Microcystin-leucine-arginine Modulates the Expression Patterns of Proinflammatory Cytokines and an Apoptotic Gene in Chicken Liver.
ABSTRACT: Microcystins (MCs) are included in drinking water and a family of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins that have been implicated in the impairment of liver function in various animals. There is scarce information on the effect of MCs on cytokines and apoptotic gene expression and on whether MCs can induce inflammation and apoptosis in avian hepatic tissue. This study investigated the expression of genes related to proinflammatory interleukins, apoptosis, and antioxidant function in chicken liver tissues cultured in the presence of different doses of microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR). Livers were collected from five hens and liver slices were placed in sterile tubes containing Dulbecco's medium supplemented with 0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL of MC-LR. After 6 h of cultivation, total RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR analysis was performed for interleukin genes (IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8), TNF sf15, an apoptotic gene (caspase-3), and genes involved in antioxidant function ([catalase [CAT ], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-PX ], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]). Liver tissues in each group were fixed for histopathology. MC-LR downregulated the mRNA levels of IL-1?, IL-8, and TNF sf15 as compared to the control (0 ng/mL) in dose-dependent patterns; however, the differences were not significant. The expression of IL-6 in liver tissues exposed to 100 ng/mL of MC-LR was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that in tissues exposed to 1 ng/mL. In contrast, MC-LR upregulated the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and genes involved in antioxidant function in the liver tissues after 6 h, without the difference reaching statistical significance. Hepatocytes showed vacuolar degeneration and focal necrosis according to the dose of MC-LR. This study highlighted the risk of low doses of MC-LR in chicken liver. Moreover, MC-LR could modulate the transcriptional patterns of at least IL-6 in liver-tissue culture of chicken after 6 h of exposure.
Project description:A method was developed to extract and quantify microcystins (MCs) from mouse liver with limits of quantification (LOQs) lower than previously reported. MCs were extracted from 40-mg liver samples using 85:15 (v:v) CH3CN:H2O containing 200 mM ZnSO4 and 1% formic acid. Solid-phase extraction with a C18 cartridge was used for sample cleanup. MCs were detected and quantified using HPLC-orbitrap-MS with simultaneous MS/MS detection of the 135.08 m/z fragment from the conserved Adda amino acid for structural confirmation. The method was used to extract six MCs (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-LA, MC-LF, and MC-LW) from spiked liver tissue and the MC-LR cysteine adduct (MC-LR-Cys) created by the glutathione detoxification pathway. Matrix-matched internal standard calibration curves were constructed for each MC (R2 ? 0.993), with LOQs between 0.25 ng per g of liver tissue (ng/g) and 0.75 ng/g for MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-LA, and MC-LR-Cys, and 2.5 ng/g for MC-LF and MC-LW. The protocol was applied to extract and quantify MC-LR and MC-LR-Cys from the liver of mice that had been gavaged with 50 µg or 100 µg of MC-LR per kg bodyweight and were euthanized 2 h, 4 h, or 48 h after final gavage. C57Bl/6J (wild type, control) and Leprdb/J (experiment) mice were used as a model to study non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The Leprdb/J mice were relatively inefficient in metabolizing MC-LR into MC-LR-Cys, which is an important defense mechanism against MC-LR exposure. Trends were also observed as a function of MC-LR gavage amount and time between final MC-LR gavage and euthanasia/organ harvest.
Project description:In the summer of 2018, six dogs exposed to a harmful algal bloom (HAB) of Microcystis in Martin County Florida (USA) developed clinicopathological signs of microcystin (MC) intoxication (i.e., acute vomiting, diarrhea, severe thrombocytopenia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, hemorrhage). Successful supportive veterinary care was provided and led to survival of all but one patient. Confirmation of MC intoxication was made through interpretation of clinicopathological abnormalities, pathological examination of tissues, microscopy (vomitus), and analytical MC testing of antemortem/postmortem samples (vomitus, blood, urine, bile, liver, kidney, hair). Gross and microscopic examination of the deceased patient confirmed massive hepatic necrosis, mild multifocal renal tubular necrosis, and hemorrhage within multiple organ systems. Microscopy of a vomitus sample confirmed the presence of Microcystis. Three analytical MC testing approaches were used, including the MMPB (2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid) technique, targeted congener analysis (e.g., liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry of MC-LR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Total Adda MCs (as MMPB) were confirmed in the liver, bile, kidney, urine, and blood of the deceased dog. Urinalysis (MMPB) of one surviving dog showed a high level of MCs (32,000 ng mL-1) 1-day post exposure, with MCs detectable >2 months post exposure. Furthermore, hair from a surviving dog was positive for MMPB, illustrating another testable route of MC elimination in canines. The described cases represent the first use of urine as an antemortem, non-invasive specimen to diagnose microcystin toxicosis. Antemortem diagnostic testing to confirm MC intoxication cases, whether acute or chronic, is crucial for providing optimal supportive care and mitigating MC exposure.
Project description:Microcystins (MCs), the secondary metabolites of blue-green algae, are ubiquitous and major cyanotoxin contaminants. Besides the hepatopancreas/liver, the reproductive system is regarded as the most important target organ for MCs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in MCs-induced reproductive toxicity, the role of MCs in this pathway remains unclear. In the present study, Sertoli cells were employed to investigate apoptotic death involved in male reproductive toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). After exposure to various concentrations of MC-LR for 24 h, the growth of Sertoli cells was concentration-dependently decreased with an IC50 of ~32 ?g/mL. Mitochondria-mediated apoptotic changes were observed in Sertoli cells exposed to 8, 16, and 32 ?g/mL MC-LR including the increased expression of caspase pathway proteins, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and generation of ROS. Pretreatment with a global caspase inhibitor was found to depress the activation of caspases, and eventually increased the survival rate of Sertoli cells, implying that the mitochondrial caspases pathway is involved in MC-LR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, N-acetyl-l-cysteine attenuated the MC-LR-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and cytochrome c release, resulting in the inhibition of apoptosis. Taken together, the observed results suggested that MC-LR induced apoptotic death of Sertoli cells by the activation of mitochondrial caspases cascade, while its effects on the ROS-mediated signaling pathway may contribute toward the initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:Toxic cyanobacteria occur in Greek surface water bodies. However, studies on the occurrence of cyanotoxins (CTs) are often limited to mainly microcystins (MCs), with use of screening methods, such as ELISA, that are not conclusive of the chemical structure of the CT variants and can be subject to false positive results. A multi-lake survey in Greece (14 lakes) was conducted in water and biomass, targeted to a wide range of multi-class CTs including MCs, nodularin-R (NOD), cylindrospermopsin (CYN), anatoxin-a (ANA-a) and saxitoxins (STXs), using multi-class/variant LC-MS/MS analytical workflows, achieving sensitive detection, definitive identification and accurate quantitation. A wide variety of CTs (CYN, ANA-a, STX, neoSTX, dmMC-RR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-HtyR, dm3MC-LR, MC-LR, MC-HilR, MC-WR, MC-LA, MC-LY, MC-LW and MC-LF), were detected, with MCs being the most commonly occurring. In biomass, MC-RR was the most abundant toxin, reaching 754?ng?mg-1 dw, followed by MC-LR (458?ng?mg-1 dw). CYN and ANA-a were detected for the first time in the biomass of Greek lakes at low concentrations and STXs in lakes Trichonis, Vistonis and Petron. The abundance and diversity of CTs were also evaluated in relation to recreational health risks, in a case study with a proven history of MCs (Lake Kastoria).
Project description:For the first time a microcystin-degrading bacterium (NV-3 isolate) has been isolated and characterized from a NZ lake. Cyanobacterial blooms in New Zealand (NZ) waters contain microcystin (MC) hepatotoxins at concentrations which are a risk to animal and human health. Degradation of MCs by naturally occurring bacteria is an attractive bioremediation option for removing MCs from drinking and recreational water sources. The NV-3 isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and found to have 100% nucleotide sequence homology with the Sphingomonas MC-degrading bacterial strain MD-1 from Japan. The NV-3 isolate (concentration of 1.0 × 10(8)?CFU/mL) at 30°C degraded a mixture of [Dha(7)]MC-LR and MC-LR (concentration 25? ? g/mL) at a maximum rate of 8.33? ? g/mL/day. The intermediate by-products of [Dha(7)]MC-LR degradation were detected and similar to MC-LR degradation by-products. The presence of three genes (mlrA, mlrB, and mlrC), that encode three enzymes involved in the degradation of MC-LR, were identified in the NV-3 isolate. This study confirmed that degradation of [Dha(7)]MC-LR by the Sphingomonas isolate NV-3 occurred by a similar mechanism previously described for MC-LR by Sphingomonas strain MJ-PV (ACM-3962). This has important implications for potential bioremediation of toxic blooms containing a variety of MCs in NZ waters.
Project description:Cyanobacterial blooms have become more frequent and serious in recent years. Not only do massive blooms cause environmental pollution and nutrient eutrophication, but they also produce microcystins (MCs), a group of toxic cycloheptapeptides, which threaten aquatic ecosystem and human health. As such, clarifying the allelopathic interactions between cyanobacteria and other algae is critical to better understand the driving factors of blooms. To date, however, such studies remain largely insufficient. Here, we treated model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with microcystin-LR (MC-LR) to determine its allelopathic effects. Results showed that MC-LR markedly suppressed C. reinhardtii cell viability. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses revealed that MC-LR significantly up-regulated protein abundance of antioxidants ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) at the beginning stage of exposure. This was accompanied by an over-accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), suggesting that MC-LR suppresses cell viability via oxidative damage. Furthermore, we found that MCs induced desulfhydrase (DES) activity for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at the beginning stage. Additional H2S donors reactivated antioxidant enzyme activity, which reduced H2O2 accumulation and ultimately enhanced C. reinhardtii tolerance to MC-LR damage. This effect could be reserved by inhibiting H2S biosynthesis. Simultaneously, we found that H2S also suppressed MC-LR-induced cell autophagy, and thus attenuated the toxic effects of MC-LR. Our findings suggest that oxidative bursts may be the main reason for the allelopathic effects of MC-LR on C. reinhardtii viability and that H2S signaling may enhance C. reinhardtii tolerance to MC-LR through the activation of antioxidant enzyme activity and suppression of cell autophagy.
Project description:Fast and reliable workflows are needed to quantitate microcystins (MCs), a ubiquitous class of hepatotoxic cyanotoxins, so that the impact of human and environmental exposure is assessed quickly and minimized. Our goal was to develop a high-throughput online concentration liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) workflow to quantitate the 12 commercially available MCs and nodularin in surface and drinking waters. The method run time was 8.5 min with detection limits in the low ng/L range and minimum reporting levels between 5 and 10 ng/L. This workflow was benchmarked by determining the prevalence of MCs and comparing the Adda-ELISA quantitation to our new workflow from 122 samples representing 31 waterbodies throughout Michigan. The frequency of MC occurrence was MC-LA > LR > RR > D-Asp³-LR > YR > HilR > WR > D-Asp³-RR > HtyR > LY = LW = LF, while MC-RR had the highest concentrations. MCs were detected in 33 samples and 13 of these samples had more than 20% of their total MC concentration from MCs not present in US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Method 544. Furthermore, seasonal deviations between the LC/MS/MS and Adda-ELISA data suggest Adda-ELISA cross-reacts with MC degradation products. This workflow provides less than 24-h turnaround for quantification and also identified key differences between LC/MS/MS and ELISA quantitation that should be investigated further.
Project description:A bacterial strain EMS with the capability of degrading microcystins (MCs) was isolated from Lake Taihu, China. The bacterium was tentatively identified as a Stenotrophomonas sp. The bacterium could completely consume MC-LR and MC-RR within 24 hours at a concentration of 0.7 microg/mL and 1.7 microg/mL, respectively. The degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR by EMS occurred preferentially in an alkaline environment. In addition, mlrA gene involved in the degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR was detected in EMS. Due to the limited literature this gene has rare homologues. Sequencing analysis of the translated protein from mlrA suggested that MlrA might be a transmembrane protein, which suggests a possible new protease family having unique function.
Project description:Cytokine interleukin (IL) 31 has emerged as an important component of allergic and inflammatory diseases associated with pruritus, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and mastocytosis. Mast cells (MC) are stimulated by allergic and nonallergic triggers, and play a critical role in such diseases by secreting histamine and tryptase as well as cytokines and chemokines. IL-33 has been reported to augment MC responses, but its effect on secretion of IL-31 is not known.To investigate whether IL-33 can stimulate the secretion of IL-31 from cultured human MCs and whether this response is augmented by either the neuropeptide substance P (SP) or immunoglobulin E (IgE) and anti-IgE in the absence or presence of IL-4.Laboratory of Allergic Diseases (LAD2) human MCs were cultured in StemProH-34 SFM medium supplemented by stem cell factor and were stimulated either with IL-33 (10 ng /mL) or SP (2 ?M), or preincubated with IgE (1 ?g/mL) overnight, and then stimulated with anti-IgE (1 ?g/mL) for 24 hours. IL-31 gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.IL-33 (10 ng/mL) induces IL-31 gene expression, synthesis, and secretion from LAD2 cells in the absence of degranulation, whereas SP and IgE on their own have no effect. However, the effect of IL-33 is augmented by SP (2 ?M) and/or IgE and anti-IgE (1 ?g/mL both) and especially their combination. Moreover, this response is significantly further increased when LAD2 cells are cultured in the presence of IL-4.These findings provide evidence that IL-33 induced secretion of IL-31 from LAD2 MC, an action augmented by novel neuroimmune interactions that may help in the development of new treatments of allergic and inflammatory diseases, especially AD and mastocytosis.
Project description:Microcystins (MCs), a cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins, are mainly produced by the bloom-forming cyanobacerium Microcystis, which has become an environmental hazard worldwide. Long term consumption of MC-contaminated water may induce liver damage, liver cancer, and even human death. Therefore, in addition to removal of MCs in drinking water, novel strategies that prevent health damages are urgently needed. Sulforaphane (SFN), a natural-occurring isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, has been reported to reduce and eliminate toxicities from xenobiotics and carcinogens. The purpose of the present study was to provide mechanistic insights into the SFN-induced antioxidative defense system against MC-LR-induced cytotoxicity. We performed cell viability assays, including MTS assay, colony formation assay and apoptotic cell sorting, to study MC-LR-induced cellular damage and the protective effects by SFN. The results showed that SFN protected MC-LR-induced damages at a nontoxic and physiological relevant dose in HepG2, BRL-3A and NIH 3T3 cells. The protection was Nrf2-mediated as evident by transactivation of Nrf2 and activation of its downstream genes, including NQO1 and HO-1, and elevated intracellular GSH level. Results of our studies indicate that pretreatment of cells with 10muM SFN for 12h significantly protected cells from MC-LR-induced damage. SFN-induced protective response was mediated through Nrf2 pathway.