C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein-1b/islet-brain-1 scaffolds Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein with JNK.
ABSTRACT: Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we searched for amyloid precursor protein (APP)-interacting molecules by screening mouse and human brain libraries. In addition to known interacting proteins containing a phosphotyrosine-interaction-domain (PID)-Fe65, Fe65L, Fe65L2, X11, and mDab1, we identified, as a novel APP-interacting molecule, a PID-containing isoform of mouse JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP-1b) and its human homolog IB1, the established scaffold proteins for JNK. The APP amino acids Tyr(682), Asn(684), and Tyr(687) in the G(681)YENPTY(687) region were all essential for APP/JIP-1b interaction, but neither Tyr(653) nor Thr(668) was necessary. APP-interacting ability was specific for this additional isoform containing PID and was shared by both human and mouse homologs. JIP-1b expressed by mammalian cells was efficiently precipitated by the cytoplasmic domain of APP in the extreme Gly(681)-Asn(695) domain-dependent manner. Reciprocally, both full-length wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease mutant APPs were precipitated by PID-containing JIP constructs. Antibodies raised against the N and C termini of JIP-1b coprecipitated JIP-1b and wild-type or mutant APP in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. Moreover, human JNK1beta1 formed a complex with APP in a JIP-1b-dependent manner. Confocal microscopic examination demonstrated that APP and JIP-1b share similar subcellular localization in transfected cells. These data indicate that JIP-1b/IB1 scaffolds APP with JNK, providing a novel insight into the role of the JNK scaffold protein as an interface of APP with intracellular functional molecules.
Project description:Abnormal phosphorylation of amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) is a pathologic feature of Alzheimer's disease. To begin to understand the mechanism of APP phosphorylation, we studied this process in differentiating neurons under normal physiological conditions. We found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), not cyclin-dependent kinase 5, is required for APP phosphorylation, leading to localized accumulation of phosphorylated APP (pAPP) in neurites. We show that JNK-interacting protein-3 (JIP-3), a JNK scaffolding protein that does not bind APP, selectively increases APP phosphorylation, accumulation of pAPP into processes, and stimulates process extension in both neurons and COS-1 cells. Downregulation of JIP-3 by small interfering RNA impairs neurite extension and reduces the amount of localized pAPP. Finally, whereas stress-activated JNK generates pAPP only in the cell body, concomitant expression of JIP-3 restores pAPP accumulation into neurites. Thus, APP phosphorylation, transport of the generated pAPP into neurites, and neurite extension are interdependent processes regulated by JIP-3/JNK, in a pathway distinct from stress-activated JNK signaling.
Project description:Islet-brain 1 (IB1 or JIP-1) is a scaffold protein that interacts with components of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal-transduction pathway. IB1 is expressed at high levels in neurons and in pancreatic beta-cells, where it controls expression of several insulin-secretory components and secretion. IB1 has been shown to homodimerize, but neither the molecular mechanisms nor the function of dimerization have yet been characterized. Here, we show that IB1 homodimerizes through a novel and unique set of Src homology 3 (SH3)-SH3 interactions. X-ray crystallography studies show that the dimer interface covers a region usually engaged in PxxP-mediated ligand recognition, even though the IB1 SH3 domain lacks this motif. The highly stable IB1 homodimer can be significantly destabilized in vitro by three individual point mutations directed against key residues involved in dimerization. Each mutation reduces IB1-dependent basal JNK activity in 293T cells. Impaired dimerization also results in a reduction in glucose transporter type 2 expression and in glucose-dependent insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Taken together, these results indicate that IB1 homodimerization through its SH3 domain has pleiotropic effects including regulation of the insulin secretion process.
Project description:Islet-brain 1 (IB1) is the human and rat homologue of JIP-1, a scaffold protein interacting with the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK). IB1 expression is mostly restricted to the endocrine pancreas and to the central nervous system. Herein, we explored the transcriptional mechanism responsible for this preferential islet and neuronal expression of IB1. A 731-bp fragment of the 5' regulatory region of the human MAPK8IP1 gene was isolated from a human BAC library and cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter gene. This construct drove high transcriptional activity in both insulin-secreting and neuron-like cells but not in unrelated cell lines. Sequence analysis of this promoter region revealed the presence of a neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) known to bind repressor zinc finger protein REST. This factor is not expressed in insulin-secreting and neuron-like cells. By mobility shift assay, we confirmed that REST binds to the NRSE present in the IB1 promoter. Once transiently transfected in beta-cell lines, the expression vector encoding REST repressed IB1 transcriptional activity. The introduction of a mutated NRSE in the 5' regulating region of the IB1 gene abolished the repression activity driven by REST in insulin-secreting beta cells and relieved the low transcriptional activity of IB1 observed in unrelated cells. Moreover, transfection in non-beta and nonneuronal cell lines of an expression vector encoding REST lacking its transcriptional repression domain relieved IB1 promoter activity. Last, the REST-mediated repression of IB1 could be abolished by trichostatin A, indicating that deacetylase activity is required to allow REST repression. Taken together, these data establish a critical role for REST in the control of the tissue-specific expression of the human IB1 gene.
Project description:The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein (JIP) group of scaffold proteins (JIP1, JIP2, and JIP3) can interact with components of the JNK signaling pathway and potently activate JNK. Here we describe the identification of a fourth member of the JIP family. The primary sequence of JIP4 is most closely related to that of JIP3. Like other members of the JIP family of scaffold proteins, JIP4 binds JNK and also the light chain of the microtubule motor protein kinesin-1. However, the function of JIP4 appears to be markedly different from other JIP proteins. Specifically, JIP4 does not activate JNK signaling. In contrast, JIP4 serves as an activator of the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway by a mechanism that requires the MAP kinase kinases MKK3 and MKK6. The JIP4 scaffold protein therefore appears to be a new component of the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway.
Project description:Despite their lack of selectivity toward c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) isoforms, peptides derived from the JIP (JNK Interacting Protein) scaffolds linked to the cell-penetrating peptide TAT are widely used to investigate JNK-mediated signaling events. To engineer an isoform-selective peptide inhibitor, several JIP-based peptide sequences were designed and tested. A JIP sequence connected through a flexible linker to either the N-terminus of an inverted TAT sequence (JIP(10)-?-TAT(i)) or to a poly arginine sequence (JIP(10)-?-R(9)) enabled the potent inhibition of JNK2 (IC(50) ? 90 nM) and exhibited 10-fold selectivity for JNK2 over JNK1 and JNK3. Examination of both peptides in HEK293 cells revealed a potent ability to inhibit the induction of both JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation in cells treated with anisomycin. Notably, Western blot analysis indicates that only a fraction of total JNK must be activated to elicit robust c-Jun phosphorylation. To examine the potential of each peptide to selectively modulate JNK2 signaling in vivo, their ability to inhibit the migration of Polyoma Middle-T Antigen Mammary Tumor (PyVMT) cells was assessed. PyVMTjnk2-/- cells exhibit a lower migration potential compared to PyVMTjnk2+/+ cells, and this migration potential is restored through the overexpression of GFP-JNK2?. Both JIP(10)-?-TAT(i) and JIP(10)-?-R(9) inhibit the migration of PyVMTjnk2+/+ cells and PyVMTjnk2-/- cells expressing GFP-JNK2?. However, neither peptide inhibits the migration of PyVMTjnk2-/- cells. A control form of JIP(10)-?-TAT(i) containing a single leucine to arginine mutation lacks ability to inhibit JNK2 in vitro cell-free and cell-based assays and does not inhibit the migration of PyVMTjnk2+/+ cells. Together, these data suggest that JIP(10)-?-TAT(i) and JIP(10)-?-R(9) inhibit the migration of PyVMT cells through the selective inhibition of JNK2. Finally, the mechanism of inhibition of a D-retro-inverso JIP peptide, previously reported to inhibit JNK, was examined and found to inhibit p38MAPK? in an in vitro cell-free assay with little propensity to inhibit JNK isoforms.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) mediate cell growth, differentiation, migration, and morphogenesis by binding to the extracellular domain of cell surface receptors, triggering receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and signal transduction [1-5]. FGF homologous factors (FHFs) were discovered within vertebrate DNA sequence databases by virtue of their sequence similarity to FGFs [3, 6, 7], but the mechanism of FHF action has not been reported. We show here that FHF-1 is associated with the MAP kinase (MAPK) scaffold protein Islet-Brain-2 (IB2)  in the brain and in specific cell lines. FHF/IB2 interaction is highly specific, as FHFs do not bind to the related scaffold protein IB1(JIP-1b) [9, 10], nor can FGF-1 bind to IB2. We further show that FHFs enable IB2 to recruit a specific MAPK in transfected cells, and our data suggest that the scaffolds IB1 and IB2 have different MAPK specificities. Hence, FHFs are intracellular components of a tissue-specific protein kinase signaling module.
Project description:The cargo that the molecular motor kinesin moves along microtubules has been elusive. We searched for binding partners of the COOH terminus of kinesin light chain, which contains tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs. Three proteins were found, the c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting proteins (JIPs) JIP-1, JIP-2, and JIP-3, which are scaffolding proteins for the JNK signaling pathway. Concentration of JIPs in nerve terminals requires kinesin, as evident from the analysis of JIP COOH-terminal mutants and dominant negative kinesin constructs. Coprecipitation experiments suggest that kinesin carries the JIP scaffolds preloaded with cytoplasmic (dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase) and transmembrane signaling molecules (the Reelin receptor, ApoER2). These results demonstrate a direct interaction between conventional kinesin and a cargo, indicate that motor proteins are linked to their membranous cargo via scaffolding proteins, and support a role for motor proteins in spatial regulation of signal transduction pathways.
Project description:Activation of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases is mediated by a protein kinase cascade. This signaling mechanism may be coordinated by the interaction of components of the protein kinase cascade with scaffold proteins. The JNK-interacting protein (JIP) group of scaffold proteins selectively mediates signaling by the mixed-lineage kinase (MLK)-->MAP kinase kinase 7 (MKK7)-->JNK pathway. The scaffold proteins JIP1 and JIP2 interact to form oligomeric complexes that accumulate in peripheral cytoplasmic projections extended at the cell surface. The JIP proteins function by aggregating components of a MAP kinase module (including MLK, MKK7, and JNK) and facilitate signal transmission by the protein kinase cascade.
Project description:G(q)-coupled receptor agonists, such as endothelin-1 (ET-1) and phenylephrine (PE), initiate a hypertrophic response in cardiac myocytes that is characterized by increased expression of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC), skeletal muscle alpha-actin (SkalphaA) and ventricular myosin light chain-2 (vMLC2). ET-1 and PE activate both the extracellular signal-regulated kinases and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in cardiac myocytes, but the extent to which each contributes to the hypertrophic response is uncertain. Here we have used the JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP-1), a cytosolic scaffold protein that binds to JNK and inhibits its signalling when overexpressed, to assess the contribution of JNK activation to the hypertrophic response. Expression of JIP-1 inhibited the increase in ANF, beta-MHC, SkalphaA and vMLC2 reporter gene expression in response to ET-1 (by 45-86%) and PE (by 56-60%). However, activation of these reporter genes by PMA, which does not activate JNK significantly in myocytes, was much less affected by overexpression of JIP-1. JIP-1 also failed to inhibit reporter gene activation in response to constitutively active Ras or Raf, but attenuated reporter gene activation induced by a constitutively active mutant of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1), an upstream kinase that preferentially activates JNKs, by 50%. Overexpression of JIP-1 also significantly reduced the increase in cell area in response to PE from 63% to 56%, but had no effect on the increase in cell size in response to ET-1 (38%). These results suggest that activation of the JNK pathway contributes to the transcriptional and morphological responses to G(q) receptor-coupled hypertrophic agonists.
Project description:Mutations in the X-linked gene DCX result in lissencephaly in males, and abnormal neuronal positioning in females, suggesting a role for this gene product during neuronal migration. In spite of several known protein interactions, the involvement of DCX in a signaling pathway is still elusive. Here we demonstrate that DCX is a substrate of JNK and interacts with both c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and JNK interacting protein (JIP). The localization of this signaling module in the developing brain suggests its functionality in migrating neurons. The localization of DCX at neurite tips is determined by its interaction with JIP and by the interaction of the latter with kinesin. DCX is phosphorylated by JNK in growth cones. DCX mutated in sites phosphorylated by JNK affected neurite outgrowth, and the velocity and relative pause time of migrating neurons. We hypothesize that during neuronal migration, there is a need to regulate molecular motors that are working in the cell in opposite directions: kinesin (a plus-end directed molecular motor) versus dynein (a minus-end directed molecular motor).