Eugenol Reduces LDL Cholesterol and Hepatic Steatosis in Hypercholesterolemic Rats by Modulating TRPV1 Receptor.
ABSTRACT: Eugenol, a component of essential oils of medicinal and food plants, has a hypolipidemic effect in experimental animals although its mechanism of action is still unclear. This study aims to explore the mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect of eugenol in rats fed a high cholesterol and fat diet (HCFD). Eugenol significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), atherogenic index (AI) but not high-density lipoproteins (HDL) or triglycerides (TG). Eugenol also decreased steatosis and hepatic inflammation in liver sections, decreased hepatomegaly, and the hepatic marker enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increased the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in hypercholesterolemic rats. Eugenol did not inhibit hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase but caused down-regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) channels in the liver. Docking simulation using fast, rigid exhaustive docking (FRED) software indicated a tail-up/head-down interaction of eugenol with TRPV1 channel. Data indicate that eugenol does not inhibit HMG-CoA reductase but rather induces its action by interaction with TRPV1 channels.
Project description:The current perspective for the search of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor has been shifted towards a natural agent also having antioxidant property. Thus, this study was intended to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds from methanolic extract of Ficus virens bark (FVBM) and to evaluate their antioxidant, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory and hypolipidemic activity.Bioactivity guided fractionation and isolation of bioactive compound from FVBM extract has been done to isolate and characterize the potent HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitor with antioxidant activity by using repeated extensive column chromatography followed by spectroscopic methods, including Infrared (IR), 1H & 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Mass spectrum analysis. The in vitro HMGR inhibition and enzyme kinetic assay was determined using HMG-CoA as substrate. In addition, antioxidant activity of the new isolated compound, was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and FRAP value. In-silico molecular informatics of HMGR enzyme type inhibition and pharmacokinetics data of the new compound was further evaluated through molecular docking and ADME-T studies. Further, in-vivo hypolipidemic property of FVBM extract and newly isolated compound was also analyzed in triton-WR 1339 induced rats.Thereby, we report the discovery of n-Octadecanyl-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl(6'?1?)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (F18) as a novel HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor with strong antioxidant property. This inhibitor exhibited not only higher free radical scavenging activity but also marked HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 84±2.8 ng/ml. This inhibitory activity concurred with kinetic study that showed inhibition constant (K i) of 84 ng/ml via an uncompetitive mode of inhibition. The inhibition was also corroborated by molecular docking analysis and in silico pharmacokinetics data. The in vivo study revealed that administration of FVBM extract (at higher dose, 100 mg/rat) and the inhibitor (1 mg/rat) to Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats significantly ameliorated the altered levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins including hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity; this effect was comparable to the effect of standard drug atorvastatin.The in vitro, in silico and in vivo results clearly demonstrated the antioxidant potential and therapeutic efficacy of the inhibitor as an alternate drug against hyperlipidemia.
Project description:Our previous study showed that a triterpene mixture, consisting of echinocystic acid (EA) and oleanolic acid (OA) at a ratio of 4 : 1, dose-dependently ameliorated the hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat/high cholesterol diets. This study was aimed at exploring the mechanisms underlying antihyperlipidemic effect of EA. Molecular docking simulation of EA was performed using Molegro Virtual Docker (version: 4.3.0) to investigate the potential targets related to lipid metabolism. Based on the molecular docking information, isotope labeling method or spectrophotometry was applied to examine the effect of EA on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) in rat liver microsomes. Our results revealed a strong affinity of EA towards ACAT and DGAT in molecular docking analysis, while low binding affinity existed between EA and HMG-CoA reductase as well as between EA and cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Consistent with the results of molecular docking, in vitro enzyme activity assays showed that EA inhibited ACAT and DGAT, with IC50 values of 103 and 139 μ M, respectively, and exhibited no significant effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity. The present findings suggest that EA may exert hypolipidemic effect by inhibiting the activity of ACAT and DGAT.
Project description:Statins are hypolipidemic drugs that are effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia by attenuating cholesterol synthesis in the liver via competitive inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Recently, dietary changes associated with drug therapy have garnered attention as novel drugs to mitigate or ameliorate hypercholesterolemia. The present study was undertaken to observe different dietary polyphenols that can bind to the active site of HMGR and inhibit it. Results from the 12 dietary polyphenols tested reveal that polyphenols can bind to HMGR and block the binding of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)). We observed that the rigidity of phenolic rings prevents the polyphenols from docking to the enzyme activity site. The presence of an ester linkage between the phenolic rings in (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and the alkyl chain in curcumin allows them to orient in the active site of the HMGR and bind to the catalytic residues. EGCG and curcumin showed binding to the active site residues with a low GRID score, which may be a potential inhibitor of HMGR. Kaempferol showed binding to HMG-CoA, but with low binding affinity. These observations provide a rationale for the consistent hypolipidemic effect of EGCG and curcumin, which has been previously reported in several epidemiological and animal studies. Therefore, this study substantiates the mechanism of polyphenols on the activity of HMGR by molecular docking and provides the impetus for drug design involving further structure-function relationship studies.
Project description:Treatment of rats with pharmacological doses of oestrogen resulted in a 3-fold decrease in the activity of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and a 4-fold increase in saturable binding of 125I-labelled chylomicron remnants to liver membranes in vitro. Intragastric administration of mevalonolactone to rats did not affect the capacity of the liver membranes to bind to labelled chylomicron remnants even though there was a substantial decrease in the activity of HMG-CoA reductase. Similar results were obtained after cholesterol feeding. Simultaneous treatment of rats with cholestyramine and compactin increased hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity 6-fold. However, liver membranes derived from these animals showed no change in their capacity to bind to labelled chylomicron remnants in vitro. Administration of mevalonolactone to the cholestyramine/compactin-treated animals also failed to produce a change in remnant-binding capacity. Although administration of mevalonolactone alone produced a significant 3-fold decrease in the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase it was unable to suppress significantly the increase in enzyme activity caused by treatment with cholestyramine and compactin.
Project description:The fraction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase in the dephosphorylated (active) form in rat liver in vivo was measured after various experimental treatments of animals. Intraperitoneal injection of glucose (to raise serum insulin concentrations) into rats 4 h into the light phase (L-4) resulted in a transient (30 min) increase in the expressed (E)/total (T) activity ratio of HMG-CoA reductase without any change in total activity (obtained after complete dephosphorylation of the enzyme). Conversely, intravenous injection of guinea-pig anti-insulin serum into rats 4 h into the dark phase (D-4) significantly depressed the E/T ratio within 20 min. Intravenous injection of glucagon into normal rats at this time point did not affect the degree of phosphorylation of the enzyme, in spite of a 10-fold increase in hepatic cyclic AMP concentration induced by the hormone treatment. A 3-fold increase in the concentration of the cyclic nucleotide induced by adrenaline infusion was similarly ineffective in inducing any change in expressed or total activities of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. However, when insulin secretion was inhibited, either by the induction of streptozotocin-diabetes or by simultaneous infusion of somatostatin, glucagon treatment was able to depress the expressed activity of HMG-CoA reductase (i.e. it increased the phosphorylation of the enzyme). Therefore insulin appears to have a dominant role in the regulation of the phosphorylation state of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. In apparent corroboration of this suggestion, short-term 4 h food deprivation of animals before D-4 resulted in a marked decrease in the E/T activity ratio of reductase, which was not affected further by an additional 8 h starvation. By contrast, the total activity of the enzyme was not significantly affected by 4 h starvation, but was markedly diminished after 12 or 24 h starvation. Longer-term starvation also produced a chronic increase in the degree of phosphorylation of the enzyme. These results are discussed in relation to the role of reversible phosphorylation in the control of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity in vivo.
Project description:1. The expressed and total (completely dephosphorylated) activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase were measured in microsomal fractions isolated from cold-clamped liver samples from female rats in various stages of the reproductive cycle. 2. There was little change in total HMG-CoA reductase activity during pregnancy and early lactation, but after 2 days post partum there was a marked increase in total activity. 3. The expressed/total activity ratio of HMG-CoA reductase showed a profound decrease during the last 2 days of pregnancy. The fraction of the enzyme in the active form increased progressively during the first 2 days of lactation. 4. The combined effect of these changes was that the expressed activity of HMG-CoA reductase changed in parallel with the known changes in the hepatic rate of cholesterogenesis during pregnancy and lactation in vivo.
Project description:The effects of oleic acid on the activities of cytosolic HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) synthase, AcAc-CoA (acetoacetyl-CoA) thiolase and AcAc-CoA synthetase, as well as microsomal HMG-CoA reductase, all enzymes in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, were studied in the isolated perfused rat liver. Oleic acid bound to bovine serum albumin, or albumin alone, was infused for 4 h at a rate sufficient to sustain an average concentration of 0.61 +/- 0.05 mM fatty acid during the perfusion. Hepatic cytosol and microsomal fractions were isolated at the termination of the perfusion. Oleic acid simultaneously increased the activities of the cytosolic cholesterol-biosynthetic enzymes 1.4-2.7-fold in livers from normal fed rats and from animals fasted for 24 h. These effects were accompanied by increased net secretion by the liver of cholesterol and triacylglycerol in the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). We confirmed the observations reported previously from this laboratory of the stimulation by oleic acid of microsomal HMG-CoA reductase. In cytosols from perfused livers, the increase in AcAc-CoA thiolase activity was characterized by an increase in Vmax. without any change in the apparent Km of the enzyme for AcAc-CoA. In contrast, oleic acid decreased the Km of HMG-CoA synthase for Ac-CoA, without alteration of the Vmax. of the enzyme. The Vmax. of AcAc-CoA synthetase was increased by oleic acid, and there was a trend towards a small increase in the Km of the enzyme for acetoacetate. These data allow us to conclude that the enzymes that supply the HMG-CoA required for hepatic cholesterogenesis are stimulated, as is HMG-CoA reductase, by a physiological substrate, fatty acid, that increases rates of hepatic cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol secretion. Furthermore, we suggest that these effects of fatty acid on hepatic cholesterol metabolism result from stimulation of secretion of triacylglycerol in the VLDL by fatty acids, and the absolute requirement of cholesterol as an important structural surface component of the VLDL necessary for transport of triacylglycerol from the liver.
Project description:Dietary vegetable oils and fish oils rich in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) exert hypocholesterolaemic and hypotriglyceridaemic effects in rodents. The plasma cholesterol-lowering properties of PUFA are due partly to a diminution of cholesterol synthesis and of the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase). To better understand the mechanisms involved, we examined how tuna fish oil and individual n-3 and n-6 PUFA affect the expression of hepatic FPP synthase (farnesyl diphosphate synthase), a SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein) target enzyme that is subject to negative-feedback regulation by sterols, in co-ordination with HMG-CoA reductase. Feeding mice on a tuna fish oil diet for 2 weeks decreased serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, by 50% and 60% respectively. Hepatic levels of FPP synthase and HMG-CoA reductase mRNAs were also decreased, by 70% and 40% respectively. Individual n-3 and n-6 PUFA lowered FPP synthase and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels in H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells to a greater extent than did stearate and oleate, with the largest inhibitory effects occurring with arachidonate, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). We observed a similar inhibitory effect on protein levels of FPP synthase. The suppressive effect of PUFA on the FPP synthase mRNA level was not due to a decrease in mRNA stability, but to transcription inhibition. Moreover, a lower nuclear availability of both SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 mature forms was observed in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells treated with arachidonate, EPA or DHA. Taken together, these data suggest that PUFA can down-regulate hepatic cholesterol synthesis through inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and FPP synthase, at least in part through impairment of the SREBP pathway.
Project description:Pilot-scale libraries of eight-membered medium ring lactams (MRLs) and related tricyclic compounds (either seven-membered lactams, thiolactams or amines) were screened for their ability to inhibit the catalytic activity of human recombinant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in vitro. A dozen of the synthetic compounds mimic the inhibition of purified HMG-CoA reductase activity caused by pravastatin, fluvastatin and sodium salts of lovastatin, mevastatin and simvastatin in this cell-free assay, suggesting direct interaction with the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, several MRLs inhibit the metabolic activity of L1210 tumor cells in vitro to a greater degree than fluvastatin, lovastatin, mevastatin and simvastatin, whereas pravastatin is inactive. Although the correlation between the concentration-dependent inhibitions of HMG-CoA reductase activity over 10 min in the cell-free assay and L1210 tumor cell proliferation over 4 days in culture is unclear, some bioactive MRLs elicit interesting combinations of statin-like (IC50: 7.4-8.0 microM) and anti-tumor (IC50: 1.4-2.3 microM) activities. The HMG-CoA reductase-inhibiting activities of pravastatin and an MRL persist in the presence of increasing concentrations of NADPH. But increasing concentrations of HMG-CoA block the HMG-CoA reductase-inhibiting activity of pravastatin without altering that of an MRL, suggesting that MRLs and existing statins may have different mechanisms of enzyme interaction and inhibition. When tested together, suboptimal concentrations of synthetic MRLs and existing statins have additive inhibitory effects on HMG-CoA reductase activity. Preliminary molecular docking studies with MRL-based inhibitors indicate that these ligands fit sterically well into the HMG-CoA reductase statin-binding receptor model and, in contrast to mevastatin, may occupy a narrow channel housing the pyridinium moiety on NADP+.
Project description:Four novel acylglycosides flavones (AGFs) including two quercetin acylglycosides and two kaempferol acylglycosides were isolated from Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) as follows: quercetin 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1?3)] [2-O''-(E)-p-coumaroyl] [?-d-glucopyranosyl (1?3)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1?6)]-?-d-galactoside was named as camelliquercetiside E (1), quercetin 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1?3)] [2-O''-(E)-p-coumaroyl] [?-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1?6)]-?-d-galactoside was named as camelliquercetiside F (2), kaempferol 3-O-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl (1?3)] [2-O''-(E)-p-coumaroyl] [?-d-glucopyranosyl (1?3)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1?6)]-?-d-glucoside was named as camellikaempferoside D (3), kaempferol 3-O-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl (1?3)] [2-O''-(E)-p-coumaroyl] [?-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1?6)]-?-d-glucoside was named as camellikaempferoside E (4). Chemical structures of AGFs were identified by time-of-flight mass (TOF-MS) and NMR spectrometers (¹H NMR, 13C NMR, ¹H-¹H COSY, HMBC and HSQC), and the MS² fragmentation pathway of AGFs was further investigated. The inhibitory abilities of AGFs and their proposed metabolites on ?-glucosidase and HMG-CoA reductase were analyzed by molecular docking simulation, and the results suggested that inhibitory activities of AGFs were significantly affected by acyl structure, number of glycosyl and conformation, and part of them had strong inhibitory activities on ?-glucosidase and HMG-CoA reductase, suggesting that AGFs and their metabolites might be important ingredients that participate in the regulation of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. The results provided new AGFs and research directions for the practical study of FBT health functions in future.