A cell line resistant to avian leukosis virus subgroup B infection.
ABSTRACT: The expression of env proteins that bind to viral cell receptors on avian leukosis virus (ALV)-susceptible cells can block ALV infection. In this study, we constructed a cell line (DF-1/B) by expressing the ALV-B env protein in DF-1 cells. PCR, immune fluorescence assay, Western blot, and immune electron microscopy results showed that the env gene can be stably expressed in DF-1cells and the env protein could be detected on the DF-1 cell membrane. An antiviral experiment concluded that the DF-1/B cell line could be resistant to 1 × 104 TCID50 ALV-B virus infection, but had no inhibitory effect on other subgroup ALV. This means that the DF-1/B cell line is specifically resistant to ALV-B and can be used as a tool for ALV-B diagnosis.
Project description:A novel avian leukosis viruses (ALV) subgroup named ALV-K was recently isolated from Chinese indigenous chickens which is different from the subgroups (A to E and J) that have previously been reported to infect chickens. More and more ALV-K strains have recently been isolated from local breeds of Chinese chickens. However, there are no more effective diagnostic methods for ALV-K other than virus isolation followed by envelope gene sequencing and comparison. Viral infection can be blocked through expression of the viral receptor-binding protein. In this study, we have engineered a cell line, DF-1/K, that expresses ALV-K env protein and thereby confers resistance to ALV-K infection. DF-1/K can be used in combination with the ALV-K susceptible cell line DF-1 as a specific diagnostic tool for ALV-K and provides a good tool for further research into the molecular mechanisms of interaction between ALV-K env protein and the host cell receptor.
Project description:No effective vaccine has been developed against the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). The genetic diversity of ALV-J might be related to the env gene, therefore, we selected conserved sequences of the env gene and designed interference sequence. In this study, microRNAs (miRNAs) were designed and synthesized, corresponding to conserved regions of the env gene. These miRNAs were cloned into the linearized eukaryotic expression vector. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into DF-1 cells. After transfection, the cells were inoculated with ALV-J. In reporter assays, the transfection efficiency is 80% by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Expression of the virus envelope glycoprotein was measured by IFA and western blotting assays. The relative expression of env gene was determined using quantitative PCR. Our results show that the mi-env 231 and mi-env 1384 could effectively suppress the replication of ALV-J with an efficiency of 68.7-75.2%. These data suggest that the miRNAs targeting the env can inhibit replication of ALV-J efficiently. This finding provides evidence that miRNAs could be used as a potential tool against ALV infection.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is an emerging ALV tumor virus of chickens. We developed a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid and economical detection of ALV-K in chicken flocks. The assay was specific for ALV-K and did not cross-react with other ALV subgroup or avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, or Marek's Disease virus. The method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the P27 antigen. The assay was also more sensitive than conventional PCR in tests of 86 clinical plasma samples. DF-1 tissue culture cells infected with 1 TCID50 ALV-K particle were identified as negative using ELISA but tested positive with the real-time PCR method. The viral loads in organs and tissues in infected chickens were highest in kidney, lungs, and glandular stomach, and these results matched ELISA findings.
Project description:Cell killing by avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B) in cultures has been extensively studied, but the molecular basis of this process has not been established. Here we show that superinfection, which has been linked to cell killing by ALV-B, plays no crucial role in cell death induction. Instead, we show that signaling by the ALV-B receptor, TVB(S3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is essential for ALV-B-mediated cell death. TVB(S3) activated caspase-dependent apoptosis during ALV-B infection. Strikingly, apoptosis induction occurred predominantly in uninfected cells, while ALV-B-infected cells were protected against cell death. This bystander killing phenomenon was reproduced in a virus-free system by cocultivating ALV-B Env-expressing cells with TVB(S3)-expressing cells. Taken together, our results indicated that ALV-B-mediated apoptosis is triggered by ALV-B Env-TVB(S3) interactions.
Project description:The interactions between the subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and soluble forms of the ALV(A) receptor Tva were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo by quantitating the ability of the soluble Tva proteins to inhibit ALV(A) entry into susceptible cells. Two soluble Tva proteins were tested: the 83-amino-acid Tva extracellular region fused to two epitope tags (sTva) or fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G heavy chain (sTva-mIgG). Replication-competent ALV-based retroviral vectors with subgroup B or C env were used to deliver and express the two soluble tv-a (stva) genes in avian cells. In vitro, chicken embryo fibroblasts or DF-1 cells expressing sTva or sTva-mIgG proteins were much more resistant to infection by ALV(A) ( approximately 200-fold) than were control cells infected by only the vector. The antiviral effect was specific for ALV(A), which is consistent with a receptor interference mechanism. The antiviral effect of sTva-mIgG was positively correlated with the amount of sTva-mIgG protein. In vivo, the stva genes were delivered and expressed in line 0 chicken embryos by the ALV(B)-based vector RCASBP(B). Viremic chickens expressed relatively high levels of stva and stva-mIgG RNA in a broad range of tissues. High levels of sTva-mIgG protein were detected in the sera of chickens infected with RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG. Viremic chickens infected with RCASBP(B) alone, RCASBP(B)stva, or RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG were challenged separately with ALV(A) and ALV(C). Both sTva and sTva-mIgG significantly inhibited infection by ALV(A) (95 and 100% respectively) but had no measurable effect on ALV(C) infection. The results of this study indicate that a soluble receptor can effectively block infection of at least some retroviruses and demonstrates the utility of the ALV experimental system in characterizing the mechanism(s) of viral entry.
Project description:The absence or deficiency of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) activity results in microsatellite instability (MSI) in cancer. The avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes neoplastic disease in chickens. In this study, the status of MMR, MSI, the cell cycle and apoptosis were detected in DF-1 cells after avian leukosis virus subgroup A infection. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that there was no significant difference in cell apoptosis between the control and infected groups. The percentage of cells in S and G2 phases were increased in the infected group. MSI and mutation of MSH2 and MLH1 gene exons were absent in DF-1 cells after infection. Levels of MSH2 and MLH1 mRNA were dramatically increased in DF-1 cells after infection. These results demonstrated that ALV RAV-1 infection may promote the expression of MSH2 and MLH1 genes rather than resulting in gene mutations. Mismatch repair functions were normal and may be have relationships with the arrest of S phase and G2 phase.
Project description:Subgroup A, B, and J ALVs are the most prevalent avian leukosis virus (ALV). Our study attempted to develop two SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays for specific detection of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) and multiplex detection of ALV subgroups A and B (ALV-A/B), respectively.The two assays showed high specificity for ALV-J and ALV-A/B and the sensitivity of the two assays was at least 100 times higher than that of the routine PCR assay. The minimum virus detection limit of virus culture, routine PCR and real-time PCR for detection of ALV-A strain was 10(3) TCID50 units, 10(2) TCID50 units and fewer than 10 TCID50 units, respectively. In addition, the coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-assay were both less than 5%. Forty clinical plasma samples were evaluated by real-time PCR, routine PCR, and virus culture with positive rates of 80% (32/40), 72.5% (29/40) and 62.5% (25/40), respectively. When the assay for detection of ALV-J was used to quantify the viral load of various organ tissues in chicken inoculated by ALV-J strains CHN06 and NX0101, the results exhibited that ALV-J genes could be detected in all organ tissues examined and the highest copies of ALV-J were mainly in heart and kidney samples at 30 weeks post-infection. Except in lung, the virus copies of CHN06 group were higher than that of NX0101 group in various organ tissues.The SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR assay provides a powerful tool for the detection of ALV and study of virus replication and infection.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is a recently identified avian oncogenic retrovirus responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. In contrast with the other ALV subgroups, ALV-J predominantly induces myeloid leukosis in meat-type chickens. Despite significant homology with the other ALV subgroups across most of the genome, the envelope protein of ALV-J (EnvJ) shares low homology with the others. Pathogenicity and myeloid leukosis induction map to the env gene of ALV-J. A chimeric protein composed of the surface domain of EnvJ fused to the constant region of a rabbit IgG and mass spectrometry were used to identify the chicken Na(+)/H(+) exchanger type 1 (chNHE1) as a binding protein for ALV-J. Flow cytometry analysis and coprecipitation experiments demonstrated a specific interaction between EnvJ and chNHE1. When introduced into nonpermissive human 293T cells and quail QT6 cells, chNHE1 conferred susceptibility to EnvJ-mediated infection. Furthermore, 293T cells expressing chNHE1 fused with 293T cells expressing EnvJ in a low-pH-dependent manner. Together, these data identify chNHE1 as a cellular receptor for the highly pathogenic ALV-J.
Project description:In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other reference strains of ALV. The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of GD150509, GD160403, GD160607, GDFX0601, and GDFX0602 were 7482 bp in length, whereas GDFX0603 was 7480 bp. They shared 99.7% to 99.8% identity with each other. Homology analysis showed that the gag, pol, long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the transmembrane region (gp37) of the env genes of the 6 viruses were well conserved to endogenous counterpart sequences (>97.8%). However, the gp85 genes displayed high variability with any known chicken ALV strains. Growth kinetics of DF-1 cells infected with the isolated ALV showed viral titers that were lower than those infected with the GD13 (ALV-A), CD08 (ALV-B), and CHN06 (ALV-J) on day 7 post-infection. The infected Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens could produce continuous viremia, atrophy of immune organs, growth retardation and no tumors were observed. These subgroup ALVs are unique and may be common in south China. The results suggested that updating the control and eradication program of exogenous ALV for yellow feather broiler breeders in south China needs to be considered because of the emergence of the new subgroup viruses.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an immunosuppressive virus that causes considerable economic losses to the chicken industry in China. However, there is currently no effective vaccine to prevent ALV-J infection. In order to reduce the losses caused by ALV-J, we constructed two effective ALV-J vaccines by inserting the ALV-J (strain JL093-1) env or gag+env genes into the US2 gene of the Marek's disease herpesviruses (MDV) by transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs, creating two recombinant MDVs, rMDV/ALV-gag+env and rMDV/ALV-env. Analysis of cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with the rMDVs revealed that Env and Gag were successfully expressed and that there was no difference in growth kinetics in cells infected with rMDVs compared with that of cells infected with the parent MDV. Chickens vaccinated with either rMDV revealed that positive serum antibodies were induced. Both rMDVs also effectively reduced the rate of positive viremia in chicken flocks challenged with ALV-J. The protective effect provided by rMDV/ALV-env inoculation was slightly stronger than that provided by rMDV/ALV-gag+env. This represents the first study where a potential rMDV vaccine, expressing ALV-J antigenic genes, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of ALV-J. Our study also opens new avenues for the control of MDV and ALV-J co-infection.