Cluster Randomized Trial for Hypertension Control: Effect on Lifestyles and Body Weight.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Lifestyle modification, such as healthy diet habits, regular physical activity, and maintaining a normal body weight, must be prescribed to all hypertensive individuals. This study aims to test whether a multicomponent intervention is effective in improving lifestyle and body weight among low-income families. STUDY DESIGN:Cluster randomized trial conducted between June 2013 and October 2016. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1,954 uninsured adult patients were recruited in the study within 18 public primary healthcare centers of Argentina. INTERVENTION:Components targeting the healthcare system, providers, and family groups were delivered by community health workers; tailored text messages were sent for 18 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Changes in the proportion of behavioral risk factors and body weight from baseline to end of follow-up. Data were analyzed in 2017. RESULTS:Low fruit and vegetable consumption (fewer than 5 servings per day) decreased from 96.4% at baseline to 92.6% at 18 months in the intervention group, whereas in the control group it increased from 97.0% to 99.9% (p=0.0110). The proportion of low physical activity (<600 MET-minutes/week) decreased from 54.3% at baseline to 46.2% at 18 months in the intervention group and kept constant around 52% (p=0.0232) in the control group. The intervention had no effect on alcohol intake (p=0.7807), smoking (p=0.7607), addition of salt while cooking or at the table (p=0.7273), or body weight (p=0.4000). CONCLUSIONS:The multicomponent intervention was effective for increasing fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity with no effect on alcohol consumption, smoking, addition of salt, or body weight among low-income families in Argentina. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01834131.
Project description:The Stroke Health and Risk Education Project was a cluster-randomized, faith-based, culturally sensitive, theory-based multicomponent behavioral intervention trial to reduce key stroke risk factor behaviors in Hispanics/Latinos and European Americans.Ten Catholic churches were randomized to intervention or control group. The intervention group received a 1-year multicomponent intervention (with poor adherence) that included self-help materials, tailored newsletters, and motivational interviewing counseling calls. Multilevel modeling, accounting for clustering within subject pairs and parishes, was used to test treatment differences in the average change since baseline (ascertained at 6 and 12 months) in dietary sodium, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity, measured using standardized questionnaires. A priori, the trial was considered successful if any one of the 3 outcomes was significant at the 0.05/3 level.Of 801 subjects who consented, 760 completed baseline data assessments, and of these, 86% completed at least one outcome assessment. The median age was 53 years; 84% subjects were Hispanic/Latino; and 64% subjects were women. The intervention group had a greater increase in fruit and vegetable intake than the control group (0.25 cups per day [95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.42], P=0.002), a greater decrease in sodium intake (-123.17 mg/d [-194.76, -51.59], P=0.04), but no difference in change in moderate- or greater-intensity physical activity (-27 metabolic equivalent-minutes per week [-526, 471], P=0.56).This multicomponent behavioral intervention targeting stroke risk factors in predominantly Hispanics/Latinos was effective in increasing fruit and vegetable intake, reaching its primary end point. The intervention also seemed to lower sodium intake. Church-based health promotions can be successful in primary stroke prevention efforts.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01378780.
Project description:Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual) to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three behaviors (decreasing children's screen time, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and increasing physical activity) at three ecological levels (the family, school, and community).Participants were 1,323 children and their parents from 10 schools in two states. Schools were matched and randomly assigned to treatment and control. Measures of the key behaviors and body mass index were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention.The effect sizes of the differences between treatment and control groups ranged between small (Cohen's d = 0.15 for body mass index at 6 months post-intervention) to large (1.38; parent report of screen time at 6 months post-intervention), controlling for baseline levels. There was a significant difference in parent-reported screen time at post-intervention in the experimental group, and this effect was maintained at 6 months post-intervention (a difference of about 2 hours/week). The experimental group also showed a significant increase in parent-reported fruit and vegetable consumption while child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally significant. At the 6-month follow-up, parent-reported screen time was significantly lower, and parent and child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly increased. There were no significant effects on pedometer measures of physical activity or body mass index in the experimental group. The intervention effects were moderated by child sex (for fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and weight status), family involvement (for fruit and vegetable consumption), and child body mass index (for screen time). The perception of change among the experimental group was generally positive with 23% to 62% indicating positive changes in behaviors.The results indicate that the Switch program yielded small-to-modest treatment effects for promoting children's fruit and vegetable consumption and minimizing screen time. The Switch program offers promise for use in youth obesity prevention.
Project description:To assess whether parent training in behavioral intervention, combined with a 16-session nutrition and activity education program, would improve weight loss relative to nutrition and activity education alone in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.Twenty-one patients with Down syndrome aged 13-26 years with a body mass index ≥ 85 th percentile were enrolled and randomized to a 6-month nutrition and activity education intervention (n = 10) or to a nutrition and activity education+behaviorial intervention (n = 11), and followed for 6 months after the active intervention period (1-year follow-up). The primary outcome measure was body weight; secondary outcomes included percentage body fat by bioelectric impedance; intake of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense low-nutrient snack food (treats) by 3-day food record; and moderate/vigorous physical activity by accelerometry.At 6 months, mean body weight in the nutrition and activity education+behavioral intervention group was 3.2 kg lower than that in the nutrition and activity education group (95% CI, 1.0-5.5 kg; P = .005). Mean group differences were sustained at 1 year (3.6 kg; 95% CI, 1.4-5.9 kg; P = .002). At 6 months, moderate/vigorous physical activity time increased by an average of 18 minutes/day compared with baseline in the nutrition and activity education+behavioral intervention group (P = .01) and decreased by 7 minutes/day in the nutrition and activity education group (P = .30). These changes were largely maintained at 1 year, but were not statistically significant. Vegetable intake in the nutrition and activity education+behavioral intervention group exceeded that in the nutrition and activity education group by a mean of 1.6 servings at 1 year (P = .009), but not at 6 months. No between-group differences were observed for percentage body fat or consumption of fruits or treats.Parent-supported behavioral intervention appears to be a successful adjunct to a 6-month nutrition education intervention in achieving weight loss in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Traditional behavioural weight loss trials targeting improvements in physical activity and diet are modestly effective. It has been suggested that sleep may have a role in weight loss and maintenance. Improving sleep health in combination with physical activity and dietary behaviours may be one strategy to enhance traditional behavioural weight loss trials. Yet the efficacy of a weight loss intervention concurrently targeting improvements in physical activity, dietary and sleep behaviours remains to be tested. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The primary aim of this three-arm randomised controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of a multicomponent m-Health behaviour change weight loss intervention relative to a waitlist control group. The secondary aims are to compare the relative efficacy of a physical activity, dietary behaviour and sleep intervention (enhanced intervention), compared with a physical activity and dietary behaviour only intervention (traditional intervention), on the primary outcome of weight loss and secondary outcomes of waist circumference, glycated haemoglobin, physical activity, diet quality and intake, sleep health, eating behaviours, depression, anxiety and stress and quality of life. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, 6 months (primary endpoint) and 12 months (follow-up). The multicomponent m-Health intervention will be delivered using a smartphone/tablet 'app', supplemented with email and SMS and individualised in-person dietary counselling. Participants will receive a Fitbit, body weight scales to facilitate self-monitoring, and use the app to access educational material, set goals, self-monitor and receive feedback about behaviours. Generalised linear models using an analysis of covariance (baseline adjusted) approach will be used to identify between-group differences in primary and secondary outcomes, following an intention-to-treat principle. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The Human Research Ethics Committee of The University of Newcastle Australia provided approval: H-2017-0039. Findings will be disseminated via publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, community presentations and student theses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12617000735358; UTN1111-1219-2050.
Project description:Despite extensive knowledge of hypertension treatment, the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension is high and increasing in low- and middle-income countries.To test whether a community health worker-led multicomponent intervention would improve blood pressure (BP) control among low-income patients with hypertension.A cluster randomized trial was conducted in 18 centers for primary health care within a national public system providing free medications and health care to uninsured patients in Argentina. A total of 1432 low-income adult patients with uncontrolled hypertension were recruited between June 2013 and April 2015 and followed up to October 2016.Nine centers (743 patients) were randomized to the multicomponent intervention, which included a community health worker-led home intervention (health coaching, home BP monitoring, and BP audit and feedback), a physician intervention, and a text-messaging intervention over 18 months. Nine centers (689 patients) were randomized to usual care.The coprimary outcomes were the differences in systolic and diastolic BP changes from baseline to the end of follow-up of patients with hypertension. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients with controlled hypertension (BP <140/90 mm Hg). Three BP measurements were obtained at each of 2 baseline and 2 termination visits using a standard protocol, the means of which were used for analyses.Of 1432 participants (mean age, 55.8 years [SD, 13.3]; 772 women [53.0%]), 1357 (94.8%) completed the trial. Baseline mean systolic BP was 151.7 mm Hg for the intervention group and 149.8 mm Hg for the usual care group; the mean diastolic BP was 92.2 mm Hg for the intervention group and 90.1 mm Hg for the usual care group. Systolic BP reduction from baseline to month 18 was 19.3 mm Hg (95% CI, 17.9-20.8 mm Hg) for the intervention group and 12.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 11.3-14.2 mm Hg) for the usual care group; the difference in the reduction was 6.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 4.6-8.6; P?<?.001). Diastolic BP decreased by 12.2 mm Hg (95% CI, 11.2-13.2 mm Hg) in the intervention group and 6.9 mm Hg (95% CI, 5.9-7.8 mm Hg) in the control group; the difference in the reduction was 5.4 mm Hg (95% CI, 4.0-6.8 mm Hg; P?<?.001). The proportion of patients with controlled hypertension increased from 17.0% at baseline to 72.9% at 18 months in the intervention group and from 17.6% to 52.2% in the usual care group; the difference in the increase was 20.6% (95% CI, 15.4%-25.9%; P?<?.001). No adverse events were reported.Low-income patients in Argentina with uncontrolled hypertension who participated in a community health worker-led multicomponent intervention experienced a greater decrease in systolic and diastolic BP than did patients who received usual care over 18 months. Further research is needed to assess generalizability and cost-effectiveness of this intervention and to understand which components may have contributed most to the outcome.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01834131.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A recent cluster randomized trial evaluating a multicomponent intervention showed significant reductions in blood pressure in low-income hypertensive subjects in Argentina. OBJECTIVES:To assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS:A total of 1432 hypertensive participants were recruited from 18 primary health care centers. The intervention included home visits led by community health workers, physician education, and text messaging. Resource use and quality of life data using the three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire were prospectively collected. The study perspective was that of the public health care system, and the time horizon was 18 months. Intention-to-treat analysis was used to analyze cost and health outcomes (systolic blood pressure [SBP] change and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]). A 1 time gross domestic product per capita per QALY was used as the cost-effectiveness threshold (US $14,062). RESULTS:Baseline characteristics were similar in the two arms. QALYs significantly increased by 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.09) in the intervention group, and SBP net difference favored the intervention group: 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI 0.27-10.34). Mean total costs per participant were higher in the intervention arm: US $304 in the intervention group and US $154 in the control group (adjusted difference of US $140.18; 95% CI US $75.41-US $204.94). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $3299 per QALY (95% credible interval 1635-6099) and US $26 per mm Hg of SBP (95% credible interval 13-46). Subgroup analysis showed that the intervention was cost-effective in all prespecified subgroups (age, sex, cardiovascular risk, and body mass index). CONCLUSIONS:The multicomponent intervention was cost-effective for blood pressure control among low-income hypertensive patients.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:We studied for the first time the long-term effects of a combined physical activity and dietary intervention on insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in a general population of predominantly normal-weight children. METHODS:We carried out a 2 year non-randomised controlled trial in a population sample of 504 children aged 6-9 years at baseline. The children were allocated to a combined physical activity and dietary intervention group (306 children at baseline, 261 children at 2-year follow-up) or a control group (198 children, 177 children) without blinding. We measured fasting insulin and fasting glucose, calculated HOMA-IR, assessed physical activity and sedentary time by combined heart rate and body movement monitoring, assessed dietary factors by a 4 day food record, used the Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI) as a measure of overall diet quality, and measured body fat percentage (BF%) and lean body mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The intervention effects on insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR were analysed using the intention-to-treat principle and linear mixed-effects models after adjustment for sex, age at baseline, and pubertal status at baseline and 2 year follow-up. The measures of physical activity, sedentary time, diet and body composition at baseline and 2 year follow-up were entered one-by-one as covariates into the models to study whether changes in these variables might partly explain the observed intervention effects. RESULTS:Compared with the control group, fasting insulin increased 4.65 pmol/l less (absolute change +8.96 vs +13.61 pmol/l) and HOMA-IR increased 0.18 units less (+0.31 vs +0.49 units) over 2 years in the combined physical activity and dietary intervention group. The intervention effects on fasting insulin (regression coefficient ? for intervention effect -0.33 [95% CI -0.62, -0.04], p?=?0.026) and HOMA-IR (? for intervention effect -0.084 [95% CI -0.156, -0.012], p?=?0.023) were statistically significant after adjustment for sex, age at baseline, and pubertal status at baseline and 2 year follow-up. The intervention had no effect on fasting glucose, BF% or lean body mass. Changes in total physical activity energy expenditure, light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, total sedentary time, the reported consumption of high-fat (?60%) vegetable oil-based spreads, and FCHEI, but not a change in BF% or lean body mass, partly explained the intervention effects on fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The combined physical activity and dietary intervention attenuated the increase in insulin resistance over 2 years in a general population of predominantly normal-weight children. This beneficial effect was partly mediated by changes in physical activity, sedentary time and diet but not changes in body composition. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01803776 Graphical abstract.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The uptake of an intervention aimed at improving health-related lifestyles may be influenced by the participant's stage of readiness to change behaviors. OBJECTIVE:We conducted secondary analysis of the Grupo de Investigación en Salud Móvil en América Latina (GISMAL) trial according to levels of uptake of intervention (dose-response) to explore outcomes by country, in order to verify the consistency of the trial's pooled results, and by each participant's stage of readiness to change a given lifestyle at baseline. The rationale for this secondary analysis is motivated by the original design of the GISMAL study that was independently powered for the primary outcome-blood pressure-for each country. METHODS:We conducted a secondary analysis of a mobile health (mHealth) multicountry trial conducted in Argentina, Guatemala, and Peru. The intervention consisted of monthly motivational phone calls by a trained nutritionist and weekly tailored text messages (short message service), over a 12-month period, aimed to enact change on 4 health-related behaviors: salt added to foods when cooking, consumption of high-fat and high-sugar foods, consumption of fruits or vegetables, and practice of physical activity. Results were stratified by country and by participants' stage of readiness to change (precontemplation or contemplation; preparation or action; or maintenance) at baseline. Exposure (intervention uptake) was the level of intervention (<50%, 50%-74%, and ?75%) received by the participant in terms of phone calls. Linear regressions were performed to model the outcomes of interest, presented as standardized mean values of the following: blood pressure, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, and the 4 health-related behaviors. RESULTS:For each outcome of interest, considering the intervention uptake, the magnitude and direction of the intervention effect differed by country and by participants' stage of readiness to change at baseline. Among those in the high intervention uptake category, reductions in systolic blood pressure were only achieved in Peru, whereas fruit and vegetable consumption also showed reductions among those who were at the maintenance stage at baseline in Argentina and Guatemala. CONCLUSIONS:Designing interventions oriented toward improving health-related lifestyle behaviors may benefit from recognizing baseline readiness to change and issues in implementation uptake. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01295216; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01295216 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/72tMF0B7B).
Project description:To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children.A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values.There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA), with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04), as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03). There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings) in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003). At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity.It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings are an important contribution to the further development of evidence-based parental support programmes to prevent overweight and obesity in children.Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN32750699.
Project description:PURPOSE:To implement a multilevel, church-based intervention with diverse disparity populations using community-based participatory research and evaluate feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness in improving obesity-related outcomes. DESIGN:Cluster randomized controlled trial (pilot). SETTING:Two midsized (?200 adults) African American baptist and 2 very large (?2000) Latino Catholic churches in South Los Angeles, California. PARTICIPANTS:Adult (18+ years) congregants (n = 268 enrolled at baseline, ranging from 45 to 99 per church). INTERVENTION:Various components were implemented over 5 months and included 2 sermons by pastor, educational handouts, church vegetable and fruit gardens, cooking and nutrition classes, daily mobile messaging, community mapping of food and physical activity environments, and identification of congregational policy changes to increase healthy meals. MEASURES:Outcomes included objectively measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), plus self-reported overall healthiness of diet and usual minutes spent in physical activity each week; control variables include sex, age, race-ethnicity, English proficiency, education, household income, and (for physical activity outcome) self-reported health status. ANALYSIS:Multivariate linear regression models estimated the average effect size of the intervention, controlling for pair fixed effects, a main effect of the intervention, and baseline values of the outcomes. RESULTS:Among those completing follow-up (68%), the intervention resulted in statistically significantly less weight gain and greater weight loss (-0.05 effect sizes; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.06 to -0.04), lower BMI (-0.08; 95% CI = -0.11 to -0.05), and healthier diet (-0.09; 95% CI = -0.17 to -0.00). There was no evidence of an intervention impact on BP or physical activity minutes per week. CONCLUSION:Implementing a multilevel intervention across diverse congregations resulted in small improvements in obesity outcomes. A longer time line is needed to fully implement and assess effects of community and congregation environmental strategies and to allow for potential larger impacts of the intervention.