BackgroundMushrooms are good dietary sources of important vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds which may be important in the prevention of chronic diseases. However, studies have not prospectively evaluated the potential health effects of mushrooms with respect to major cardiometabolic diseases.
ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to examine the association of mushroom consumption with major cardiometabolic diseases and mediating biomarkers in 2 large prospective US cohorts.
MethodsWe followed 67,139 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2012) and 43,541 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012) who were free of chronic diseases. Mushroom consumption was assessed at baseline through the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were collected in subpopulations of the 2 cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and type 2 diabetes (T2D), associated with mushroom consumption.
ResultsWe identified total 11,894 CVD (7,616 CHD; 4,278 stroke), and 10,206 T2D cases in >2 million person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable-adjusted analysis, participants who consumed ≥5 servings of mushrooms per week had no significantly different risk of total CVD (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.14), CHD (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.16), stroke (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.25), or T2D (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.16) than participants who consumed mushrooms <1 time/mo. We consistently found no association between mushroom consumption and the aforementioned cardiometabolic diseases, in subgroups of sex, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions. Moreover, mushroom consumption was not associated with plasma biomarkers of lipids, insulin, and inflammation.
ConclusionsWe found no association of mushroom consumption with biomarkers and risks of CVD and T2D in US adults. More large prospective cohort studies are warranted to investigate this association in other racial/ethnic groups.