1,8-Naphthalimide-Based Multifunctional Compounds as Cu2+ Probes, Lysosome Staining Agents, and Non-viral Vectors.
ABSTRACT: A series of multifunctional compounds (MFCs) 1a-1d based on 1,8-naphthalimide moiety were designed and synthesized. Due to the good fluorescence property and nucleic acid binding ability of 1,8-naphthalimide, these MFCs were applied in Cu2+ ion recognition, lysosome staining as well as RNA delivery. It was found that these MFCs exhibited highly selective fluorescence turn-off for Cu2+ in aqueous solution. The fluorescence emission of 1a-1d was quenched by a factor of 116-, 20-, 12-, and 14-fold in the presence of Cu2+ ions, respectively. Most importantly, 1a-Cu and 1b-Cu could be used as imaging reagents for detection of lysosome in live human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) using fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the RNA delivery ability of 1a-1d, cellular uptake experiments were performed in HeLa, HepG2, U2Os, and MC3T3-E1 cell lines. The results showed that all the materials could deliver Cy5-labled RNA into the targeted cells. Among them, compound 1d modified with long hydrophobic chain exhibited the best RNA delivery efficiency in the four tested cell lines, and the performance was far better than lipofectamine 2000 and 25 kDa PEI, indicating the potential application in non-viral vectors.
Project description:A series of multifunctional compounds (MFCs) 1a-1e based on 1,8-naphthalimide and aneN3 building blocks were designed and synthesized. They were used as not only fluorescent probes for recognition of Cu2+ ions but also as non-viral gene vectors for DNA and RNA delivery. Furthermore, their complexes with Cu2+ (1-Cu) could also selectively stain lysosome in HeLa cells. In order to achieve high performance multifunctional materials, structure-performance relationship of MFCs 1a-1e was studied. It was found that MFCs 1a-1e exhibited highly selective fluorescence turn-off for Cu2+, without interference by other metal ions in aqueous solution. The fluorescence emission of 1a-1e was quenched by a factor of 10-fold, 47-fold, 6-fold, 64-fold, and 15-fold respectively in the presence of Cu2+ ions. Due to high sensitivity, good water solubility, and low cytotoxicity, MFCs 1a-1d were successfully applied in the recognition of Cu2+ and selectively staining lysosome in HeLa cells. Most importantly, MFCs 1a and 1b had excellent HeLa cell selectivity in RNA delivery, and their performances were far better than lipofectamine 2000 and 25?kDa PEI.
Project description:A new fluorescent chemosensor for copper (II) and subsequent anion sensing was designed and fully characterized. The sensor consisted of a 1,8-naphthalimide core, bearing two terminal dipicolylamine (DPA) receptor units for binding metal cations, and an ethoxyethanol moiety for enhanced water solubility. The DPA units are connected to position 4 of the fluorophore via a triazine-ethylenediamine spacer. Fluorescence titration studies of the chemosensor revealed a high selectivity for Cu2+ over other divalent ions, the emissions were strongly quenched upon binding, and a stability constant of 5.52 log units was obtained. Given the distance from DPA chelating units and the fluorophore, quenching from the Cu2+ complexation suggests an electron transfer or an electronic energy transfer mechanism. Furthermore, the Cu2+-sensor complex proved to be capable of sensing anionic phosphate derivatives through the displacement of the Cu2+ cation, which translated into a full recovery of the luminescence from the naphthalimide. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy studies performed in HeLa cells showed there was a high intracellular uptake of the chemosensor. Incubation in Cu2+ spiked media revealed a strong fluorescent signal from mitochondria and cell membranes, which is consistent with a high concentration of ATP at these intracellular sites.
Project description:In this work, we report the synthesis of novel fluorescent molecules, based on 1,8-naphthalimide thio- and amino-derivatives, designed to display an OFF-ON and ON-OFF photoelectron transfer fluorescence switch upon interaction with a proton-donor drug. We have functionalized the new probes to allow easy formation of a covalent link to polymer matrices, for future applications as drug delivery sensors. We have investigated the fluorescent switch of the new probes using flufenamic acid (FA, pKa 3.65), a water insoluble, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, as a model drug and proton source. The rapid interaction of the new probes with FA resulted in fluorescence enhancement or decrease and a large Stokes shift, all of which allowed the detection of the drug in the nanomolar range. The new 1,8-naphthalimide fluorescent dyes reported in this work are interesting tools for the detection and quantification of acidic drugs and biomolecules.
Project description:Lysosome-specific fluorescent probes are exclusive to elucidate the functions of lysosomal thiols. Moreover, two-photon microscopy offers advantages of less phototoxicity, better three dimensional spatial localization, deeper penetration depth and lower self-absorption. However, such fluorescent probes for thiols are still rare. In this work, an efficient two-photon fluorophore 1,8-naphthalimide-based probe conjugating a 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride and morpholine was designed and synthesized, which exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity towards lysosomal thiols by turn-on fluorescence method quantitatively and was successfully applied to the imaging of thiols in live cells and tissues by two-photon microscopy.
Project description:A new highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for Cu2+, N-n-butyl-4-(1'-cyclooctene-1',3',6'-triazole)-1,8-naphthalimide (L), was synthesized and evaluated. The structure of compound L was characterized via IR, ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS. The fluorescent probe was quenched by Cu2+ with a 1:1 binding ratio and behaved as a "turn-off" sensor. An efficient and sensitive spectrofluorometric method was developed for detecting and estimating trace levels of Cu2+ in EtOH/H?O. The ligand exhibited excitation and emission maxima at 447 and 518 nm, respectively. The equilibrium binding constant of the ligand with Cu2+ was 1.57 × 10? M-1, as calculated using the Stern.
Project description:An ideal fluorescent dye for staining cell organelles should have multiple properties including specificity, stability, biocompatibility, and a large Stokes shift. Tunable photophysical properties enable 1,8-naphthalimide to serve as an excellent fluorophore in biomedical applications. Many naphthalimide derivatives have been developed into drugs, sensors, and other dyes. In this study, a series of 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives targeting live cell mitochondria were synthesized. Among these probes, Mt-4 was characterized as the best one, with highly specific mitochondrial localization, low cytotoxicity, and a large Stokes shift. More importantly, Mt-4 stood out as a potential mitochondrial dye for living-cell experiments involving induced mitochondrial stress arising from the treatments because Mt-4 shows enhanced fluorescence in mitochondrial stress situations.
Project description:Fluorescent molecular probes for metal ions have a raft of potential applications in chemistry and biomedicine. We report the synthesis and photophysical characterisation of 1,8-disubstituted-cyclam/naphthalimide conjugates and their zinc complexes. An efficient synthesis of 1,8-bis-(2-azidoethyl)cyclam has been developed and used to prepare 1,8-disubstituted triazolyl-cyclam systems, in which the pendant group is connected to triazole C4. UV/Vis and fluorescence emission spectra, zinc binding experiments, fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime measurements and pH titrations of the resultant bis-naphthalimide ligand elucidate a complex pattern of photophysical behaviour. Important differences arise from the inclusion of two fluorophores in the one probe and from the variation of triazole substitution pattern (dye at C4 vs. N1). Introducing a second fluorophore greatly extends fluorescence lifetimes, whereas the altered substitution pattern at the cyclam amines exerts a major influence on fluorescence output and metal binding. Crystal structures of two key zinc complexes evidence variations in triazole coordination that mirror the solution-phase behaviour of these systems.
Project description:A series of novel mono- and di-substituted N-n-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized simultaneously via a three-step reaction. The single crystal structure of N-n-butyl-4-[N',N'-bis(2',4'-dichlorobenzoyl)ethylamino]-1,8-naphthalimide (3f) was determined. The UV-vis and fluorescence properties of compound 3f were investigated. The 3f showed highly selective and sensitive fluorescence changes response towards Pb2+. A titration of monomer with Pb2+ ion was performed. When Pb2+ ion concentration increased from 0 to 10 eq., the fluorescent intensity of 3f decreased from 199.97 to 48.21. The pH effect on 3f showed that it is stable in a wide range of pH. The results indicated that 3f might be a probe molecule for Pb2+.
Project description:In the title naphthalimide derivative, C(23)H(26)N(2)O(6), the 1,8-naphthalimide system is essentially planar [maximum deviation = 0.0456?(16)?Å]. A characteristic pattern of alternating long and short C-C bond lengths is observed in the 1,8-naphthalimide unit. The mean planes through the methyl carbamate and acetic acid groups form dihedral angles of 42.30?(9) and 61.59?(9)°, respectively, with the 1,8-naphthalimide plane. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular O-H?O and C-H?O hydrogen bonds link neighbouring mol-ecules, forming R(2) (2)(9) hydrogen-bond ring motifs. These rings are further inter-connected by inter-molecular N-H?O and C-H?O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network.
Project description:Ligands incorporating a tetraazamacrocycle receptor, a 'click'-derived triazole and a 1,8-naphthalimide fluorophore have proven utility as probes for metal ions. Three new cyclam-based molecular probes are reported, in which a piperidinyl group has been introduced at the 4-position of the naphthalimide fluorophore. These compounds have been synthesized using the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition and their photophysical properties studied in detail. The alkylamino group induces the expected red-shift in absorption and emission spectra relative to the simple naphthalimide derivatives and gives rise to extended fluorescence lifetimes in aqueous buffer. The photophysical properties of these systems are shown to be highly solvent-dependent. Screening the fluorescence responses of the new conjugates to a wide variety of metal ions reveals significant and selective fluorescence quenching in the presence of copper(II), yet no fluorescence enhancement with zinc(II) as observed previously for the simple naphthalimide derivatives. Reasons for this different behaviour are proposed. Cytotoxicity testing shows that these new cyclam-triazole-dye conjugates display little or no toxicity against either DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells or MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells, suggesting a potential role for these and related systems in biological sensing applications.