New Ratios for Performance Improvement for Identifying Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiencies in Expanded Newborn Screening: A Retrospective Study.
ABSTRACT: Some success in identifying acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) deficiencies before they are symptomatic has been achieved through tandem mass spectrometry. However, there has been several challenges that need to be confronted, including excess false positives, the occasional false negatives and indicators selection. To select ideal indicators and evaluate their performance for identifying ACAD deficiencies, data from 352,119 newborn babies, containing 20 cases, were used in this retrospective study. A total of three new ratios, C4/C5DC+C6-OH, C8/C14:1, and C14:1/C16-OH, were selected from 43 metabolites. Around 903 ratios derived from pairwise combinations of all metabolites via multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. In the current study, the regression analysis was performed to identify short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, and very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency. In both model-building and testing data, the C4/C5DC+C6-OH, C8/C14:1 and C14:1/C16-OH were found to be better indicators for SCAD, MCAD and VLCAD deficiencies, respectively, compared to [C4, (C4, C4/C2)], [C8, (C6, C8, C8/C2, C4DC+C5-OH/C8:1)], and [C14:1, (C14:1, C14:1/C16, C14:1/C2)], respectively. In addition, 22 mutations, including 5 novel mutations and 17 reported mutations, in ACADS, ACADM, and ACADL genes were detected in 20 infants with ACAD deficiency by using high-thorough sequencing based on target capture. The pathogenic mutations of c.1031A > G in ACADS, c.449_452delCTGA in ACADM and c.1349G > A in ACADL were found to be hot spots in Suzhou patients with SCAD, MCAD, and VLCAD, respectively. In conclusion, we had identified three new ratios that could improve the performance for ACAD deficiencies compared to the used indicators. We considered to utilize C4/C5DC+C6-OH, C8/C14:1, and C14:1/C16-OH as primary indicators for SCAD, MCAD, and VLCAD deficiency, respectively, in further expanded newborn screening practice. In addition, the spectrum of mutations in Suzhou population enriches genetic data of Chinese patients with one of ACAD deficiencies.
Project description:Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is a vital biochemical process for energy metabolism. Among the known fatty-acid metabolism disorders, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency count among the most frequent. Both are potentially very serious diseases as they carry a risk of severe neurological post-crisis sequelae, and even sudden death. Diagnosis relies on plasma acylcarnitine profile analysis and urine organic acid analysis, followed by genetic testing to confirm diagnosis. However, in some cases, it is crucial to run a specific diagnostic assay for enzyme activity, which is generally performed in leukocytes or fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to address this need, first by developing a MCAD and VLCAD enzyme activity-specific diagnostic assay in fibroblasts (by measuring the reaction products, i.e. enoyl-CoA) via a rapid LC-MS/MS-based technique, and then by testing MCAD-deficient patients (n = 6), VLCAD-deficient patients (n = 10), and control patients (n = 12). MCAD activity was significantly different in the MCAD-deficiency (MCADD) group (mean = 0.07 nmol C8:1 formed/min/mg protein) compared to the control group (mean = 0.36 nmol C8:1 formed/min/mg protein). All MCADD patients showed less than 35% residual MCAD activity. VLCAD activity was significantly decreased in the VLCADD group (mean = 0.06 nmol C16:1 formed/min/mg protein) compared to the control group (mean = 0.86 nmol C16:1 formed/min/mg protein, respectively). All VLCADD patients showed less than 35% residual VLCAD activity. This technique allowed also to confirm that a novel ACADVL gene mutation (c.1400T>C) is responsible for a defective VLCAD activity (residual activity at 10%).
Project description:Because tandem mass spectrometry- (MS/MS-) based newborn screening identifies many suspicious cases of fatty acid oxidation and carnitine cycle disorders, a simple, noninvasive test is required to confirm the diagnosis. We have developed a novel method to evaluate the metabolic defects in peripheral blood mononuclear cells loaded with deuterium-labeled fatty acids directly using the ratios of acylcarnitines determined by flow injection MS/MS. We have identified diagnostic indices for the disorders as follows: decreased ratios of d27-C14-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine and d23-C12-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II (CPT-II) deficiency, decreased ratios of d23-C12-acylcarnitine/d27-C14-acylcarnitine for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency, and increased ratios of d29-C16-OH-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency, together with increased ratios of d7-C4-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I deficiency. The decreased ratios of d1-acetylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine could be indicative of ?-oxidation ability in patients with CPT-II, VLCAD, and TFP deficiencies. Overall, our data showed that the present method was valuable for establishing a rapid diagnosis of fatty acid oxidation disorders and carnitine cycle disorders and for complementing gene analysis because our diagnostic indices may overcome the weaknesses of conventional enzyme activity measurements using fibroblasts or mononuclear cells with assumedly uncertain viability.
Project description:Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is a member of the family of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs). Unlike the other ACADs, which are soluble homotetramers, VLCAD is a homodimer associated with the mitochondrial membrane. VLCAD also possesses an additional 180 residues in the C terminus that are not present in the other ACADs. We have determined the crystal structure of VLCAD complexed with myristoyl-CoA, obtained by co-crystallization, to 1.91-A resolution. The overall fold of the N-terminal approximately 400 residues of VLCAD is similar to that of the soluble ACADs including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). The novel C-terminal domain forms an alpha-helical bundle that is positioned perpendicular to the two N-terminal helical domains. The fatty acyl moiety of the bound substrate/product is deeply imbedded inside the protein; however, the adenosine pyrophosphate portion of the C14-CoA ligand is disordered because of partial hydrolysis of the thioester bond and high mobility of the CoA moiety. The location of Glu-422 with respect to the C2-C3 of the bound ligand and FAD confirms Glu-422 to be the catalytic base. In MCAD, Gln-95 and Glu-99 form the base of the substrate binding cavity. In VLCAD, these residues are glycines (Gly-175 and Gly-178), allowing the binding channel to extend for an additional 12A and permitting substrate acyl chain lengths as long as 24 carbons to bind. VLCAD deficiency is among the more common defects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation and, if left undiagnosed, can be fatal. This structure allows us to gain insight into how a variant VLCAD genotype results in a clinical phenotype.
Project description:Subjects with schizophrenia have high risks of metabolic abnormalities and bioenergetic dysfunction. Acyl-carnitines involved in bioenergetic pathways provide potential biomarker targets for identifying early changes and onset characteristics in subjects with schizophrenia. We measured 29 acyl-carnitine levels within well-characterized plasma samples of adults with schizophrenia and healthy controls using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Subjects with schizophrenia were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. A total of 225 subjects with schizophrenia and 175 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled and 156 subjects completed the 8-week follow-up. With respect to plasma acyl-carnitines, the individuals with schizophrenia at baseline showed significantly higher levels of C4-OH (C3-DC) and C16:1, but lower concentrations of C3, C8, C10, C10:1, C10:2, C12, C14:1-OH, C14:2, and C14:2-OH when compared with healthy controls after controlling for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and drinking. For the comparison between pretreatment and posttreatment subjects, all detected acyl-carnitines were significantly different between the two groups. Only the concentration of C3 and C4 were increased after selection by variable importance in projection (VIP) value >1.0 and false discovery rate (FDR) q value <0.05. A panel of acyl-carnitines were selected for the ability to differentiate subjects of schizophrenia at baseline from controls, pre- from post-treatment, and posttreatment from controls. Our data implicated acyl-carnitines with abnormalities in cellular bioenergetics of schizophrenia. Therefore, acyl-carnitines can be potential targets for future investigations into their roles in the pathoetiology of schizophrenia.
Project description:Metabolic profiles have been shown to be associated to obesity status and insulin sensitivity. Dietary intakes influence metabolic pathways and therefore, different dietary patterns may relate to modifications in metabolic signatures. The objective was to verify associations between dietary patterns and metabolic profiles composed of amino acids (AAs) and acylcarnitines (ACs).210 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area between September 2009 and December 2011. Dietary patterns had been previously derived using principal component analysis (PCA). The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by higher intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, non-hydrogenated fat and lower intakes of refined grain products, whereas the Western dietary pattern was associated with higher intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. Targeted metabolites were quantified in 37 participants with the Biocrates Absolute IDQ p150 (Biocrates Life Sciences AG, Austria) mass spectrometry method (including 14 amino acids and 41 acylcarnitines).PCA analysis with metabolites including AAs and ACs revealed two main components explaining the most variance in overall data (13.8%). PC1 was composed mostly of medium- to long-chain ACs (C16:2, C14:2, C14:2-OH, C16, C14:1-OH, C14:1, C10:2, C5-DC/C6-OH, C12, C18:2, C10, C4:1-DC/C6, C8:1 and C2) whereas PC2 included certain AAs and short-chain ACs (xLeu, Met, Arg, Phe, Pro, Orn, His, C0, C3, C4 and C5). The Western dietary pattern correlated negatively with PC1 and positively with PC2 (r?=?-0.34, p?=?0.05 and r?=?0.38, p?=?0.03, respectively), independently of age, sex and BMI.These findings suggest that the Western dietary pattern is associated with a specific metabolite signature characterized by increased levels of AAs including branched-chain AAs (BCAAs) and short-chain ACs.
Project description:To test whether follow-up testing for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency uncovers a diagnosis in patients with elevations of C14:1 and C14:2 plasma acylcarnitines after a controlled fasting study performed for clinically suspected hypoglycemia and to compare the acylcarnitine profiles from fasted patients without VLCAD deficiency vs patients with known VLCAD deficiency to determine whether metabolite testing distinguishes these groups.We performed a retrospective chart review and identified 17 patients with elevated C14:1 and C14:2 plasma acylcarnitine levels after a controlled fast and with testing for VLCAD deficiency (ACADVL sequencing or fibroblast fatty acid oxidation studies). The follow-up testing in all patients was inconsistent with a diagnosis of VLCAD deficiency. We compared the plasma acylcarnitine profiles from these fasted patients vs patients with VLCAD deficiency.C14:1/C12:1 was significantly lower (P < .001) in fasted patients vs patients with VLCAD deficiency. Metabolomics analysis performed in 2 fasted patients and 1 patient with VLCAD deficiency demonstrated evidence for up-regulated lipolysis and ?-oxidation in the fasted state.Elevations of plasma C14:1 and C14:2 acylcarnitines appear to be a physiologic result of lipolysis that occurs with fasting. Both metabolomics analysis and/or C14:1/C12:1 may distinguish C14:1 elevations from physiologic fasting-induced lipolysis vs VLCAD deficiency.
Project description:Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD)-deficiency is the most common long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder presenting with heterogeneous phenotypes. Similar to many patients with VLCADD, VLCAD-deficient mice (VLCAD(-/-)) remain asymptomatic over a long period of time. In order to identify the involved compensatory mechanisms, wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice were fed one year either with a normal diet or with a diet in which medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) replaced long-chain triglycerides, as approved intervention in VLCADD. The expression of the mitochondrial long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) was quantified at mRNA and protein level in heart, liver and skeletal muscle. The oxidation capacity of the different tissues was measured by LC-MS/MS using acyl-CoA substrates with a chain length of 8 to 20 carbons. Moreover, in white skeletal muscle the role of glycolysis and concomitant muscle fibre adaptation was investigated. In one year old VLCAD(-/-) mice MCAD and LCAD play an important role in order to compensate deficiency of VLCAD especially in the heart and in the liver. However, the white gastrocnemius muscle develops alternative compensatory mechanism based on a different substrate selection and increased glucose oxidation. Finally, the application of an MCT diet over one year has no effects on LCAD or MCAD expression. MCT results in the VLCAD(-/-) mice only in a very modest improvement of medium-chain acyl-CoA oxidation capacity restricted to cardiac tissue. In conclusion, VLCAD(-/-) mice develop tissue-specific strategies to compensate deficiency of VLCAD either by induction of other mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenases or by enhancement of glucose oxidation. In the muscle, there is evidence of a muscle fibre type adaptation with a predominance of glycolytic muscle fibres. Dietary modification as represented by an MCT-diet does not improve these strategies long-term.
Project description:The Iowa Newborn Screening (NBS) Program began screening for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD) in 2003. Untreated VLCAD can lead to liver failure, heart failure, and death. Current confirmatory testing recommendations by the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) for VLCAD list molecular and functional analysis (i.e., fibroblast fatty acid oxidation probe) as optional. This can lead to misclassification of VLCAD carriers as false positives. Iowa implemented a comprehensive VLCAD confirmatory testing algorithm at the beginning of 2016 that included both molecular and fibroblast analysis. Here, we compare the historic multi-algorithmic confirmatory testing protocol (2005-2016) to this comprehensive protocol (2016-2017). A metabolic specialist reviewed all medical records and NBS data for each out-of-range VLCAD that fell in each testing period. During the comprehensive testing period, 48,651 specimens were screened. Thirteen individuals with out-of-range C14:1 results were classified as follows after review: ten carriers, zero true positives, zero false positives, zero lost to follow-up, and four unable to assess carrier status. During the variable testing period, a total of 486,566 specimens were screened. Eighty-five individuals with out-of-range C14:1 were classified as follows: 45 carriers, two true positives, four false positives, four lost to follow-up, and 30 unable to assess carrier status. Our findings suggest that many out-of-range VLCAD cases that do not receive molecular confirmatory testing could be carriers mistakenly classified as false positives. We recommend comprehensive molecular and functional testing for all children with out-of-range VLCAD NBS results.
Project description:Strain RT1 was isolated from root nodules of Lens culinaris (a lentil) and characterized as Rhizobium etli (a Gram-negative soil-borne bacterium) by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The signaling molecules produced by R. etli (RT1) were detected and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The most abundant and biologically active N-acyl homoserine lactone molecules (3-oxo-C8-HSL and 3-OH-C14-HSL) were detected in the ethyl acetate extract of RT1. The biological role of 3-oxo-C8-HSL was evaluated in RT1. Bacterial motility and biofilm formation were affected or modified on increasing concentrations of 3-oxo-C8-HSL. Results confirmed the existence of cell communication in RT1 mediated by 3-oxo-C8-HSL, and positive correlations were found among quorum sensing, motility and biofilm formation in RT1.
Project description:An increasing number of multidrug-resistant pathogens is a serious problem of modern medicine and new antibiotics are highly demanded. In this study, different n-alkyl acids (C2-C14) and aromatic acids (benzoic and trans-cinnamic) were conjugated to the N-terminus of KR12 amide. The effect of this modification on antimicrobial activity (ESKAPE bacteria and biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus) and cytotoxicity (human red blood cells and HaCaT cell line) was examined. The effect of lipophilic modifications on helicity was studied by CD spectroscopy, whereas peptide self-assembly was studied by surface tension measurements and NMR spectroscopy. As shown, conjugation of the KR12-NH2 peptide with C4-C14 fatty acid chains enhanced the antimicrobial activity with an optimum demonstrated by C8-KR12-NH2 (MIC 1-4 ?g/mL against ESKAPE strains; MBEC of S. aureus 4-16 ?g/mL). Correlation between antimicrobial activity and self-assembly behavior of C14-KR12-NH2 and C8-KR12-NH2 has shown that the former self-assembled into larger aggregated structures, which reduced its antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, N-terminal modification can enhance antimicrobial activity of KR12-NH2; however, at the same time, the cytotoxicity increases. It seems that the selectivity against pathogens over human cells can be achieved through conjugation of peptide N-terminus with appropriate n-alkyl fatty and aromatic acids.