Mushroom consumption, biomarkers, and risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study of US women and men.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Mushrooms are good dietary sources of important vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds which may be important in the prevention of chronic diseases. However, studies have not prospectively evaluated the potential health effects of mushrooms with respect to major cardiometabolic diseases. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to examine the association of mushroom consumption with major cardiometabolic diseases and mediating biomarkers in 2 large prospective US cohorts. METHODS:We followed 67,139 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2012) and 43,541 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012) who were free of chronic diseases. Mushroom consumption was assessed at baseline through the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were collected in subpopulations of the 2 cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and type 2 diabetes (T2D), associated with mushroom consumption. RESULTS:We identified total 11,894 CVD (7,616 CHD; 4,278 stroke), and 10,206 T2D cases in >2 million person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable-adjusted analysis, participants who consumed ?5 servings of mushrooms per week had no significantly different risk of total CVD (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.14), CHD (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.16), stroke (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.25), or T2D (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.16) than participants who consumed mushrooms <1 time/mo. We consistently found no association between mushroom consumption and the aforementioned cardiometabolic diseases, in subgroups of sex, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions. Moreover, mushroom consumption was not associated with plasma biomarkers of lipids, insulin, and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS:We found no association of mushroom consumption with biomarkers and risks of CVD and T2D in US adults. More large prospective cohort studies are warranted to investigate this association in other racial/ethnic groups.
Project description:Legumes are key components of several plant-based diets and are recognized as having a wide range of potential health benefits. Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have summarized the evidence regarding different cardiometabolic outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and legume consumption. However, those studies did not differentiate between nonsoy and soy legumes, which have different nutritional profiles. The aim of the present updated review, therefore, was to summarize and meta-analyze the published evidence regarding legume consumption (making a distinction between nonsoy and soy legumes) and cardiometabolic diseases. In addition, we reviewed randomized clinical trials assessing the effect of legume consumption on CVD risk factors in order to understand their associations. The results revealed a prospective, significant inverse association between total legume consumption and CVD and coronary heart disease risk, whereas a nonsignificant association was observed with T2D and stroke. In the stratified analysis by legume subtypes, only nonsoy legumes were associated with lower risk of T2D. Unfortunately, owing to the paucity of studies analyzing legumes and CVD, it was not possible to stratify the analysis for these outcomes. Because of the high degree of heterogeneity observed for most of the outcomes and the few studies included in some analyses, further prospective studies are warranted to determine the potential role of legume consumption on CVD and T2D.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although lifestyle factors have been studied in relation to individual non-communicable diseases (NCDs), their association with development of a subsequent NCD, defined as multimorbidity, has been scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between five lifestyle factors and incident multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. METHODS:In this prospective cohort study, 291,778 participants (64% women) from seven European countries, mostly aged 43 to 58?years and free of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) at recruitment, were included. Incident multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases was defined as developing subsequently two diseases including first cancer at any site, CVD, and T2D in an individual. Multi-state modelling based on Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of developing cancer, CVD, or T2D, and subsequent transitions to multimorbidity, in relation to body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and their combination as a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score. Cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated to compute 10-year absolute risks for transitions from healthy to cancer at any site, CVD (both fatal and non-fatal), or T2D, and to subsequent multimorbidity after each of the three NCDs. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 11?years, 1910 men and 1334 women developed multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. A higher HLI, reflecting healthy lifestyles, was strongly inversely associated with multimorbidity, with hazard ratios per 3-unit increment of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.81), 0.84 (0.79 to 0.90), and 0.82 (0.77 to 0.88) after cancer, CVD, and T2D, respectively. After T2D, the 10-year absolute risks of multimorbidity were 40% and 25% for men and women, respectively, with unhealthy lifestyle, and 30% and 18% for men and women with healthy lifestyles. CONCLUSION:Pre-diagnostic healthy lifestyle behaviours were strongly inversely associated with the risk of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases, and with the prognosis of these diseases by reducing risk of multimorbidity.
Project description:Several case-control studies have reported that mushroom consumption may be associated with reduced risk of certain cancers. However, epidemiologic studies have not yet prospectively examined the association of mushroom consumption with total and various site-specific cancer risks. This prospective cohort study included 68,327 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1986-2012) and 44,664 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986-2012) who were free of cancer at baseline. Mushroom consumption was assessed at baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Covariates were assessed using biennial questionnaires during the follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total and 17 site-specific cancers associated with mushroom consumption. During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 22,469 incident cancer cases (15,103 in women and 7,366 in men). In the pooled multivariable analysis, participants who consumed five or more servings of mushrooms per week had no significantly different risk of total cancer (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.98-1.14) than participants who almost never consumed mushrooms. We consistently found no association between mushroom consumption and risk of 16 site-specific cancers. However, there was a marginal positive association between mushroom consumption and risk of lung cancer (P trend = 0.05). In conclusion, we found no association between mushroom consumption and total and site-specific cancers in U.S. women and men. More prospective cohort studies are needed to examine the associations for specific cancer types in diverse racial/ethnic groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical inactivity (PI) is associated with the development of non-communicable chronic diseases. The purposes of this study were to estimate the extent to which the 31% relative increase in PI among 35-64 years old Mexicans between 2006 and 2012 influenced diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of the World Health Organization recommended 10% and 15% relative decrease in PI on CVD and T2D incidence and mortality by 2025 and 2030, respectively. METHODS:Estimates were derived using the Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-Mexico, a computer simulation, Markov model. Model inputs included cross-national data on PI levels from 2006 and 2012 measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the published literature review on the independent relationship between PI and cardiometabolic risk. RESULTS:The models estimated that the 31% increase in PI resulted in an increase in the number of cases of T2D (27,100), coronary heart disease (10,300), stroke (2200), myocardial infarction (1500), stroke deaths (400) and coronary heart disease deaths (350). A hypothetical 10% lowering of PI by 2025 compared to status quo is projected to prevent 8400 cases of T2D, 4200 cases of CHD, 1000 cases of stroke, 700 cases of MI, and 200 deaths of CHD and stroke, respectively. A 15% reduction resulted in larger decreases. CONCLUSIONS:While the burden of T2D and CVD raised from 2006 to 2012 in association with increased PI, achieving the WHO targets by 2030 could help reverse these trends.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>While self-reported trans-fatty acid (TFA) consumption is linked to coronary heart disease (CHD), relationships between objective biomarkers of TFA subtypes (t-16:1n9, total t-18:1, and cis/trans-(c/t-), t/c- and t/t-18:2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or total mortality are not well established.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We evaluated 2742 adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study, aged 74±5 years and free of prevalent CVD, with plasma phospholipid TFA measures in 1992. Incident fatal and nonfatal CHD events, CVD and non-CVD mortality, and total mortality were centrally adjudicated through 2010. Risks were assessed using Cox proportional hazards. During 31 494 person-years, 1735 total deaths and 639 total CHD events occurred. In the multivariate model including mutual adjustment for the 5 TFA subtypes, circulating t/t-18:2 was associated with higher total mortality (extreme quintile hazard ratio (HR)=1.23, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.44, P-trend=0.01), CVD mortality (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.86, P-trend=0.02), and total CHD (HR=1.39, 95% CI=1.06 to 1.83, P-trend=0.01). t/c-18:2 was positively related to total mortality (HR=1.19, P-trend=0.05), total CHD (HR=1.67, P-trend=0.002), and nonfatal CHD (HR=2.06, P-trend=0.002) after mutual adjustment; these associations were insignificant without mutual adjustment. Neither t-16:1n9 nor t-18:1 was significantly associated with total mortality or CVD, nor was c/t-18:2 if we excluded early cases.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among circulating TFAs, t/t-18:2 was most adversely associated with total mortality, mainly due to the increased risk of CVD. t/c-18:2 was also positively associated with total mortality and CHD, but only after adjustment for other TFAs. These results highlight the need for further investigation of dietary sources, nondietary determinants, and health effects of specific TFA subtypes, especially t-18:2 isomers.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Extensive research has explored the role of miRNAs in the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD) using single-omics data, but much less by leveraging population-based omics data. Here we aimed to conduct a multi-omics analysis to identify miRNAs associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases. First, we used publicly available summary statistics from large-scale genome-wide association studies to find genetic variants in miRNA-related sequences associated with various cardiometabolic traits, including lipid and obesity-related traits, glycemic indices, blood pressure, and disease prevalence of T2D and CHD. Then, we used DNA methylation and miRNA expression data from participants of the Rotterdam Study to further investigate the link between associated miRNAs and cardiometabolic traits. After correcting for multiple testing, 180 genetic variants annotated to 67 independent miRNAs were associated with the studied traits. Alterations in DNA methylation levels of CpG sites annotated to 38 of these miRNAs were associated with the same trait(s). Moreover, we found that plasma expression levels of 8 of the 67 identified miRNAs were also associated with the same trait. Integrating the results of different omics data showed miR-10b-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-125b-5p, and miR-100-5p to be strongly linked to lipid traits. Collectively, our multi-omics analysis revealed multiple miRNAs that could be considered as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and progression of cardiometabolic diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Biomarkers may contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of various diseases. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD) share many clinical and lifestyle risk factors and several biomarkers are associated with both diseases. The current analysis aims to assess the relevance of biomarkers combined to pathway groups for the development of T2D and CHD in the same cohort. METHODS:Forty-seven serum biomarkers were measured in the MONICA/KORA case-cohort study using clinical chemistry assays and ultrasensitive molecular counting technology. The T2D (CHD) analyses included 689 (568) incident cases and 1850 (2004) non-cases from three population-based surveys. At baseline, the study participants were 35-74 years old. The median follow-up was 14 years. We computed Cox regression models for each biomarker, adjusted for age, sex, and survey. Additionally, we assigned the biomarkers to 19 etiological pathways based on information from literature. One age-, sex-, and survey-controlled average variable was built for each pathway. We used the R2PM coefficient of determination to assess the explained disease risk. RESULTS:The associations of many biomarkers, such as several cytokines or the iron marker soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), were similar in strength for T2D and CHD, but we also observed important differences. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) even demonstrated opposite effect directions. All pathway variables together explained 49% of the T2D risk and 21% of the CHD risk. The insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2, IGF/IGFBP system pathway) best explained the T2D risk (about 9% explained risk, independent of all other pathway variables). For CHD, the myocardial-injury- and lipid-related-pathways were most important and both explained about 4% of the CHD risk. CONCLUSIONS:The biomarker-derived pathway variables explained a higher proportion of the T2D risk compared to CHD. The ranking of the pathways differed between the two diseases, with the IGF/IGFBP-system-pathway being most strongly associated with T2D and the myocardial-injury- and lipid-related-pathways with CHD. Our results help to better understand the pathophysiology of the two diseases, with the ultimate goal of pointing out targets for lifestyle intervention and drug development to ideally prevent both T2D and CHD development.
Project description:Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Accumulating epidemiological and intervention evidence suggest that nut consumption is associated with reduced incidence of some cardiometabolic diseases. However, to date no review of meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies has evaluated the effects of nut consumption on cardiometabolic disease. Design/Results: Electronic searches for meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies were undertaken in PubMed®/MEDLINE®. Meta-analyses of prospective studies show that nut consumption appears to be associated with reduced all-cause mortality by 19?20% (n = 6), cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence (19%; n = 3) and mortality (25%; n = 3), coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence (20?34%; n = 2) and mortality (27?30%; n = 2) and stroke incidence (10?11%; n = 7) and mortality (18%; n = 2). No association between nut consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was observed in meta-analyses of prospective studies, whereas a decrease in fasting blood glucose ranging from 0.08 to 0.15 mmol/L was observed in 3 meta-analyses of intervention studies. In the interventions, nut consumption also had favorable effects on total cholesterol (0.021 to 0.28 mmol/L reduction from 8 meta-analyses of interventions) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.017 to 0.26 mmol/L reduction from 8 meta-analyses of interventions) and endothelial function (0.79 to 1.03% increase in flow-mediated dilation from 4 meta-analyses of interventions). Nut consumption did not significantly affect body weight. Nut consumption had no effect on inflammatory markers in intervention studies. The effect on blood pressure was inconsistent. A higher nut consumption was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension in prospective studies, while nut consumption did not improve blood pressure in intervention studies. CONCLUSIONS:Nut consumption appeared to be associated with lower all-cause mortality and CVD and CHD mortality. There was no association between nut consumption and the incidence of T2DM although fasting blood glucose is decreased in intervention studies. In intervention studies nuts lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).
Project description:Dietary guidelines for pure fruit juice consumption differ between countries, regarding the question whether pure fruit juice is an acceptable alternative for fruit. Currently, little is known about pure fruit juice consumption and the risk of CVD. In this prospective cohort study, we studied the association of pure fruit juice and fruit consumption with the incidence of fatal and non-fatal CVD, CHD and stroke and investigated the differences in association with pure fruit juice consumption between low and high fruit consumers. A validated FFQ was used to estimate dietary intake of 34 560 participants (26·0 % men and 74·0 % women) aged 20-69 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands study. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression after average follow-up of 14·6 years. Compared with no consumption, pure fruit juice consumption up to 7 glasses/week - but not consumption of ?8 glasses - was significantly associated with reduced risk of CVD and CHD, with HR from 0·83 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·95) to 0·88 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·97). Consumption of 1-4 and 4-8 glasses/week was significantly associated with lower risk of stroke with HR of 0·80 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·99) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·94), respectively. Associations did not differ considerably between low and high fruit consumers. The highest three quintiles of fruit consumption (?121 g/d) were significantly associated with lower incidence of CVD, with HR of 0·87 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·97) and 0·88 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·98). In conclusion, although we observed favourable associations of moderate pure fruit juice consumption with CVD, for now consumption of whole fruit should be preferred because the evidence of the health benefits of fruit is more conclusive.