Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Soluble Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Impact of Detection Method.
ABSTRACT: The plasma soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), but its value is under discussion because of ambiguous results arising from different ELISA methods in previous studies. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic performance of two leading suPAR ELISA kits and examine four objectives in 146 subjects: (1) plasma suPAR levels according to glomerular disease (primary, secondary and recurrent FSGS after kidney transplantation, other glomerulonephritis) and in healthy controls; (2) suPAR levels based on glomerular filtration rate; (3) sensitivity and specificity of suPAR for FSGS diagnosis and determination of optimal cut-offs; (4) suPAR as prognostic tool. Patients with FSGS showed significant higher suPAR values than patients with other glomerulonephritis and healthy individuals. This applied to subjects with and without chronic kidney disease. Although both suPARnostic™ assay and Quantikine Human uPAR ELISA Kit exerted high sensitivity and specificity for FSGS diagnosis, their cut-off values of 4.644?ng/mL and 2.789?ng/mL were significantly different. Higher suPAR was furthermore predictive for progression to end-stage renal disease. In summary, suPAR values must be interpreted in the context of population and test methods used. Knowing test specific cut-offs makes suPAR a valuable biomarker for FSGS.
Project description:Circulating levels of soluble forms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are generally elevated in sera from children and adults with FSGS compared with levels in healthy persons or those with other types of kidney disease. In mice lacking the gene encoding uPAR, forced increases in suPAR concentration result in FSGS-like glomerular lesions and proteinuria. However, whether overexpression of suPAR, per se, contributes to the pathogenesis of FSGS in humans remains controversial. We conducted an independent set of animal experiments in which two different and well characterized forms of recombinant suPAR produced by eukaryotic cells were administered over the short or long term to wild-type (WT) mice. In accordance with the previous study, the delivered suPARs are deposited in the glomeruli. However, such deposition of either form of suPAR in the kidney did not result in increased glomerular proteinuria or altered podocyte architecture. Our findings suggest that glomerular deposits of suPAR caused by elevated plasma levels are not sufficient to engender albuminuria.
Project description:Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a cause of proteinuric kidney disease, compromising both native and transplanted kidneys. Treatment is limited because of a complex pathogenesis, including unknown serum factors. Here we report that serum soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) is elevated in two-thirds of subjects with primary FSGS, but not in people with other glomerular diseases. We further find that a higher concentration of suPAR before transplantation underlies an increased risk for recurrence of FSGS after transplantation. Using three mouse models, we explore the effects of suPAR on kidney function and morphology. We show that circulating suPAR activates podocyte ?(3) integrin in both native and grafted kidneys, causing foot process effacement, proteinuria and FSGS-like glomerulopathy. Our findings suggest that the renal disease only develops when suPAR sufficiently activates podocyte ?(3) integrin. Thus, the disease can be abrogated by lowering serum suPAR concentrations through plasmapheresis, or by interfering with the suPAR-?(3) integrin interaction through antibodies and small molecules targeting either uPAR or ?(3) integrin. Our study identifies serum suPAR as a circulating factor that may cause FSGS.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Soluble urokinase plasminogen activated receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker that may predict the occurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS); however, there is still controversy about whether suPAR can predict FSGS. In this study, we performed a systematic evaluation and meta-analysis to prove whether suPAR can predict FSGS, and to detect a threshold concentration of suPAR that can be used to diagnose FSGS. In addition, a threshold concentration of suPAR for the diagnosis of FSGS was proposed. DESIGN:Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and China Biology Medicine databases for studies published from the inception dates to 1 December 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: (1) Data involving the suPAR level were from blood samples; (2) FSGS was diagnosed by biopsy; and (3) randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Initially, a total of 364 studies were searched, among which 29 studies were finally included. In addition, seven studies described the cut-off value of suPAR, which ranged from 2992.6 to 5500?pg/mL. RESULTS:The results showed that the suPAR levels in the primary FSGS group were significantly higher when compared with that in the normal control group (p<0.001; standard mean difference (SMD): 2.56; 95% CI 1.85 to 3.28), and significant differences were observed in the secondary FSGS and in the normal control group (p<0.001; SMD: 1.68; 95%?CI 1.37 to 1.98). A suPAR concentration of 3000?pg/mL may be the best threshold for the diagnosis of primary FSGS (sensitivity=0.72; specificity=0.88; area under the curve=0.85). CONCLUSION:Our results suggested that suPAR might be a potential biomarker for predicting primary and secondary FSGS. In addition, our data showed that a suPAR concentration of 3000?pg/mL might be used as a threshold for the diagnosis of FSGS. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42019120948.
Project description:Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the major causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, and renal prognosis in patients with steroid-resistant FSGS is poor. It has been long speculated that a circulating permeability factor should be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease because a substantial portion of the patients with primary FSGS experience recurrence shortly after transplantation. Although molecules such as cardiotrophin-like cytokine 1 (CLC-1) and anti-CD40 antibody have been proposed to be potential circulating permeability factors, a definitive factor remains to be discovered. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has attracted substantial attention and garnered scrutiny by renal researchers since Reiser's group suggested that it was linked to the pathogenesis of primary FSGS and that it might be useful as a diagnostic biomarker. A number of different cohort studies have shown that serum suPAR levels are negatively associated with renal function and can scarcely differentiate FSGS from the other glomerular/renal diseases. In contrast to initial studies, several in vivo studies investigating the effects of forced suPAR upregulation could not show the induction of proteinuria or podocyte injury. Currently it is suggested that a different form of suPAR, which cannot be measured by presently available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, might be the culprit; however, it remains to be determined whether this is the case. Because a circulating permeability factor might be a useful biomarker for diagnosing FSGS as well as a potent therapeutic target for primary and recurrent FSGS, further dedicated work will be needed.
Project description:Recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (rFSGS) after kidney transplantation is a cause of accelerated graft loss. To evaluate pathogenic antibodies (Abs) in rFSGS, we processed 141 serum samples from 64 patients with and without primary rFSGS and 34 non-FSGS control patients transplanted at four hospitals. We screened about 9000 antigens in pretransplant sera and selected 10 Abs targeting glomerular antigens for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) validation. A panel of seven Abs (CD40, PTPRO, CGB5, FAS, P2RY11, SNRPB2, and APOL2) could predict posttransplant FSGS recurrence with 92% accuracy. Pretransplant elevation of anti-CD40 Ab alone had the best correlation (78% accuracy) with rFSGS risk after transplantation. Epitope mapping of CD40 with customized peptide arrays and rFSGS sera demonstrated altered immunogenicity of the extracellular CD40 domain in rFSGS. Immunohistochemistry of CD40 demonstrated a differential expression in FSGS compared to non-FSGS controls. Anti-CD40 Abs purified from rFSGS patients were particularly pathogenic in human podocyte cultures. Injection of anti-CD40/rFSGS Ab enhanced suPAR (soluble urokinase receptor)-mediated proteinuria in wild-type mice, yet no sensitizing effect was noted in mice deficient in CD40 or in wild-type mice that received blocking Ab to CD40. In conclusion, a panel of seven Abs can help identify primary FSGS patients at high risk of recurrence before transplantation. Intrarenal CD40 (and possibly other specific glomerular antigens) is an important contributor to FSGS disease pathogenesis. Human trials of anti-CD40 therapies are warranted to evaluate their efficacy for preventing rFSGS and improving graft survival.
Project description:Excess levels of protein in urine (proteinuria) is a hallmark of kidney disease that typically occurs in conjunction with diabetes, hypertension, gene mutations, toxins or infections but may also be of unknown cause (idiopathic). Systemic soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a circulating factor implicated in the onset and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The cellular source(s) of elevated suPAR associated with future and progressing kidney disease is unclear, but is likely extra-renal, as the pathological uPAR is circulating and FSGS can recur even after a damaged kidney is replaced with a healthy donor organ. Here we report that bone marrow (BM) Gr-1lo immature myeloid cells are responsible for the elevated, pathological levels of suPAR, as evidenced by BM chimera and BM ablation and cell transfer studies. A marked increase of Gr-1lo myeloid cells was commonly found in the BM of proteinuric animals having high suPAR, and these cells efficiently transmit proteinuria when transferred to healthy mice. In accordance with the results seen in suPAR-associated proteinuric animal models, in which kidney damage is caused not by local podocyte-selective injury but more likely by systemic insults, a humanized xenograft model of FSGS resulted in an expansion of Gr-1lo cells in the BM, leading to high plasma suPAR and proteinuric kidney disease. Together, these results identify suPAR as a functional connection between the BM and the kidney, and they implicate BM immature myeloid cells as a key contributor to glomerular dysfunction.
Project description:Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America-based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS.
Project description:Increased plasma level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was associated recently with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In addition, different clinical studies observed increased concentration of suPAR in various glomerular diseases and in other human pathologies with nephrotic syndromes such as HIV and Hantavirus infection, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we show that suPAR induces nephrin down-modulation in human podocytes. This phenomenon is mediated only by full-length suPAR, is time-and dose-dependent and is associated with the suppression of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT-1) transcription factor expression. Moreover, an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin RGDfv blocked suPAR-induced suppression of nephrin. These in vitro data were confirmed in an in vivo uPAR knock out Plaur(-/-) mice model by demonstrating that the infusion of suPAR inhibits expression of nephrin and WT-1 in podocytes and induces proteinuria. This study unveiled that interaction of full-length suPAR with αvβ3 integrin expressed on podocytes results in down-modulation of nephrin that may affect kidney functionality in different human pathologies characterized by increased concentration of suPAR.
Project description:Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was initially proposed as a pathogenic and predictive biomarker of primary FSGS, but the findings were controversial. This study aimed to clarify the clinical implications of suPAR.The study enrolled 109 patients with biopsy-proven primary FSGS who were administered prednisone between January 2011 and May 2013 and followed up for 6-24 months (median duration of follow-up, 12 months). Ninety-six healthy volunteers, 20 patients with minimal-change disease (MCD), and 22 patients with membranous nephropathy (MN) served as controls. Serum suPAR levels were measured using ELISA.suPAR levels in patients with FSGS (median, 3512 [interquartile range (IQR), 2232-4231] pg/ml) were significantly higher than in healthy controls (median, 1823 [IQR, 1563-2212] pg/ml; P<0.001), patients with MCD (median, 1678 [IQR, 1476-2182] pg/ml; P<0.001), and patients with MN (median, 1668 [IQR, 1327-2127] pg/ml; P<0.001). With 3000 pg/ml used as a threshold, suPAR levels were elevated in 48.6% of patients with FSGS, in contrast to 5% of patients with MCD and 4.5% of those with MN. suPAR levels were independently associated with steroid response in patients with FSGS (odds ratio, 85.02; P=0.001). Patients who were sensitive to steroids had significantly higher suPAR levels than nonsensitive patients (median, 3426 [IQR, 2670-5655] pg/ml versus 2523 [IQR, 1977-3460] pg/ml; P=0.001). A suPAR level of 3400 pg/ml was chosen as the optimal cutoff value for steroid response. At the 6-month follow-up in 84 patients with FSGS, suPAR levels were significantly decreased in those with suPAR level ? 3400 pg/ml (median, 4553 [IQR, 3771-6120] pg/ml versus 3149 [IQR, 2278-3953]; P=0.002) but were unchanged in patients with suPAR level <3400 pg/ml (median, 2359 [IQR, 2023-2842] pg/ml versus 2490 [IQR, 1916-3623] pg/ml; P=0.09).suPAR is specifically elevated in some patients with FSGS, which differs from the finding in patients with MCD and MN. A suPAR assay may help predict steroid response in patients with primary FSGS.
Project description:The mechanisms driving the development of extracapillary lesions in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) remain poorly understood. A key question is how parietal epithelial cells (PECs) invade glomerular capillaries, thereby promoting injury and kidney failure. Here we show that expression of the tetraspanin CD9 increases markedly in PECs in mouse models of CGN and FSGS, and in kidneys from individuals diagnosed with these diseases. Cd9 gene targeting in PECs prevents glomerular damage in CGN and FSGS mouse models. Mechanistically, CD9 deficiency prevents the oriented migration of PECs into the glomerular tuft and their acquisition of CD44 and ?1 integrin expression. These findings highlight a critical role for de novo expression of CD9 as a common pathogenic switch driving the PEC phenotype in CGN and FSGS, while offering a potential therapeutic avenue to treat these conditions.