Genetic dissection of yield-related traits and mid-parent heterosis for those traits in maize (Zea mays L.).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Utilization of heterosis in maize could be critical in maize breeding for boosting grain yield. However, the genetic architecture of heterosis is not fully understood. To dissect the genetic basis of yield-related traits and heterosis in maize, 301 recombinant inbred lines derived from 08 to 641?×?YE478 and 298 hybrids from the immortalized F2 (IF2) population were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for nine yield-related traits and mid-parent heterosis. RESULTS:We observed 156 QTLs, 28 pairs of loci with epistatic interaction, and 10 significant QTL?×?environment interactions in the inbred and hybrid mapping populations. The high heterosis in F1 and IF2 populations for kernel weight per ear (KWPE), ear weight per ear (EWPE), and kernel number per row (KNPR) matched the high percentages of QTLs (over 50%) for those traits exhibiting overdominance, whereas a notable predominance of loci with dominance effects (more than 70%) was observed for traits that show low heterosis such as cob weight per ear (CWPE), rate of kernel production (RKP), ear length (EL), ear diameter (ED), cob diameter, and row number (RN). The environmentally stable QTL qRKP3-2 was identified across two mapping populations, while qKWPE9, affecting the trait mean and the mid-parent heterosis (MPH) level, explained over 18% of phenotypic variations. Nine QTLs, qEWPE9-1, qEWPE10-1, qCWPE6, qEL8, qED2-2, qRN10-1, qKWPE9, qKWPE10-1, and qRKP4-3, accounted for over 10% of phenotypic variation. In addition, QTL mapping identified 95 QTLs that were gathered together and integrated into 33 QTL clusters on 10 chromosomes. CONCLUSIONS:The results revealed that (1) the inheritance of yield-related traits and MPH in the heterotic pattern improved Reid (PA)?×?Tem-tropic I (PB) is trait-dependent; (2) a large proportion of loci showed dominance effects, whereas overdominance also contributed to MPH for KNPR, EWPE, and KWPE; (3) marker-assisted selection for markers at genomic regions 1.09-1.11, 2.04, 3.08-3.09, and 10.04-10.05 contributed to hybrid performance per se and heterosis and were repeatedly reported in previous studies using different heterotic patterns is recommended.
Project description:An "immortalized F2" (IF2) population and two reciprocal backcross (HSBCF1 and MARBCF1) populations were constructed to investigate the genetic bases of fiber quality traits in upland cotton across four different environments. A relatively high level of heterosis for micronaire (MIC) in IF2 population as well as fiber length (FL) and MIC in MARBCF1 population was observed. A total of 167 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in the three related experimental populations and their corresponding midparental heterosis (MPH) datasets using the composite interval mapping (CIM) approach. An analysis of genetic effects of QTLs detected in different populations and their MPH datasets showed 16 (24.24%) QTLs of partial dominance, and 46 (69.70%) QTLs of overdominance were identified in an IF2 population; 89 (62.68%) additive QTLs, three (2.11%) partial dominant QTLs, and 49 (34.51%) over-dominant QTLs were detected in two BCF1 populations. Multi-environment analysis showed 48 and 56 main-QTLs (m-QTLs) and 132 and 182 epistasis-QTLs (e-QTLs), by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) in IF2 and two BCF1 populations, respectively. Phenotypic variance explained by e-QTLs, except for MARBCF1 population, was higher than that by m-QTLs. Thus, the overdominant, partial dominant, and epistasis effects were the main causes of heterosis in the IF2 population, whereas the additive, overdominant, and epistasis effects were the primary genetic basis of heterosis in the two BCF1 populations. Altogether, additive effect, partial dominance, overdominance, and epistasis contributed to fiber quality heterosis in upland cotton, but overdominance and epistasis were the most important factors.
Project description:Heterosis plays a decisive role in maize production worldwide, but its genetic basis remains unclear. In this study, we explored heterosis for ear-weight (EW)-related traits using a North Carolina Experiment III design (Design III) population derived from the elite maize hybrid Zhengdan 958. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted based on phenotypic data collected from five environments using a high-density linkage map that consisted of 905 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). A total of 38 environmentally stable QTLs were detected, and the numbers for the Z1 and Z2 populations were 18 and 20, respectively. All environmentally stable QTLs for Z2 were characterized by the overdominance effect (OD), which indicated that overdominance was one of the most important contributors to the heterosis of EW-related traits. Consistent with the significant positive correlations between EW-related traits, 9 genomic regions with overlapped QTLs for different traits were found and were located on chromosomes 1 (1), 3 (2), 4 (3), 7 (1), 8 (1), and 9 (1). Compared to previous reports, we found that the genomic regions for heterosis were not always congruent between different hybrids, which suggested that the combination of heterotic loci in different hybrids was genotype-dependent. Collectively, these data provided further evidence that the potential utilization of QTLs for heterosis may be feasible by pyramiding if we treat the QTLs as inherited units.
Project description:Heterosis has been utilized in commercial production, but the heterosis mechanism has remained vague. Hybrid cotton is suitable to dissect the heterosis mechanism. In order to explore the genetic basis of heterosis in Upland cotton, we generated paternal and maternal backcross (BC/P and BC/M) populations. Data for yield and yield-component traits were collected over 2 years in three replicated BC/P field trials and four replicated BC/M field trials. At single-locus level, 26 and 27 QTLs were identified in BC/P and BC/M populations, respectively. Six QTLs shared in both BC populations. A total of 27 heterotic loci were detected. Partial dominant and over-dominant QTLs mainly determined yield heterosis in the BC/P and BC/M populations. QTLs for different traits displayed varied genetic effects in two BC populations. Eleven heterotic loci overlapped with QTLs but no common heterotic locus was detected in both BC populations. We resolved the 333 kb (48 genes) and 516 kb (25 genes) physical intervals based on 16 QTL clusters and 35 common QTLs, respectively, in more than one environment or population. We also identified 189 epistatic QTLs and a number of QTL × environment interactions in two BC populations and the corresponding MPH datasets. The results indicated that cumulative effects contributed to yield heterosis in Upland cotton, including epistasis, QTL × environment interaction, additive, partial dominance and over-dominance.
Project description:Plant height (PH) and ear height (EH) are two important agronomic traits in maize selection breeding. F1 hybrid exhibit significant heterosis for PH and EH as compared to their parental inbred lines. To understand the genetic basis of heterosis controlling PH and EH, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a recombinant inbreed line (RIL) based design III population derived from the elite maize hybrid Zhengdan 958 in five environments.A total of 14 environmentally stable QTLs were identified, and the number of QTLs for Z1 and Z2 populations was six and eight, respectively. Notably, all the eight environmentally stable QTLs for Z2 were characterized by overdominance effect (OD), suggesting that overdominant QTLs were the most important contributors to heterosis for PH and EH. Furthermore, 14 environmentally stable QTLs were anchored on six genomic regions, among which four are trait-specific QTLs, suggesting that the genetic basis for PH and EH is partially different. Additionally, qPH.A-1.3, modifying about 10 centimeters of PH, was further validated in backcross populations.The genetic basis for PH and EH is partially different, and overdominant QTLs are important factors for heterosis of PH and EH. A major QTL qPH.A-1.3 may be a desired target for genetic improvement of maize plant height.
Project description:Based on two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, two corresponding backcross (BC) populations were constructed to elucidate the genetic basis of heterosis in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The yield, and yield components, of these populations were evaluated in three environments. At the single-locus level, 78 and 66 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected using composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively, and 29 QTL were identified based on mid-parental heterosis (MPH) data of two hybrids. Considering all traits together, a total of 50 (64.9%) QTL with partial dominance effect, and 27 (35.1%) QTL for overdominance effect were identified in two BC populations. At the two-locus level, 120 and 88 QTL with main effects (M-QTL), and 335 and 99 QTL involved in digenic interactions (E-QTL), were detected by inclusive composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively. A large number of QTL by environment interactions (QEs) for M-QTL and E-QTL were detected in three environments. For most traits, average E-QTL explained a larger proportion of phenotypic variation than did M-QTL in two RIL populations and two BC populations. It was concluded that partial dominance, overdominance, epistasis, and QEs all contribute to heterosis in Upland cotton, and that partial dominance resulting from single loci and epistasis play a relatively more important role than other genetic effects in heterosis in Upland cotton.
Project description:Kernel shape related traits (KSRTs) have been shown to have important influences on grain yield. The previous studies that emphasize kernel length (KL) and kernel width (KW) lack a comprehensive evaluation of characters affecting kernel shape. In this study, materials of the basic generations (B73, Mo17, and B73 × Mo17), 82 intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) individuals, and the corresponding triple testcross (TTC) populations were used to evaluate heterosis, investigate correlations, and characterize the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for six KSRTs: KL, KW, length to width ratio (LWR), perimeter length (PL), kernel area (KA), and circularity (CS). The results showed that the mid-parent heterosis (MPH) for most of the KSRTs was moderate. The performance of KL, KW, PL, and KA exhibited significant positive correlation with heterozygosity but their Pearson's R values were low. Among KSRTs, the strongest significant correlation was found between PL and KA with R values was up to 0.964. In addition, KW, PL, KA, and CS were shown to be significant positive correlation with 100-kernel weight (HKW). 28 QTLs were detected for KSRTs in which nine were augmented additive, 13 were augmented dominant, and six were dominance × additive epistatic. The contribution of a single QTL to total phenotypic variation ranged from 2.1% to 32.9%. Furthermore, 19 additive × additive digenic epistatic interactions were detected for all KSRTs with the highest total R2 for KW (78.8%), and nine dominance × dominance digenic epistatic interactions detected for KL, LWR, and CS with the highest total R2 (55.3%). Among significant digenic interactions, most occurred between genomic regions not mapped with main-effect QTLs. These findings display the complexity of the genetic basis for KSRTs and enhance our understanding on heterosis of KSRTs from the quantitative genetic perspective.
Project description:The kernel number is a grain yield component and an important maize breeding goal. Ear length, kernel number per row and ear row number are highly correlated with the kernel number per ear, which eventually determines the ear weight and grain yield. In this study, two sets of F2:3 families developed from two bi-parental crosses sharing one inbred line were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for four kernel number-related traits: ear length, kernel number per row, ear row number and ear weight. A total of 39 QTLs for the four traits were identified in the two populations. The phenotypic variance explained by a single QTL ranged from 0.4% to 29.5%. Additionally, 14 overlapping QTLs formed 5 QTL clusters on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10. Intriguingly, six QTLs for ear length and kernel number per row overlapped in a region on chromosome 1. This region was designated qEL1.10 and was validated as being simultaneously responsible for ear length, kernel number per row and ear weight in a near isogenic line-derived population, suggesting that qEL1.10 was a pleiotropic QTL with large effects. Furthermore, the performance of hybrids generated by crossing 6 elite inbred lines with two near isogenic lines at qEL1.10 showed the breeding value of qEL1.10 for the improvement of the kernel number and grain yield of maize hybrids. This study provides a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker-aided breeding and functional studies of kernel number-related traits in maize.
Project description:We constructed 128 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), derived from a cross between indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) 9311 and japonica rice Nipponbare, to investigate the genetic mechanism of heterosis. Three photo-thermo-sensitive-genic male sterile lines (Guangzhan63-4s, 036s, and Lian99s) were selected to cross with each CSSL to produce testcross populations (TCs). Field experiments were carried out in 2009, 2011, and 2015 to evaluate yield and yield-related traits in the CSSLs and TCs. Four traits (plant height, spikelet per panicle, thousand-grain weight, and grain yield per plant) were significantly related between CSSLs and TCs. In the TCs, plant height, panicle length, seed setting rate, thousand-grain weight, and grain yield per plant showed partial dominance, indicating that dominance largely contributes to heterosis of these five traits. While overdominance may be more important for heterosis of panicles per plant and spikelet per panicle. Based on the bin-maps of CSSLs and TCs, we detected 62 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and 97 heterotic loci (HLs) using multiple linear regression analyses. Some of these loci were clustered together. The identification of QTLs and HLs for yield and yield-related traits provide useful information for hybrid rice breeding, and help to uncover the genetic basis of rice heterosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping provides a powerful tool to unravel the genetic bases of cotton yield and its components, as well as their heterosis. In the present study, the genetic basis underlying inbreeding depression and heterosis for yield and yield components of upland cotton was investigated in recombinant inbred line (RIL), immortalized F2 (IF2), and two backcross (BCF1) populations based on a high-density SNP linkage map across four environments. RESULTS:Significant inbreeding depression of fruit branches per plant (FB), boll numbers per plant (BN), seed cotton yield (SY), and lint yield (LY) in RIL population and high levels of heterosis for SY, LY, and boll weight (BW) in IF2 and two BCF1 populations were observed. A total of 285 QTLs were identified in the four related populations using a composite interval mapping approach. In the IF2 population, 26.60% partially dominant (PD) QTLs and 71.28% over-dominant (OD) QTLs were identified. In two BCF1 populations, 42.41% additive QTLs, 4.19% PD QTLs, and 53.40% OD QTLs were detected. For multi-environment analysis, phenotypic variances (PV) explained by e-QTLs were higher than those by m-QTLs in each of the populations, and the average PV of m-QTLs and e-QTLs explained by QTL?×?environment interactions occupied a considerable proportion of total PV in all seven datasets. CONCLUSIONS:At the single-locus level, the genetic bases of heterosis varied in different populations. Partial dominance and over-dominance were the main cause of heterosis in the IF2 population, while additive effects and over-dominance were the main genetic bases of heterosis in two BCF1 populations. In addition, the various genetic components to heterosis presented trait specificity. In the multi-environment model analysis, epistasis was a common feature of most loci associated with inbreeding depression and heterosis. Furthermore, the environment was a critical factor in the expression of these m-QTLs and e-QTLs. Altogether, additive effects, over-dominance, epistasis and environmental interactions all contributed to the heterosis of yield and its components in upland cotton, with over-dominance and epistasis more important than the others.
Project description:Heterosis has widely been used to increase grain yield and quality. In this study, the genetic basis of heterosis on grain yield and its main components in maize were examined over 2 years in two locations in two test populations constructed from a set of 184 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and two inbred lines (Zheng58 and Xun9058). Of the 169 heterotic loci (HL) associated with grain yield and its five components identified in CSSL × Zheng58 and CSSL × Xun9058 test populations, only 25 HL were detected in both populations. The comparison of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected in the CSSL population with HL detected in the two test populations revealed that only 15.46% and 17.35% of the HL in the given populations respectively, shared the same chromosomal regions as that of the corresponding QTLs and showed dominant effects as well as pleiotropism with additive and dominant effects. In addition, most of the HL (74.23% and 74.49%) had overdominant effects. These results suggest that overdominance is the main contributor to the effects of heterosis on grain yield and its components in maize, and different HL are associated with heterosis for different traits in different hybrids.