Cln3-mutations underlying juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis cause significantly reduced levels of Palmitoyl-protein thioesterases-1 (Ppt1)-protein and Ppt1-enzyme activity in the lysosome.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in at least 13 different genes (called CLNs) underlie various forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), a group of the most common neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases. While inactivating mutations in the CLN1 gene, encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterases-1 (PPT1), cause infantile NCL (INCL), those in the CLN3 gene, encoding a protein of unknown function, underlie juvenile NCL (JNCL). PPT1 depalmitoylates S-palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid) required for their degradation by lysosomal hydrolases and PPT1-deficiency causes lysosomal accumulation of autofluorescent ceroid leading to INCL. Because intracellular accumulation of ceroid is a characteristic of all NCLs, a common pathogenic link for these diseases has been suggested. It has been reported that CLN3-mutations suppress the exit of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) from the trans Golgi network (TGN). Because CI-M6PR transports soluble proteins such as PPT1 from the TGN to the lysosome, we hypothesized that CLN3-mutations may cause lysosomal PPT1-insufficiency contributing to JNCL pathogenesis. Here, we report that the lysosomes in Cln3-mutant mice, which mimic JNCL, and those in cultured cells from JNCL patients, contain significantly reduced levels of Ppt1-protein and Ppt1-enzyme activity and progressively accumulate autofluorescent ceroid. Furthermore, in JNCL fibroblasts the V0a1 subunit of v-ATPase, which regulates lysosomal acidification, is mislocalized to the plasma membrane instead of its normal location on lysosomal membrane. This defect dysregulates lysosomal acidification, as we previously reported in Cln1 -/- mice, which mimic INCL. Our findings uncover a previously unrecognized role of CLN3 in lysosomal homeostasis and suggest that CLN3-mutations causing lysosomal Ppt1-insuffiiciency may at least in part contribute to JNCL pathogenesis.
Project description:Neurodegeneration is a devastating manifestation in the majority of >50 lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are the most common childhood neurodegenerative LSDs. Mutations in 13 different genes (called CLNs) underlie various types of NCLs, of which the infantile NCL (INCL) and congenital NCL (CNCL) are the most lethal. Although inactivating mutations in the CLN1 gene encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1) cause INCL, those in the CLN10 gene encoding cathepsin D (CD) underlie CNCL. PPT1 is a lysosomal thioesterase that cleaves the thioester linkage in S-acylated proteins required for their degradation by lysosomal hydrolases like CD. Thus, PPT1 deficiency causes lysosomal accumulation of these lipidated proteins (major constituents of ceroid) leading to INCL. We sought to determine whether there is a common pathogenic link between INCL and CNCL. Using biochemical, histological and confocal microscopic analyses of brain tissues and cells from Cln1(-/-) mice that mimic INCL, we uncovered that Cln10/CD is overexpressed. Although synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, the CD-precursor protein (pro-CD) is transported through endosome to the lysosome where it is proteolytically processed to enzymatically active-CD. We found that despite Cln10 overexpression, the maturation of pro-CD to enzymatically active-CD in lysosome was disrupted. This defect impaired lysosomal degradative function causing accumulation of undegraded cargo in lysosome leading to INCL. Notably, treatment of intact Cln1(-/-) mice as well as cultured brain cells derived from these animals with a thioesterase-mimetic small molecule, N-tert-butyl-hydroxylamine, ameliorated the CD-processing defect. Our findings are significant in that they define a pathway in which Cln1 mutations disrupt the maturation of a major degradative enzyme in lysosome contributing to neuropathology in INCL and suggest that lysosomal CD deficiency is a common pathogenic link between INCL and CNCL.
Project description:The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are lysosomal storage diseases characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and accumulation of autofluorescent storage granules. A 9-month-old Miniature Dachshund presented with NCL-like signs that included disorientation, ataxia, weakness, visual impairment, and behavioral changes. Neurons throughout the CNS contained autofluorescent lysosomal inclusions with granular osmiophilic deposit (GROD) ultrastructure characteristic of classical infantile NCL (INCL). Human INCL is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from mutations in PPT1, a gene that encodes the enzyme palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1; EC 3.1.22). Resequencing of PPT1 from the affected dog revealed that the dog was homozygous for a single nucleotide insertion in exon 8 (PPT1 c.736_737insC), upstream from the His289 active site. Brain tissue from this dog lacked PPT1 activity. The sire and dam of the propositus were heterozygous for the c.736_737insC mutation; whereas, 127 unrelated Dachshunds were homozygous for the wild-type allele. This is the first reported instance of canine NCL caused by a mutation in PPT1.
Project description:A new tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based approach for measurement of the enzymatic activity of palmitoyl protein thioesterase I (PPT1) in dried blood spots (DBS) is presented. Deficiency in this enzyme leads to infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, Infantile Batten disease, CLN1). The assay could distinguish between 80 healthy newborns and three previously diagnosed INCL patients. Unlike the fluorimetric PPT1 assay, the MS/MS assay does not require recombinant ?-glucosidase. Furthermore, the assay could be easily combined with a TPP1 enzyme assay (for CLN2 disease) and can be potentially multiplexed with a large panel of additional lysosomal enzyme assays by MS/MS for newborn screening and postscreening analysis.
Project description:Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a devastating childhood neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease (LSD) that has no effective treatment. It is caused by inactivating mutations in the palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1) gene. PPT1 deficiency impairs the cleavage of thioester linkage in palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid), preventing degradation by lysosomal hydrolases. Consequently, accumulation of lysosomal ceroid leads to INCL. Thioester linkage is cleaved by nucleophilic attack. Hydroxylamine, a potent nucleophilic cellular metabolite, may have therapeutic potential for INCL, but its toxicity precludes clinical application. We found that a hydroxylamine derivative, N-(tert-Butyl) hydroxylamine (NtBuHA), was non-toxic, cleaved thioester linkage in palmitoylated proteins and mediated lysosomal ceroid depletion in cultured cells from INCL patients. In Ppt1(-/-) mice, which mimic INCL, NtBuHA crossed the blood-brain barrier, depleted lysosomal ceroid, suppressed neuronal apoptosis, slowed neurological deterioration and extended lifespan. Our findings provide a proof of concept that thioesterase-mimetic and antioxidant small molecules such as NtBuHA are potential drug targets for thioesterase deficiency diseases such as INCL.
Project description:The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also known as Batten disease, are a group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders in children characterized by the progressive onset of seizures, blindness, motor and cognitive decline and premature death. Patients with mutations in CLN1 primarily manifest with infantile NCL (INCL or Haltia-Santavuori disease), which is second only to congenital NCL for its age of onset and devastating progression. CLN1 encodes a lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1). Nonsense mutations in CLN1 account for 52.3% of all disease causing alleles in infantile NCL, the most common of which worldwide is the p.R151X mutation. Previously, we have shown how nonsense-mediated decay is involved in the degradation of CLN1 mRNA transcripts containing the p.R151X mutation in human lymphoblast cell lines. We have also shown how the read-through drugs gentamicin and ataluren (PTC124) increase CLN1 (PPT1) enzyme activity. Here, we provide the initial characterization of the novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis that we have generated. This nonsense mutation model recapitulates the molecular, histological and behavioral phenotypes of the human disease. Cln1(R151X) mice showed a significant decrease in Cln1 mRNA level and PPT1 enzyme activity, accumulation of autofluorescent storage material, astrocytosis and microglial activation in the brain. Behavioral characterization of Cln1(R151X) mice at 3 and 5 months of age revealed significant motor deficits as measured by the vertical pole and rotarod tests. We also show how the read-through compound ataluren (PTC124) increases PPT1 enzyme activity and protein level in Cln1(R151X) mice in a proof-of-principle study.
Project description:The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are the most common cause of childhood dementia and are invariably fatal. Early localized glial activation occurs in these disorders, and accurately predicts where neuronal loss is most pronounced. Recent evidence suggests that glial dysfunction may contribute to neuron loss, and we have now explored this possibility in infantile NCL (INCL, CLN1 disease). We grew primary cultures of astrocytes, microglia, and neurons derived from Ppt1 deficient mice (Ppt1-/-) and assessed their properties compared to wildtype (WT) cultures, before co-culturing them in different combinations (astrocytes with microglia, astrocytes or microglia with neurons, all three cell types together). These studies revealed that both Ppt1-/- astrocytes and microglia exhibit a more activated phenotype under basal unstimulated conditions, as well as alterations to their protein expression profile following pharmacological stimulation. Ppt1- /- astrocytes also displayed abnormal calcium signalling and an elevated cytoplasmic Ca2+ level, and a profound defect in their survival. Ppt1-/- neurons displayed decreased neurite outgrowth, altered complexity, a reduction in cell body size, and impaired neuron survival with prolonged time in culture. In co-cultures, the presence of both astrocytes and microglia from Ppt1-/- mice further impaired the morphology of both wild type and Ppt1-/- neurons. This negative influence was more pronounced for Ppt1-/- microglia, which appeared to trigger increased Ppt1-/- neuronal death. In contrast, wild type glial cells, especially astrocytes, ameliorated some of the morphological defects observed in Ppt1-/- neurons. These findings suggest that both Ppt1-/- microglia and astrocytes are dysfunctional and may contribute to the neurodegeneration observed in CLN1 disease. However, the dysfunctional phenotypes of Ppt1-/- glia are different from those present in CLN3 disease, suggesting that the pathogenic role of glia may differ between NCLs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infantile and late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are lysosomal storage diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The infantile NCL (INCL) is caused by mutations in the PPT1 gene and late-infantile NCL (LINCL) is due to mutations in the TPP1 gene. Deficiency in PPT1 or TPP1 enzyme function results in lysosomal accumulation of pathological lipofuscin-like material in the patient cells. There is currently no small-molecular drug treatment for NCLs. RESULTS:We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from three patient dermal fibroblast lines and further differentiated them into neural stem cells (NSCs). Using these new disease models, we evaluated the effect of ?-tocopherol (DT) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) with the enzyme replacement therapy as the control. Treatment with the relevant recombinant enzyme or DT significantly ameliorated the lipid accumulation and lysosomal enlargement in the disease cells. A combination therapy of ?-tocopherol and HPBCD further improved the effect compared to that of either drug used as a single therapy. CONCLUSION:The results demonstrate that these patient iPSC derived NCL NSCs are valid cell- based disease models with characteristic disease phenotypes that can be used for study of disease pathophysiology and drug development.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) comprise at least eight genetically characterized neurodegenerative disorders of childhood. Despite of genetic heterogeneity, the high similarity of clinical symptoms and pathology of different NCL disorders suggest cooperation between different NCL proteins and common mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we have studied molecular interactions between NCL proteins, concentrating specifically on the interactions of CLN5, the protein underlying the Finnish variant late infantile form of NCL (vLINCLFin).<h4>Results</h4>We found that CLN5 interacts with several other NCL proteins namely, CLN1/PPT1, CLN2/TPP1, CLN3, CLN6 and CLN8. Furthermore, analysis of the intracellular targeting of CLN5 together with the interacting NCL proteins revealed that over-expression of PPT1 can facilitate the lysosomal transport of mutated CLN5FinMajor, normally residing in the ER and in the Golgi complex. The significance of the novel interaction between CLN5 and PPT1 was further supported by the finding that CLN5 was also able to bind the F1-ATPase, earlier shown to interact with PPT1.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We have described novel interactions between CLN5 and several NCL proteins, suggesting a modifying role for these proteins in the pathogenesis of individual NCL disorders. Among these novel interactions, binding of CLN5 to CLN1/PPT1 is suggested to be the most significant one, since over-expression of PPT1 was shown to influence on the intracellular trafficking of mutated CLN5, and they were shown to share a binding partner outside the NCL protein spectrum.
Project description:Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, Infantile Batten disease) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency in palmitoyl protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). The PPT1-deficient mouse (Cln1(-/-)) is a useful phenocopy of human INCL. Cln1(-/-) mice display retinal dysfunction, seizures, motor deficits, and die at ~8 months of age. However, little is known about the cognitive and behavioral functions of Cln1(-/-) mice during disease progression. In the present study, younger (~1-2 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice showed minor deficits in motor/sensorimotor functions while older (~5-6 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe impairments, including decreased locomotor activity, inferior cued water maze performance, decreased running wheel ability, and altered auditory cue conditioning. Unexpectedly, certain cognitive functions such as some learning and memory capabilities seemed intact in older Cln1(-/-) mice. Younger and older Cln1(-/-) mice presented with walking initiation defects, gait abnormalities, and slowed movements, which are analogous to some symptoms reported in INCL and parkinsonism. However, there was no evidence of alterations in dopaminergic markers in Cln1(-/-) mice. Results from this study demonstrate quantifiable changes in behavioral functions during progression of murine INCL and suggest that Parkinson-like motor/sensorimotor deficits in Cln1(-/-) mice are not mediated by dopamine deficiency.
Project description:The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of devastating monogenetic lysosomal disorders that affect children and young adults with no cure or effective treatment currently available. One of the more severe infantile forms of the disease (INCL or CLN1 disease) is due to mutations in the palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) gene and severely reduces the child's lifespan to approximately 9 years of age. In order to better translate the human condition than is possible in mice, we sought to produce a large animal model employing CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. Three PPT1 homozygote sheep were generated by insertion of a disease-causing PPT1 (R151X) human mutation into the orthologous sheep locus. This resulted in a morphological, anatomical and biochemical disease phenotype that closely resembles the human condition. The homozygous sheep were found to have significantly reduced PPT1 enzyme activity and accumulate autofluorescent storage material, as is observed in CLN1 patients. Clinical signs included pronounced behavioral deficits as well as motor deficits and complete loss of vision, with a reduced lifespan of 17?±?1 months at a humanely defined terminal endpoint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed a significant decrease in motor cortical volume as well as increased ventricular volume corresponding with observed brain atrophy and a profound reduction in brain mass of 30% at necropsy, similar to alterations observed in human patients. In summary, we have generated the first CRISPR/Cas9 gene edited NCL model. This novel sheep model of CLN1 disease develops biochemical, gross morphological and in vivo brain alterations confirming the efficacy of the targeted modification and potential relevance to the human condition.