Molecular and Clinical Opposite Findings in 11p15.5 Associated Imprinting Disorders: Characterization of Basic Mechanisms to Improve Clinical Management.
ABSTRACT: Silver-Russell and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes (SRS, BWS) are rare congenital human disorders characterized by opposite growth disturbances. With the increasing knowledge on the molecular basis of SRS and BWS, it has become obvious that the disorders mirror opposite alterations at the same genomic loci in 11p15.5. In fact, these changes directly or indirectly affect the expression of IGF2 and CDKN1C and their associated pathways, and thereby, cause growth disturbances as key features of both diseases. The increase of knowledge has become possible with the development and implementation of new and comprehensive assays. Whereas, in the beginning molecular testing was restricted to single chromosomal loci, many tests now address numerous loci in the same run, and the diagnostic implementation of (epi)genome wide assays is only a question of time. These high-throughput approaches will be complemented by the analysis of other omic datasets (e.g., transcriptome, metabolome, proteome), and it can be expected that the integration of these data will massively improve the understanding of the pathobiology of imprinting disorders and their diagnostics. Especially long-read sequencing methods, e.g., nanopore sequencing, allowing direct detection of native DNA modification, will strongly contribute to a better understanding of genomic imprinting in the near future. Thereby, new genomic loci and types of pathogenic variants will be identified, resulting in more precise discrimination into different molecular subgroups. These subgroups serve as the basis for (epi)genotype-phenotype correlations, allowing a more directed prognosis, counseling, and therapy. By deciphering the pathophysiological consequences of SRS and BWS and their molecular disturbances, future therapies will be available targeting the basic cause of the disease and respective pathomechanisms and will complement conventional therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Genomic imprinting, a phenomenon in which the two parental alleles are regulated differently, is observed in mammals, marsupials and a few other species, including seed-bearing plants. Dysregulation of genomic imprinting can cause developmental disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). In this Review, we discuss (1) how various (epi)genetic lesions lead to the dysregulation of clinically relevant imprinted loci, and (2) how such perturbations may contribute to the developmental defects in BWS and SRS. Given that the regulatory mechanisms of most imprinted clusters are well conserved between mice and humans, numerous mouse models of BWS and SRS have been generated. These mouse models are key to understanding how mutations at imprinted loci result in pathological phenotypes in humans, although there are some limitations. This Review focuses on how the biological findings obtained from innovative mouse models explain the clinical features of BWS and SRS.
Project description:The identification of multilocus imprinting disturbances (MLID) appears fundamental to uncover molecular pathways underlying imprinting disorders (IDs) and to complete clinical diagnosis of patients. However, MLID genetic associated mechanisms remain largely unknown. To characterize MLID in Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS) and Silver-Russell (SRS) syndromes, we profiled by MassARRAY the methylation of 12 imprinted differentially methylated regions (iDMRs) in 21 BWS and 7 SRS patients with chromosome 11p15.5 epimutations. MLID was identified in 50% of BWS and 29% of SRS patients as a maternal hypomethylation syndrome. By next-generation sequencing, we searched for putative MLID-causative mutations in genes involved in methylation establishment/maintenance and found two novel missense mutations possibly causative of MLID: one in NLRP2, affecting ADP binding and protein activity, and one in ZFP42, likely leading to loss of DNA binding specificity. Both variants were paternally inherited. In silico protein modelling allowed to define the functional effect of these mutations. We found that MLID is very frequent in BWS/SRS. In addition, since MLID-BWS patients in our cohort show a peculiar pattern of BWS-associated clinical signs, MLID test could be important for a comprehensive clinical assessment. Finally, we highlighted the possible involvement of ZFP42 variants in MLID development and confirmed NLRP2 as causative locus in BWS-MLID.
Project description:Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are 2 opposite growth-affecting disorders. The common molecular cause for both syndromes is an abnormal regulation of genes in chromosomal region 11p15, where 2 imprinting control regions (ICR) control fetal and postnatal growth. Also, many submicroscopic chromosomal disturbances like duplications in 11p15 have been described among SRS and BWS patients. Duplications involving both ICRs cause SRS or BWS, depending on which parent the aberration is inherited from. We describe to our knowledge the smallest familial pure 1.3-Mb duplication in chromosomal region 11p15.5p15.4 that involves both ICRs and is present in 3 generations causing an SRS or BWS phenotype.
Project description:Heterogeneous molecular defects affecting the 11p15.5 imprinted gene cluster are associated with the opposite growth disorders Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) and Silver Russell syndrome (SRS). Maternal deletions of the centromeric domain usually result in BWS, but paternal deletions have been so far associated with normal phenotype. Here we describe a case of recurrent severe Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) with paternal transmission of an 11p15.5 60 kb deletion.Chromosome microarray (CMA), PCR and DNA sequencing analyses showed that two fetuses conceived by a normal couple inherited from their father a 60 kb deletion encompassing the Imprinting Control Region of the 11p15.5 centromeric domain. The two fetuses died in utero with severe growth restriction. PCR amplification of parental DNAs indicated that the father carried the mutation in the mosaic state. DNA methylation and gene expression analyses showed that the deletion led to an imprinting alteration restricted to the centromeric domain and resulting in silencing of KCNQ1OT1 and activation of CDKN1C and PHLDA2.Our data demonstrate that the phenotype associated with 11p15.5 deletions is strongly influenced by the size of the region involved and indicate imprinting defects leading to CDKN1C and PHLDA2 activation as cause of severe IUGR.
Project description:Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are 2 clinically opposite growth-affecting disorders belonging to the group of congenital imprinting disorders. The expression of both syndromes usually depends on the parental origin of the chromosome in which the imprinted genes reside. SRS is characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation with various additional clinical features such as hemihypertrophy, relative macrocephaly, fifth finger clinodactyly, and triangular facies. BWS is an overgrowth syndrome with many additional clinical features such as macroglossia, organomegaly, and an increased risk of childhood tumors. Both SRS and BWS are clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and for clinical diagnosis, different diagnostic scoring systems have been developed. Six diagnostic scoring systems for SRS and 4 for BWS have been previously published. However, neither syndrome has common consensus diagnostic criteria yet. Most cases of SRS and BWS are associated with opposite epigenetic or genetic abnormalities in the 11p15 chromosomal region leading to opposite imbalances in the expression of imprinted genes. SRS is also caused by maternal uniparental disomy 7, which is usually identified in 5-10% of the cases, and is therefore the first imprinting disorder that affects 2 different chromosomes. In this review, we describe in detail the clinical diagnostic criteria and scoring systems as well as molecular causes in both SRS and BWS.
Project description:Molecular genetic testing for the 11p15-associated imprinting disorders Silver-Russell and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (SRS, BWS) is challenging because of the molecular heterogeneity and complexity of the affected imprinted regions. With the growing knowledge on the molecular basis of these disorders and the demand for molecular testing, it turned out that there is an urgent need for a standardized molecular diagnostic testing and reporting strategy. Based on the results from the first external pilot quality assessment schemes organized by the European Molecular Quality Network (EMQN) in 2014 and in context with activities of the European Network of Imprinting Disorders (EUCID.net) towards a consensus in diagnostics and management of SRS and BWS, best practice guidelines have now been developed. Members of institutions working in the field of SRS and BWS diagnostics were invited to comment, and in the light of their feedback amendments were made. The final document was ratified in the course of an EMQN best practice guideline meeting and is in accordance with the general SRS and BWS consensus guidelines, which are in preparation. These guidelines are based on the knowledge acquired from peer-reviewed and published data, as well as observations of the authors in their practice. However, these guidelines can only provide a snapshot of current knowledge at the time of manuscript submission and readers are advised to keep up with the literature.
Project description:Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) are imprinting-related disorders associated with genetic/epigenetic alterations of the 11p15.5 region, which harbours two clusters of imprinted genes (IGs). 11p15.5 IGs are regulated by the methylation status of imprinting control regions ICR1 and ICR2. 3D chromatin structure is thought to play a pivotal role in gene expression control; however, chromatin architecture models are still poorly defined in most cases, particularly for IGs. Our study aimed at elucidating 11p15.5 3D structure, via 3C and 3D FISH analyses of cell lines derived from healthy, BWS or SRS children. We found that, in healthy cells, IGF2/H19 and CDKN1C/KCNQ1OT1 domains fold in complex chromatin conformations, that facilitate the control of IGs mediated by distant enhancers. In patient-derived cell lines, we observed a profound impairment of such a chromatin architecture. Specifically, we identified a cross-talk between IGF2/H19 and CDKN1C/KCNQ1OT1 domains, consisting in in cis, monoallelic interactions, that are present in healthy cells but lost in patient cell lines: an inter-domain association that sees ICR2 move close to IGF2 on one allele, and to H19 on the other. Moreover, an intra-domain association within the CDKN1C/KCNQ1OT1 locus seems to be crucial for maintaining the 3D organization of the region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Deletions of the imprinting centre 1 (IC1) in 11p15.5 are rare and their clinical significance is not only influenced by their parental origin but also by their exact genomic localization. In case the maternal IC1 allele is affected, the deletion is associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and a gain of methylation (GOM) of the IC1. The consequences of deletions of the paternal IC1 allele depend on the localization and probably the binding sites of methylation-specific DNA-binding factors affected by the change. It has been suggested that distal deletions of the paternal allele are associated with a normal IC1 methylation and phenotype, whereas proximal alterations cause a loss of methylation (LOM) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) features. RESULTS:In a patient referred for molecular BWS testing and his family, a deletion within the IC1 was identified by MLPA. It was associated with a GOM, corresponding to the transmission of the alteration via the maternal germline. Accordingly, the deletion was also detectable in the maternal grandmother, but here the paternal chromosome 11p15.5 was affected and a IC1 LOM was observed. By nanopore sequencing, the localization of the deletion could be precisely determined. CONCLUSIONS:We report for the first time both GOM and LOM of the IC1 in the same family, caused by transmission of a 2.2-kb deletion in 11p15.5. Nanopore sequencing allowed the precise characterization of the change by long-read sequencing and thereby provides further insights in the regulation of imprinting in the IC1.
Project description:Imprinted genes with a parent-of-origin specific expression are involved in various aspects of growth that are rooted in the prenatal period. Therefore it is predictable that many of the so far known congenital imprinting disorders (IDs) are clinically characterised by growth disturbances. A noteable imprinting disorder is Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), a congenital disease characterised by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, relative macrocephaly, a typical triangular face, asymmetry and further less characteristic features. However, the clinical spectrum is broad and the clinical diagnosis often subjective. Genetic and epigenetic disturbances can meanwhile be detected in approximately 50% of patients with typical SRS features. Nearly one tenth of patients carry a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (UPD(7)mat), more than 38% show a hypomethylation in the imprinting control region 1 in 11p15. More than 1% of patients show (sub)microscopic chromosomal aberrations. Interestingly, in approximately 7% of 11p15 hypomethylation carriers, demethylation of other imprinted loci can be detected. Clinically, these patients do not differ from those with isolated 11p15 hypomethylation whereas the UPD(7)mat patients generally show a milder phenotype. However, an unambiguous (epi)genotype-phenotype correlation can not be delineated.We therefore suggest a diagnostic algorithm focused on the 11p15 hypomethylation, UPD(7)mat and cryptic chromosomal imbalances for patients with typical SRS phenotype, but also with milder clinical signs only reminiscent for the disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human-assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are a widely accepted treatment for infertile couples. At the same time, many studies have suggested the correlation between ART and increased incidences of normally rare imprinting disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Angelman syndrome (AS), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Major methylation dynamics take place during cell development and the preimplantation stages of embryonic development. ART may prevent the proper erasure, establishment, and maintenance of DNA methylation. However, the causes and ART risk factors for these disorders are not well understood. RESULTS:A nationwide epidemiological study in Japan in 2015 in which 2777 pediatrics departments were contacted and a total of 931 patients with imprinting disorders including 117 BWS, 227 AS, 520 PWS, and 67 SRS patients, were recruited. We found 4.46- and 8.91-fold increased frequencies of BWS and SRS associated with ART, respectively. Most of these patients were conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and showed aberrant imprinted DNA methylation. We also found that ART-conceived SRS (ART-SRS) patients had incomplete and more widespread DNA methylation variations than spontaneously conceived SRS patients, especially in sperm-specific methylated regions using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to compare DNA methylomes. In addition, we found that the ART patients with one of three imprinting disorders, PWS, AS, and SRS, displayed additional minor phenotypes and lack of the phenotypes. The frequency of ART-conceived Prader-Willi syndrome (ART-PWS) was 3.44-fold higher than anticipated. When maternal age was 37 years or less, the rate of DNA methylation errors in ART-PWS patients was significantly increased compared with spontaneously conceived PWS patients. CONCLUSIONS:We reconfirmed the association between ART and imprinting disorders. In addition, we found unique methylation patterns in ART-SRS patients, therefore, concluded that the imprinting disorders related to ART might tend to take place just after fertilization at a time when the epigenome is most vulnerable and might be affected by the techniques of manipulation used for IVF or ICSI and the culture medium of the fertilized egg.