte differentiation and morphology through the adipocyte AT1aR in lean mice.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Plasma aldosterone levels correlate positively with obesity, suggesting a link between the hypertension associated with obesity and increased mineralocorticoid levels. We tested the hypothesis that aldosterone is involved in the BP response to angiotensin II (AngII) in obese rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Lean (LZR) and obese (OZR) Zucker rats were treated with AngII (9 µg·h(-1) ; 4 weeks), and BP and plasma AngII and aldosterone were determined. KEY RESULTS: Chronic AngII increased the BP in OZR markedly more so than in LZR. Plasma AngII levels in LZR and OZR were similar after AngII treatment. The AngII stimulated a rise in plasma aldosterone that was sixfold more in OZR than in LZR. The thickness of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal glands was selectively increased by AngII in OZR. Adrenal mRNA levels of CYP11B2 aldosterone synthase and the AT(1B) receptor were selectively increased in AngII-treated OZR. The BP response to chronic AngII stimulation was diminished in OZR after adrenalectomy when plasma aldosterone was absent. Acute bolus injections of AngII did not increase the BP response or aldosterone release in OZR. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The AngII-induced BP response is enhanced in obesity and this is associated with a specific increase in circulating aldosterone. Due to the AngII-induced growth of the zona glomerulosa in OZR, the AT(1B) receptors and aldosterone synthase may be selectively enhanced in obesity under concomitant AngII stimulation, increasing the adrenal synthesis of aldosterone. Our results confirm functionally that aldosterone plays a major role in obesity-related hypertension.
Project description:Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cleaves angiotensin II (AngII) to form angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), which generally opposes effects of AngII. AngII infusion into hypercholesterolemic male mice induces formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This study tests the hypothesis that deficiency of ACE2 promotes AngII-induced AAAs, whereas ACE2 activation suppresses aneurysm formation.ACE2 protein was detectable by immunostaining in mice and human AAAs. Whole-body deficiency of ACE2 significantly increased aortic lumen diameters and external diameters of suprarenal aortas from AngII-infused mice. Conversely, ACE2 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells had no effect on AngII-induced AAAs. In contrast to AngII-induced AAAs, ACE2 deficiency had no significant effect on external aortic diameters of elastase-induced AAAs. Because ACE2 deficiency promoted AAA formation in AngII-infused mice, we determined whether ACE2 activation suppressed AAAs. ACE2 activation by administration of diminazene aceturate (30 mg/kg per day) to Ldlr(-/-) mice increased kidney ACE2 mRNA abundance and activity and elevated plasma Ang-(1-7) concentrations. Unexpectedly, administration of diminazene aceturate significantly reduced total sera cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Notably, diminazene aceturate significantly decreased aortic lumen diameters and aortic external diameters of AngII-infused mice resulting in a marked reduction in AAA incidence (from 73% to 29%). None of these effects of diminazene aceturate were observed in the Ace2(-/y) mice.These results demonstrate that ACE2 exerts a modulatory role in AngII-induced AAA formation, and that therapeutic stimulation of ACE2 could be a benefit to reduce AAA expansion and rupture in patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system.
Project description:We recently demonstrated that adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen (AGT) ablated high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) concentrations and obesity-hypertension in male mice. Hepatocytes are the predominant source of systemic AGT. Therefore, in this study, we defined the contribution of hepatocyte-derived AGT to obesity-induced elevations in plasma AGT concentrations and hypertension. Male Agt(fl/fl) mice expressing albumin-driven Cre recombinase were bred to female Agt(fl/fl) mice to generate Agt(fl/fl) or hepatocyte AGT-deficient male mice (Agt(Alb)). Mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Hepatocyte AGT deficiency had no significant effect on body weight. Plasma AGT concentrations were increased in obese Agt(fl/fl) mice. Hepatocyte AGT deficiency markedly reduced plasma AGT and Ang II concentrations in lean and obese mice. Moreover, hepatocyte AGT deficiency reduced the content and release of AGT from adipose explants. Systolic blood pressure was markedly decreased in lean (by 18 mm Hg) and obese Agt(Alb) mice (by 54 mm Hg) compared with Agt(fl/fl) controls. To define mechanisms, we quantified effects of Ang II on mRNA abundance of megalin, an AGT uptake transporter, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ang II stimulated adipocyte megalin mRNA abundance and decreased media AGT concentrations. These results demonstrate that hepatocytes are the predominant source of systemic AGT in both lean and obese mice. Moreover, reductions in plasma angiotensin concentrations in obese hepatocyte AGT-deficient mice may have limited megalin-dependent uptake of AGT into adipocytes for the production of Ang II in the development of obesity-hypertension.
Project description:Angiotensin II (AngII), a peptide hormone released by adipocytes, can be catabolized by adipose angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to form Ang(1-7). Co-expression of AngII receptors (AT1 and AT2) and Ang(1-7) receptors (Mas) in adipocytes implies the autocrine regulation of the local angiotensin system upon adipocyte functions, through yet unknown interactive mechanisms. In the present study, we reveal the adipogenic effects of Ang(1-7) through activation of Mas receptor and its subtle interplays with the antiadipogenic AngII-AT1 signaling pathways. Specifically, in human and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, Ang(1-7)-Mas signaling promotes adipogenesis via activation of PI3K/Akt and inhibition of MAPK kinase/ERK pathways, and Ang(1-7)-Mas antagonizes the antiadipogenic effect of AngII-AT1 by inhibiting the AngII-AT1-triggered MAPK kinase/ERK pathway. The autocrine regulation of the AngII/AT1-ACE2-Ang(1-7)/Mas axis upon adipogenesis has also been revealed. This study suggests the importance of the local regulation of the delicately balanced angiotensin system upon adipogenesis and its potential as a novel therapeutic target for obesity and related metabolic disorders.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are associated with increased tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity.The objective of the study was to evaluate whether vitamin D(3) therapy in obesity reduces tissue-RAS activity, as indicated by an increase in tissue sensitivity to angiotensin II (AngII).Participants included obese subjects with hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25 ng/ml.Subjects were studied before and after 1 month of vitamin D(3) 15,000 IU/d, while in dietary sodium balance, and off all interfering medications. Fourteen subjects successfully completed all study procedures.The study was conducted at a clinical research center.At each study visit, tissue sensitivity to AngII was assessed by measuring renal plasma flow (RPF), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and adrenal secretion of aldosterone during an infusion of AngII. Subjects were then given captopril, and a second AngII infusion to evaluate the effect of captopril on tissue-RAS activity.Vitamin D(3) therapy increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D (18 to 52 ng/ml) and basal RPF (+5%) and lowered supine MAP (-3%) (all P < 0.01). There was a greater decline in RPF and higher stimulation of aldosterone with AngII infusion after vitamin D(3) therapy (both P < 0.05). As anticipated, captopril increased the renal-vascular, MAP, and adrenal sensitivity to AngII, but this effect was much smaller after vitamin D(3) therapy, indicating that vitamin D(3) therapy corrected the tissue sensitivity to AngII akin to captopril.Vitamin D(3) therapy in obese hypertensives modified RPF, MAP, and tissue sensitivity to AngII similar to converting enzyme inhibition. Whether chronic vitamin D(3) therapy abrogates the development of diseases associated with excess RAS activity warrants investigation.
Project description:Angiotensin II (AngII) infusions augment renal angiotensinogen mRNA and protein and urinary angiotensinogen excretion (U(AGT)). Further experiments were performed in 4 groups of rats: normal salt diet with sham operation, NS+Sham, n=6; NS with AngII infusion at 40 ng/min via osmotic minipump, NS+AngII(40), n=9; NS with AngII infusion at 80 ng/min, NS+AngII(80), n=9; high-salt diet with deoxycorticosterone acetate salt pellet (100 mg), HS+DOCA, n=4. These experiments sought to determine whether enhanced U(AGT) is specifically associated with increased kidney AngII levels or is a nonspecific consequence of the hypertension. Systolic BP (SBP) was significantly increased to 131+/-2 and 162+/-2 mm Hg at day 11 in NS+AngII(40) and NS+AngII(80), respectively, compared with NS+Sham (110+/-1). Regression analysis demonstrated a positive relationship (R=0.49) between SBP and U(AGT) for NS+Sham (1.1+/-0.3 nmol AngI/d), NS+AngII(40) (2.5+/-0.9), and NS+AngII(80) (5.5+/-1.5). U(AGT) was also highly correlated (R=0.70) with kidney AngII content for NS+Sham (49+/-6 fmol/g), NS+AngII(40) (215+/-49), and NS+AngII(80) (347+/-47); but not with plasma AngII (R=0.12). HS+DOCA rats also exhibited increased SBP to 134+/-1 mm Hg, but U(AGT) (1.4+/-0.4 nmol AngI/d) and intrarenal AngII content (13+/-2 fmol/g) were not increased despite the hypertension. Infused human angiotensinogen could not be detected in urine of sham-operated or AngII-infused rats (n=4 each). These data demonstrate that U(AGT) increases in AngII-dependent hypertension in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not in hypertension elicited by HS+DOCA. The results support the hypothesis that AngII-dependent hypertension results in elevated intrarenal AngII and angiotensinogen levels, reflected by increased U(AGT), which does not occur in an AngII-independent hypertensive model.
Project description:Background:The exact mechanisms for the development of essential hypertension are not known. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in adipose tissue may represent an important link between obesity and hypertension. This study investigates the effects of oral intake of glucose with and without NaCl on angiotensin II (AngII) and aldosterone in obese and nonobese patients with essential hypertension. Methods:Twenty newly diagnosed untreated essential hypertensive patients and 15 normotensive control subjects matched for age, gender, and BMI were studied. Participants fasted overnight (8-10?hrs), and then each subject took 75?gm glucose alone and with 3?gm NaCl, each dissolved in 250?ml. Subjects were monitored for 2 hours. Half hourly BP, plasma glucose (PG), serum Na+, K+, insulin, AngII, and aldosterone were measured. Subjects were classified into obese (BMI >30?Kg/m2) (11 patients and 8 control) and nonobese (BMI <30?Kg/m2) (9 patients and 7 control). Results:After intake of glucose with NaCl serum, AngII was significantly higher in obese hypertensive patients compared with nonobese patients (P = 0.016). Intake of glucose with NaCl resulted in a significantly higher serum Na in obese hypertensive patients compared with nonobese patients Na (P = 0.009). Serum aldosterone was significantly higher in obese patients (P = 0.03, after glucose; P = 0.003, after glucose with NaCl) and in nonobese patients (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively) compared with their respective normotensive control subjects. In obese and nonobese patients, intake of glucose and glucose with NaCl showed no significant change in the levels of serum AngII and aldosterone which was associated a significant increase in serum Na in obese patients (P = 0.03) and a highly significant reduction in serum K in nonobese patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion:Failure of suppression or inappropriate maintenance of secretion of AngII and aldosterone in both hypertensive groups by intake of glucose with NaCl may indicate a possible mechanism of essential hypertension.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity is strongly associated with hypertension. Despite numerous mechanistic links the association is not fully understood. Western diet increases uptake of Toll-Like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands such as free fatty acids or endotoxin. We recently demonstrated that TLR4 ligands are involved in the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that TLR4 ligands are involved in obesity-associated hypertension and investigated the TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs 498790). This SNP is frequent, associated with cardiovascular disease and characterized by blunted response upon exposure to TLR4 ligands. METHODS:We investigated 3657 patients undergoing coronary angiography. Blood pressure was determined in standardized manner prior angiography. The diagnosis of hypertension was based on record data. Patients were characterized for TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4986790. Patients were stratified according to quartiles of Body mass index (BMI) and according to the polymorphism. The association between the TLR4 polymorphism and blood pressure in obese patients (BMI?>?30 kg/m(2)) was investigated by multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS:Out of 3657 patients 3017 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. In the whole cohort a significant increase of SBP, pulse pressure and diagnosis of hypertension was observed across BMI quartiles. By contrast, no significant increase of SBP, pulse pressure or diagnosis of hypertension was observed in the 319 cases with TLR4 SNP rs4986790 across BMI quartiles. These obese cases had significantly lower SBP, lower pulse pressure (7.0 and 7.6 mmHg) and less diagnosis of hypertension as controls. In obesity the TLR4 SNP rs4986790 was an independent predictor of SBP. CONCLUSION:Systolic blood pressure increase with obesity was blunted in cases with TLR4 SNP rs4986790.