Microbiological Characteristics of Gouda Cheese Manufactured with Pasteurized and Raw Milk during Ripening Using Next Generation Sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Gouda cheese, one of most popular cheeses in the Korea, has been produced from only pasteurized milk in Korean dairy farms. Recently, it has become legally possible to produce ripened cheese manufactured with raw milk in Korea. In the present study, we investigated the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of Gouda cheese manufactured with raw (R-GC) or pasteurized milk (P-GC) during manufacturing and ripening. Particularly, this study characterized the bacterial community structure of two cheese types, which are produced without pasteurization during ripening based on next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. During ripening, protein and fat content increased slightly, whereas moisture content decreased in both P-GC and R-GC. At the 6 wk of ripening, R-GC became softer and smoother and hence, the values of hardness and gumminess, chewiness in R-GC was lower than that of P-GC. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the bacterial genera used a starter cultures, namely Lactococcus and Leuconostoc were predominant in both P-GC and R-GC. Moreover, in R-GC, the proportion of coliform bacteria such as Escherichia, Leclercia, Raoultella, and Pseudomonas were detected initially but not during ripening. Taken together, our finding indicates the potential of manufacturing with Gouda cheese from raw milk and the benefits of next generation sequencing for microbial community composition during cheese ripening.
Project description:Abstract This study aimed to compare the three strains of Listeria monocytogenes survival in raw milk cheese and pasteurized milk cheese and to suggest the effect of milk microbiota on survival. L. monocytogenes cell counts decreased in all cheese as ripening time increased, and the survival rate was different for the strains of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes survived longer in raw milk cheese than in pasteurized milk cheese. The difference of bacterial survival in each cheese was independent of Aw or the Lactobacillus spp. populations in cheeses; there was no difference in Aw or Lactobacillus spp. populations in all cheeses. The richness of microbiota in raw milk was little higher than in pasteurized milk, and five phyla (Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus–Thermus, Lentisphaerae, and Verrucomicrobia) were present only in raw milk. Also, organic acid?producing bacteria were presented more in pasteurized milk compared with raw milk; thus, the growth of L. monocytogenes was slower in pasteurized milk. In conclusion, differences in the microbial community of milk can affect the growth of L. monocytogenes. Making cheese using raw milk is a risk of L. monocytogenes infection; thus, efforts to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes such as the use of appropriate food additives are required. Cell counts of L. monocytogenes in all cheese samples were decreased as ripening time increased. Five phyla (Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus–Thermus, Lentisphaerae, and Verrucomicrobia) were only existed in raw milk; therefore, the different composition of microbiome between raw milk and pasteurized milk could be affected to the L. monocytogenes survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The microbiome of cheese is diverse, even within a variety. The metagenomics of cheese is dependent on a vast array of biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors include the population of microbiota and their resulting cellular metabolism. Abiotic factors, including the pH, water activity, fat, salt, and moisture content of the cheese matrix, as well as environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, and location of aging), influence the biotic factors. This study assessed the metagenomics of commercial Gouda cheese prepared using pasteurized or unpasteurized cow milk or pasteurized goat milk via 16S rDNA sequencing. RESULTS:Results were analyzed and compared based on milk pasteurization and source, spatial variability (core, outer, and under the rind), and length of aging (2-4 up to 12-18 months). The dominant organisms in the Gouda cheeses, based on percentage of sequence reads identified at the family or genus levels, were Bacillaceae, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus. More genus- or family-level (e.g. Bacillaceae) identifications were observed in the Gouda cheeses prepared with unpasteurized cow milk (120) compared with those prepared with pasteurized cow milk (92). When assessing influence of spatial variability on the metagenomics of the cheese, more pronounced differences in bacterial genera were observed in the samples taken under the rind; Brachybacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Yersinia, Klebsiella, and Weissella were only detected in these samples. Lastly, the aging length of the cheese greatly influenced the number of organisms observed. Twenty-seven additional genus-level identifications were observed in Gouda cheese aged for 12-18 months compared with cheese only aged 2-4 months. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, the results of this study are important in determining the typical microbiota associated with Gouda cheese and how the microbiome plays a role in safety and quality.
Project description:We sought to determine if the time, within a production day, that a cheese is manufactured has an influence on the microbial community present within that cheese. To facilitate this, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to elucidate the microbial community dynamics of brine-salted continental-type cheese in cheeses produced early and late in the production day. Differences in the microbial composition of the core and rind of the cheese were also investigated. Throughout ripening, it was apparent that cheeses produced late in the day had a more diverse microbial population than their early equivalents. Spatial variation between the cheese core and rind was also noted in that cheese rinds were initially found to have a more diverse microbial population but thereafter the opposite was the case. Interestingly, the genera Thermus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Bifidobacterium, not routinely associated with a continental-type cheese produced from pasteurized milk, were detected. The significance, if any, of the presence of these genera will require further attention. Ultimately, the use of high-throughput sequencing has facilitated a novel and detailed analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of microbes in this complex cheese system and established that the period during a production cycle at which a cheese is manufactured can influence its microbial composition.
Project description:Ragusano cheese is a "protected denomination of origin" cheese made in the Hyblean region of Sicily from raw milk using traditional wooden tools, without starter. To explore the Ragusano bacterial ecosystem, molecular fingerprinting was conducted at different times during the ripening and biofilms from the wooden vats called "tinas" were investigated. Raw milks collected at two farm sites, one on the mountain and one at sea level, were processed to produce Ragusano cheese. Raw milk, curd before and after cooking, curd at stretching time (cheese 0 time), and cheese samples (4 and 7 months) were analyzed by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) and by classical enumeration microbiology. With the use of universal primers, PCR-TTGE revealed many differences between the raw milk profiles, but also notable common bands identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Enterococcus faecium. After the stretching, TTGE profiles revealed three to five dominant species only through the entire process of ripening. In the biofilms of the two tinas used, one to five species were detected, S. thermophilus being predominant in both. Biofilms from five other tinas were also analyzed by PCR-TTGE, PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis, specific PCR tests, and sequencing, confirming the predominance of lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and the presence of a few high-GC-content species, like coryneform bacteria. The spontaneous acidification of raw milks before and after contact with the five tinas was followed in two independent experiments. The lag period before acidification can be up to 5 h, depending on the raw milk and the specific tina, highlighting the complexity of this natural inoculation system.
Project description:The microbial ecology of cheese involves a rich and complex interaction between starter lactic acid bacteria and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), mainly originating from raw milk and/or from the environment, that can contribute to the final characteristics of cheese. The aim of the present research was the exploration of the active microbiota by RNA-based approaches during the manufacturing and ripening of a Grana-like cheese. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and RNA-based high-throughput sequencing were applied to profile microbial populations, while the enumeration of active bacteria was carried out by using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Three different cheese productions (named D, E, and F) collected in the same month from the same dairy plant were analyzed. The application of the qPCR protocol revealed the presence of 7 log CFU/ml of bacterial load in raw milk, while, during ripening, active bacterial populations ranged from <4 to 8 log CFU/ml. The natural whey starters used in the three productions showed the same microbiota composition, characterized by the presence of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii Nevertheless, beta-diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequencing data and RT-PCR-DGGE showed a clear clustering of the samples according to the three productions, probably driven by the different milks used. Milk samples were found to be characterized by the presence of several contaminants, such as Propionibacterium acnes, Acidovorax, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and NSLAB. The core genera of the starter tended to limit the development of the spoilage bacteria only in two of the three batches. This study underlines the influence of different factors that can affect the final microbiota composition of the artisanal cheese.This study highlights the importance of the quality of the raw milk in the production of a hard cheese. Independent from the use of a starter culture, raw milk with low microbiological quality can negatively affect the populations of lactic acid bacteria and, as a consequence, impact the quality of the final product due to metabolic processes associated with spoilage bacteria.
Project description:Cheese ripening involves lactose metabolism, lipolysis and proteolysis, which are affected by many factors. The aim of this study was to assess changes due to ripening (90 days) of goat milk cheese through bacteriological and physicochemical analysis in order to verify if, at the end of ripening period, this cheese could be considered "lactose-free". Three batches of the goat milk cheese were manufactured and ripened at 10 °C and 80% relative humidity for 90 days. Titratable acidity increased by about 59 °D due to carbohydrate degradation and organic acid production. However, pH (5.31-5.25) remained constant. Lactococcus was the dominant cheese microbiota, acting in the fermentation of lactose (1.17-0.06 mg/g) and lactic acid production (5.49-s10.01 mg/g). Thus, ripening time was decisive for bacteriological and physicochemical goat milk cheese characteristics.
Project description:The dynamics of bacteria community of "Bola de Ocosingo" cheese, a Mexican artisanal raw milk cheese was investigated by high-throughput sequencing (454 pyrosequencing). Dairy samples (raw milk, curd, cheese at 50 and 110 days of ripening) were collected at dry (March-June) and rainy season (August-November) from three producers located in Chiapas, Mexico. In general, raw milk contained high bacterial diversity which was reduced throughout cheese manufacture. However, in two productions an important increase during cheese ripening was observed probably due to cross-contamination. Species such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii and L. plantarum from which potential probiotic strains may be obtained, predominated during processing, varying its prevalence from one producer to another. Furthermore, low proportions of Escherichia coli/Shigella flexnerii were detected in almost all processes, however, could not be recovered by traditional methodology, indicating presence of non-cultivable cells. This work provides insights into bacteria communities of Bola de Ocosingo cheese for starter culture development, many of which are reported to provide health related benefits, and the usefulness of high-throughput sequencing to evidence cross-contamination during processing.
Project description:The cheese microbial ecosystem is complex, and the presence of non-starter adventitious microorganisms in milk may have an influence on the organoleptic characteristics of cheese. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the fungal flora of raw milk destined for cheesemaking from 19 dairy farms in Quebec and to monitor their evolution throughout ripening. Six hundred ten yeast and mold isolates were collected from raw milk and raw milk cheeses over a 9-month period. Based on the sequences of the rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, 67% of the raw milk isolates were yeasts, which were assigned to 37 species across 11 genera, while 33% were molds, which were assigned to 33 species across 25 genera. A semi-quantitative analysis of the yeasts and molds in the raw milk from four farms was performed over a 5-month period. The composition and diversity of the fungal microflora were totally different for each farm, each of which had a unique species profile. To determine whether adventitious yeast strains from the milk could develop in raw milk cheese, a multilocus-sequence-typing (MLST) analysis was performed on 13 Issatchenkia orientalis (syn. Pichia kudriavzevii, anamorph: Candida krusei) isolates. The same MLST genotypes were identified for strains independently isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheese from a farm processing its own milk. This study contributes to the understanding of the natural fungal microflora of raw milk and suggests that non-starter yeasts and molds can transfer from raw milk to raw milk cheese and may influence cheese ripening. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13594-011-0051-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:Cheese microbiota contribute significantly to the final characteristics of cheeses due to the growth and interaction between cheese microorganisms during processing and ripening. For raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano (PR), the microbiota derive from the raw milk itself, the dairy environment, and the starter. The process of cheese making and time of ripening shape this complex ecosystem through the selection of different species and biotypes that will drive the quality of the final product by performing functions of their metabolism such as proteolysis. The diversity in the final peptide and amino acid composition of the cheese is thus mostly linked to the diversity of this microbiota. The purpose of this study was to get more insight into the factors affecting PR cheese diversity and, more specifically, to evaluate whether the composition of the bacterial community of cheeses along with the specific peptide composition are more affected by the ripening times or by the cheese making process. To this end, the microbiota and the peptide fractions of 69 cheese samples (from curd to cheese ripened 24 months) were analyzed during 6 complete PR production cycles, which were performed in six different dairies located in the PR production area. The relation among microbial dynamics, peptide evolution, and ripening times were investigated in this unique and tightly controlled production and sampling set up. The study of microbial and peptide moieties in products from different dairies - from curd to at least 12 months, the earliest time from which the cheese can be sold, and up to a maximum of 24 months of ripening - highlighted the presence of differences between samples coming from different dairies, probably due to small differences in the cheese making process. Besides these differences, however, ripening time had by far the greatest impact on microbial dynamics and, consequently, on peptide composition.
Project description:The present study was undertaken to produce probiotic Caciotta cheeses from pasteurized ewes' milk by using different combinations of autochthonous microbial cultures, containing putative probiotic strains, and evaluate their influence on gross composition, lipid components, sensory properties and microbiological and metabolite profiles of the cheeses throughout ripening process. A control cheese was produced using commercial starter cultures. The hydrophilic molecular pools (mainly composed by amino acids, organic acids, and carbohydrates) were characterized by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy, while the cholesterol, ?-tocopherol and fatty acid composition by HPLC-DAD/ELSD techniques. Conventional culturing and a PCR-DGGE approach using total cheese DNA extracts were used to analyze cheese microbiota and monitor the presence and viability of starters and probiotic strains. Our findings showed no marked differences for gross composition, total lipids, total cholesterol, and fatty acid levels among all cheeses during ripening. Differently, the multivariate statistical analysis of NMR data highlighted significant variations in the cheese' profiles both in terms of maturation time and strains combination. The use of autochthonous cultures and adjunct probiotic strains did not adversely affect acceptability of the cheeses. Higher levels of lactobacilli (viability of 108-109 cfu/g of cheese) were detected in cheeses made with the addition of probiotic autochthonous strains with respect to control cheese during the whole ripening period, suggesting the adequacy of Caciotta cheese as a carrier for probiotic bacteria delivery.