The Ia-2? intronic miRNA, miR-153, is a negative regulator of insulin and dopamine secretion through its effect on the Cacna1c gene in mice.
ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:miR-153 is an intronic miRNA embedded in the genes that encode IA-2 (also known as PTPRN) and IA-2? (also known as PTPRN2). Islet antigen (IA)-2 and IA-2? are major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes and are important transmembrane proteins in dense core and synaptic vesicles. miR-153 and its host genes are co-regulated in pancreas and brain. The present experiments were initiated to decipher the regulatory network between miR-153 and its host gene Ia-2? (also known as Ptprn2). METHODS:Insulin secretion was determined by ELISA. Identification of miRNA targets was assessed using luciferase assays and by quantitative real-time PCR and western blots in vitro and in vivo. Target protector was also employed to evaluate miRNA target function. RESULTS:Functional studies revealed that miR-153 mimic suppresses both glucose- and potassium-induced insulin secretion (GSIS and PSIS, respectively), whereas miR-153 inhibitor enhances both GSIS and PSIS. A similar effect on dopamine secretion also was observed. Using miRNA target prediction software, we found that miR-153 is predicted to target the 3'UTR region of the calcium channel gene, Cacna1c. Further studies confirmed that Cacna1c mRNA and protein are downregulated by miR-153 mimics and upregulated by miR-153 inhibitors in insulin-secreting freshly isolated mouse islets, in the insulin-secreting mouse cell line MIN6 and in the dopamine-secreting cell line PC12. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:miR-153 is a negative regulator of both insulin and dopamine secretion through its effect on Cacna1c expression, which suggests that IA-2? and miR-153 have opposite functional effects on the secretory pathway.
Project description:We analysed the genomic organisation of miR-153, a microRNA embedded in genes that encode two of the major type 1 diabetes autoantigens, islet-associated protein (IA)-2 and IA-2?. We also identified miR-153 target genes that correlated with IA-2? localisation and function.A bioinformatics approach was used to identify miR-153's genomic organisation. To analyse the co-regulation of miR-153 and IA-2?, quantitative PCR analysis of miR-153 and Ia-2? (also known as Ptprn2) was performed after a glucose stimulation assay in MIN6B cells and isolated murine pancreatic islets, and also in wild-type Ia-2 (also known as Ptprn), Ia-2? single knockout and Ia-2/Ia-2? double knockout mouse brain and pancreatic islets. Bioinformatics identification of miR-153 target genes and validation via luciferase reporter assays, western blotting and quantitative PCR were also carried out.Two copies of miR-153, miR-153-1 and miR-153-2, are localised in intron 19 of Ia-2 and Ia-2?, respectively. In rodents, only miR-153-2 is conserved. We demonstrated that expression of miR-153-2 and Ia-2? in rodents is partially co-regulated as demonstrated by a strong reduction of miR-153 expression levels in Ia-2? knockout and Ia-2/Ia-2? double knockout mice. miR-153 levels were unaffected in Ia-2 knockout mice. In addition, glucose stimulation, which increases Ia-2 and Ia-2? expression, also significantly increased expression of miR-153. Several predicted targets of miR-153 were reduced after glucose stimulation in vitro, correlating with the increase in miR-153 levels.This study suggests the involvement of miR-153, IA-2? and miR-153 target genes in a regulatory network, which is potentially relevant to insulin and neurotransmitter release.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Islet antigen 2 (IA-2) and IA-2? are dense core vesicle (DCV) transmembrane proteins and major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. The present experiments were initiated to test the hypothesis that the knockout of the genes encoding these proteins impairs the secretion of insulin by reducing the number of DCV. METHODS:Insulin secretion, content and DCV number were evaluated in islets from single knockout (Ia-2 [also known as Ptprn] KO, Ia-2? [also known as Ptprn2] KO) and double knockout (DKO) mice by a variety of techniques including electron and two-photon microscopy, membrane capacitance, Ca(2+) currents, DCV half-life, lysosome number and size and autophagy. RESULTS:Islets from single and DKO mice all showed a significant decrease in insulin content, insulin secretion and the number and half-life of DCV (p < 0.05 to 0.001). Exocytosis as evaluated by two-photon microscopy, membrane capacitance and Ca(2+) currents supports these findings. Electron microscopy of islets from KO mice revealed a marked increase (p < 0.05 to 0.001) in the number and size of lysosomes and enzymatic studies showed an increase in cathepsin D activity (p < 0.01). LC3 protein, an indicator of autophagy, also was increased in islets of KO compared with wild-type mice (p < 0.05 to 0.01) suggesting that autophagy might be involved in the deletion of DCV. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:We conclude that the decrease in insulin content and secretion, resulting from the deletion of Ia-2 and/or Ia-2?, is due to a decrease in the number of DCV.
Project description:Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is a life-threatening disease with up to 30% mortality. Therefore, prevention of AP aggravation and promotion of pancreatic regeneration are critical during the course and treatment of AP. Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is an established aggravating factor for AP that hinders pancreatic regeneration; however, its exact mechanism remains unclear. Using miRNA sequencing and further verification, we found that miRNA-153 (miR-153) was upregulated in the pancreas of HTG animal models and in the plasma of patients with HTG-AP. Increased miR-153 aggravated HTG-AP and delayed pancreatic repair via targeting TRAF3. Furthermore, miR-153 was transcriptionally suppressed by sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP1c), which was suppressed by lipoprotein lipase malfunction-induced HTG. Overexpressing SREBP1c suppressed miR-153 expression, alleviated the severity of AP, and facilitated tissue regeneration in vivo. Finally, therapeutic administration of insulin also protected against HTG-AP via upregulating SREBP1c. Collectively, our results not only provide evidence that HTG leads to the development of more severe AP and hinders pancreatic regeneration via inducing persistent dysregulation of SREBP1c/miR-153 signaling, but also demonstrate that SREBP1c activators, including insulin, might be used to treat HTG-AP in patients.
Project description:The secretion of the hormone insulin from beta cells is modulated by the expression of the dense core vesicle transmembrane protein IA-2. Since IA-2 is found in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, the present experiments were initiated to determine whether the expression of IA-2 also modulates the secretion of neurotransmitters. Using the dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, we found that the overexpressions of IA-2 increased the cellular content and secretion of dopamine, whereas the knockdown of IA-2 by siRNA decreased the cellular content and secretion of dopamine. Neither the overexpression nor knockdown of IA-2 influenced the uptake of [H(3)]dopamine by PC12 cells, but did influence the amount of [H(3)]dopamine secreted. Overexpression of IA-2 also increased the level of the dense core vesicle-associated proteins Rab3A, IA-2beta and secretogranin II, whereas the knockdown of IA-2 decreased the level of these proteins. We conclude that the expression of IA-2 profoundly influences the function of dense core vesicles and has a broad modulating effect on the cellular content and secretion of both hormones and neurotransmitters.
Project description:MiR-375 has been implicated in insulin secretion and exocytosis through incompletely understood mechanisms. Here we aimed to investigate the role of miR-375 in the regulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channel properties and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in insulin-secreting cells.MiR-375 was overexpressed using double-stranded mature miR-375 in INS-1 832/13 cells (OE375) or downregulated using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based anti-miR against miR-375 (LNA375). Insulin secretion was determined using RIA. Exocytosis and ion channel properties were measured using the patch-clamp technique in INS-1 832/13 cells and beta-cells from miR-375KO mice. Gene expression was analysed by RT-qPCR, and protein levels were determined by Western blot.Voltage-gated Na(+) channels were found to be regulated by miR-375. In INS-1 832/13 cells, steady-state inactivation of the voltage-gated Na(+) channels was shifted by approx. 6 mV to a more negative membrane potential upon down-regulation of miR-375. In the miR-375 KO mouse, voltage-gated Na(+) channel inactivation was instead shifted by approx. 14 mV to a more positive membrane potential. Potential targets differed among species and expression of suggested targets Scn3a and Scn3b in INS-1 832/13 cells was only slightly moderated by miR-375. Modulation of miR-375 levels in INS-1-832/13 cells did not significantly affect insulin release. However, Ca(2+) dependent exocytosis was significantly reduced in OE375 cells.We conclude that voltage-gated Na(+) channels are regulated by miR-375 in insulin-secreting cells, and validate that the exocytotic machinery is controlled by miR-375 also in INS-1 832/13 cells. Altogether we suggest miR-375 to be involved in a complex multifaceted network controlling insulin secretion and its different components.
Project description:Increasing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs, participate in almost every step of cellular processes. MiRNAs are aberrantly expressed in human cancers and contribute to cancer development and progression. Study of miRNAs may provide a new clue for understanding the mechanism of carcinogenesis and a new tool for cancer treatment. In the present study, miR-153 was downregulated in human osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Introduction of miR-153 mimics into the MG-63 cells inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Our results further revealed that transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-?2) was negatively regulated by miR-153. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-153 decreased p-SMAD2, p-SMAD3, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expressions, which were the downstream signaling molecules of TGF-?. Furthermore, miRNA-153 suppressed TGF-?-mediated MG-63 proliferation and migration. Therefore, our results suggest that miR-153 may act as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma through targeting TGF-?2.
Project description:Insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells plays an essential role in blood glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes. Many genes are involved in the secretion of insulin and most of these genes can be targeted by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the role of miRNAs in insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes has not been exhaustively studied. The expression miR-184, a miRNA enriched in pancreatic islets, negatively correlates with insulin secretion, suggesting that it is a good candidate for miRNA-mediated regulation of insulin secretion. Here we report that miR-184 inhibits insulin secretion in the MIN6 pancreatic ?-cell line through the repression of its target Slc25a22, a mitochondrial glutamate carrier. Our study provides new insight into the regulation of insulin secretion by glutamate transport in mitochondria.
Project description:MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which negatively regulate the expression of target genes. They have emerged as important modulators in beta cell compensation upon increased metabolic demand, failure of which leads to reduced insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the function of miRNAs in beta cells, insulin-secreting cell lines, such as the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 and the human EndoC-?H1, are widely used. Previous studies in the cancer field have suggested that miRNA expression is influenced by confluency of adherent cells. We therefore aimed to investigate whether one of the most enriched miRNAs in the pancreatic endocrine cells, miR-375, and two of its validated targets in mouse, Cav1 and Aifm1, were differentially-expressed in cell cultures with different confluences. Additionally, we measured the expression of other miRNAs, such as miR-152, miR-130a, miR-132, miR-212 and miR-200a, with known roles in beta cell function. We did not see any significant expression changes of miR-375 nor any of the two targets, in both the rat and human beta cell lines at different confluences. Interestingly, among the other miRNAs measured, the expression of miR-132 and miR-212 positively correlated with confluence, but only in the INS-1 832/13 cells. Our results show that the expression of miR-375 and other miRNAs with known roles in beta cell function is independent of, or at least minimally influenced by the density of proliferating adherent cells, especially within the confluence range optimal for functional assays to elucidate miRNA-dependent regulatory mechanisms in the beta cell.
Project description:The 3' UTR of insulin has been identified as a critical region that confers mRNA stability, which is crucial for promoting transcription in response to glucose challenge. miRNAs are endogenously encoded non-coding RNAs that function as regulators of gene expression. This regulatory function is generally mediated by complementary binding to the 3'UTR of its mRNA targets that affects subsequent translational process. Genes involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, particularly in insulin production, have been found as targets of several miRNAs. Yet, no direct miRNA-based regulators of insulin biosynthesis have been identified. In this study, identification of possible miRNA-based regulators of insulin production is explored. Members of a miRNA family, miR-25 and miR-92a, are found as direct modulators of insulin expression. Overexpression of miR-25 or miR-92a reduced insulin expression while inhibition of miR-25 and miR-92a expression using corresponding antagomiRs promoted insulin expression and ultimately enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. Furthermore, suppression of insulin secretion by pre miR-9 could be attenuated by treatment with anti-miR-25 or miR-92a. Interestingly, we found the binding site of miR-25 and miR-92a to overlap with that of PTBP1, an important RNA binding molecule that stabilizes insulin mRNA for translation. Despite the increase in PTBP1 protein in the pancreas of diabetic rats, we observed insulin expression to be reduced alongside upregulation of miR-25 and miR-92a, suggesting an intricate regulation of insulin (bio)synthesis at its mRNA level.
Project description:MicroRNAs have emerged as important players of gene regulation with significant impact in diverse disease processes. In type-2 diabetes, in which impaired insulin secretion is a major factor in disease progression, dysregulated microRNA expression in the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell has been widely-implicated. Here, we show that miR-130a-3p, miR-130b-3p, and miR-152-3p levels are elevated in the pancreatic islets of hyperglycaemic donors, corroborating previous findings about their upregulation in the islets of type-2 diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki rats. We demonstrated negative regulatory effects of the three microRNAs on pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha (PDHA1) and on glucokinase (GCK) proteins, which are both involved in ATP production. Consequently, we found both proteins to be downregulated in the Goto-Kakizaki rat islets, while GCK mRNA expression showed reduced trend in the islets of type-2 diabetes donors. Overexpression of any of the three microRNAs in the insulin-secreting INS-1 832/13 cell line resulted in altered dynamics of intracellular ATP/ADP ratio ultimately perturbing fundamental ATP-requiring beta cell processes such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin biosynthesis and processing. The data further strengthen the wide-ranging influence of microRNAs in pancreatic beta cell function, and hence their potential as therapeutic targets in type-2 diabetes.