German Society of Biomechanics (DGfB) Young Investigator Award 2019: Proof-of-Concept of a Novel Knee Joint Simulator Allowing Rapid Motions at Physiological Muscle and Ground Reaction Forces.
ABSTRACT: The in vitro determination of realistic loads acting in knee ligaments, articular cartilage, menisci and their attachments during daily activities require the creation of physiological muscle forces, ground reaction force and unconstrained kinematics. However, no in vitro test setup is currently available that is able to simulate such physiological loads during squatting and jump landing exercises. Therefore, a novel knee joint simulator allowing such physiological loads in combination with realistic, rapid movements is presented. To gain realistic joint positions and muscle forces serving as input parameters for the simulator, a combined in vivo motion analysis and inverse dynamics (MAID) study was undertaken with 11 volunteers performing squatting and jump landing exercises. Subsequently, an in vitro study using nine human knee joint specimens was conducted to prove the functionality of the simulator. To do so, slow squatting without muscle force simulation representing quasi-static loading conditions and slow squatting and jump landing with physiological muscle force simulation were carried out. During all tests ground reaction force, tibiofemoral contact pressure, and tibial rotation characteristics were simultaneously recorded. The simulated muscle forces obtained were in good correlation (0.48 ? R ? 0.92) with those from the in vivo MAID study. The resulting vertical ground reaction force showed a correlation of R = 0.93. On the basis of the target parameters of ground reaction force, tibiofemoral contact pressure and tibial rotation, it could be concluded that the knee joint load was loaded physiologically. Therefore, this is the first in vitro knee joint simulator allowing squatting and jump landing exercises in combination with physiological muscle forces that finally result in realistic ground reaction forces and physiological joint loading conditions.
Project description:Women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have different neuromuscular strategies than noninjured women during functional tasks after ligament reconstruction and rehabilitation.Landing from a jump creates high loads on the knee creating dynamic instability in women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, whereas noninjured women have stable knee landing mechanics.Controlled laboratory study.Fifteen noninjured women and 13 women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed 5 trials of a single-legged 40-cm drop jump and 2 trials of a 20-cm up-down hop task. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to compare hip and knee joint kinematics, knee joint moments, ground-reaction forces, and electromyographic findings between the dominant leg in noninjured women and reconstructed leg in women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.No statistically significant differences between groups were found for peak hip and knee joint angles for the drop jump task. Statistically significant differences in neuromuscular activity (P = .001) and anterior-posterior knee shear forces (P < .001) were seen in women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared with noninjured women in the drop jump task. However, no statistically significant differences (P > .05) between groups were found for either peak hip and knee joint angles, peak joint kinetics, or electromyographic findings during the up-down hop task.Women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have neuromuscular strategies that allow them to land from a jump similar to healthy women, but they exhibit joint moments that could predispose them to future injury if they participate in sports that require jumping and landing.
Project description:PURPOSE:Running at high speed and sudden change in direction or activity stresses the knee. Surprisingly, not many studies have investigated the effects of sprinting on knee's kinetics and kinematics of soccer players. Hence, this study is aimed to investigate indices of injury risk factors of jumping-landing maneuvers performed immediately after sprinting in male soccer players. METHODS:Twenty-three collegiate male soccer players (22.1±1.7 years) were tested in four conditions; vertical jump (VJ), vertical jump immediately after slow running (VJSR), vertical jump immediately after sprinting (VJFR) and double horizontal jump immediately after sprinting (HJFR). The kinematics and kinetics data were measured using Vicon motion analyzer (100Hz) and two Kistler force platforms (1000Hz), respectively. RESULTS:For knee flexion joint angle, (p = 0.014, ? = 0.15) and knee valgus moment (p = 0.001, ? = 0.71) differences between condition in the landing phase were found. For knee valgus joint angle, a main effect between legs in the jumping phase was found (p = 0.006, ? = 0.31), which suggests bilateral deficit existed between the right and left lower limbs. CONCLUSION:In brief, the important findings were greater knee valgus moment and less knee flexion joint angle proceeding sprint (HJFR & VJFR) rather than no sprint condition (VJ) present an increased risk for knee injuries. These results seem to suggest that running and sudden subsequent jumping-landing activity experienced during playing soccer may negatively change the knee valgus moment. Thus, sprinting preceding a jump task may increase knee risk factors such as moment and knee flexion joint angle.
Project description:Dynamic knee valgus during landings is associated with an increased risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. In addition, the impact on the body during landings must be attenuated in the lower extremity joints. The purpose of this study was to investigate landing biomechanics during landing with dynamic knee valgus by measuring the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and angular impulses in the lower extremity during a single-leg landing. The study included 34 female college students, who performed the single-leg drop vertical jump. Lower extremity kinetic and kinematic data were obtained from a 3D motion analysis system. Participants were divided into valgus (N = 19) and varus (N = 15) groups according to the knee angular displacement during landings. The vGRF and angular impulses of the hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by integrating the vGRF-time curve and each joint's moment-time curve. vGRF impulses did not differ between two groups. Hip angular impulse in the valgus group was significantly smaller than that in the varus group (0.019 ± 0.033 vs. 0.067 ± 0.029 Nms/kgm, p<0.01), whereas knee angular impulse was significantly greater (0.093 ± 0.032 vs. 0.045 ± 0.040 Nms/kgm, p<0.01). There was no difference in ankle angular impulse between the groups. Our results indicate that dynamic knee valgus increases the impact the knee joint needs to attenuate during landing; conversely, the knee varus participants were able to absorb more of the landing impact with the hip joint.
Project description:BACKGROUND:External loading of the ligamentous tissues induces mechanical creep, which modifies neuromuscular response to perturbations. It is not well understood how ligamentous creep affects athletic performance and contributes to modifications of knee biomechanics during functional tasks. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanical and neuromuscular responses to single leg drop landing perturbations before and after passive loading of the knee joint. METHODS:Descriptive laboratory study. Male (n = 7) and female (n = 14) participants' (21.3 ± 2.1 yrs., 1.69 ± 0.09 m, 69.3 ± 13.0 kg) right hip, knee, and ankle kinematics were assessed during drop landings performed from a 30 cm height onto a force platform before and after a 10 min creep protocol. Electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), semimembranosus (SM), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. The creep protocol involved fixing the knee joint at 35° during static loading with perpendicular loads of either 200 N (males) or 150 N (females). Maximum, minimum, range of motion (ROM), and angular velocities were assessed for the hip, knee, and ankle joints, while normalized EMG (NEMG), vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF), and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed at landing using ANOVAs. Alpha was set at 0.05. RESULTS:Maximum hip flexion velocity decreased (p < 0.01). Minimum knee flexion velocity increased (p < 0.02). Minimum knee ad/abduction velocity decreased (p < 0.001). Ankle ROM decreased (p < 0.001). aVGRF decreased (p < 0.02). RFD had a non-significant trend (p = 0.076). NAEMG was significant between muscle groups (p < 0.02). CONCLUSION:Distinct changes in velocity parameters are attributed to the altered mechanical behavior of the knee joint tissues and may contribute to changes in the loading of the leg during landing.
Project description:During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a 'shock-absorber' mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle-tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5-1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle-tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length-tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treadmill exercise is commonly used as an alternative to over-ground walking or running. Increasing evidence indicated the kinetics of treadmill exercise is different from that of over-ground. Biomechanics of treadmill or over-ground exercises have been investigated in terms of energy consumption, ground reaction force, and surface EMG signals. These indexes cannot accurately characterize the musculoskeletal loading, which directly contributes to tissue injuries. This study aimed to quantify the differences of lower limb joint angles and muscle forces in treadmills and over-ground exercises. 10 healthy volunteers were required to walk at 100 and 120 steps/min and run at 140 and 160 steps/min on treadmill and ground. The joint flexion angles were obtained from the motion capture experiments and were used to calculate the muscle forces with an inverse dynamic method. RESULTS:Hip, knee, and ankle joint motions of treadmill and over-ground conditions were similar in walking, yet different in running. Compared with over-ground running, joint motion ranges in treadmill running were smaller. They were also less affected by stride frequency. Maximum Gastrocnemius force was greater in treadmill walking, yet maximum Rectus femoris and Vastus forces were smaller. Maximum Gastrocnemius and Soleus forces were greater in treadmill running. CONCLUSIONS:Treadmill exercise results in smoother joint kinematics. In terms of muscle force, treadmill exercise requires lower loading on knee extensor, yet higher loading on plantar flexor, especially on Gastrocnemius. The findings and the methodology can provide the basis for rehabilitation therapy customization and sophistic treadmill design.
Project description:Knowledge of the forces acting on musculoskeletal joint tissues during movement benefits tissue engineering, artificial joint replacement, and our understanding of ligament and cartilage injury. Computational models can be used to predict these internal forces, but musculoskeletal models that simultaneously calculate muscle force and the resulting loading on joint structures are rare. This study used publicly available gait, skeletal geometry, and instrumented prosthetic knee loading data  to evaluate muscle driven forward dynamics simulations of walking. Inputs to the simulation were measured kinematics and outputs included muscle, ground reaction, ligament, and joint contact forces. A full body musculoskeletal model with subject specific lower extremity geometries was developed in the multibody framework. A compliant contact was defined between the prosthetic femoral component and tibia insert geometries. Ligament structures were modeled with a nonlinear force-strain relationship. The model included 45 muscles on the right lower leg. During forward dynamics simulations a feedback control scheme calculated muscle forces using the error signal between the current muscle lengths and the lengths recorded during inverse kinematics simulations. Predicted tibio-femoral contact force, ground reaction forces, and muscle forces were compared to experimental measurements for six different gait trials using three different gait types (normal, trunk sway, and medial thrust). The mean average deviation (MAD) and root mean square deviation (RMSD) over one gait cycle are reported. The muscle driven forward dynamics simulations were computationally efficient and consistently reproduced the inverse kinematics motion. The forward simulations also predicted total knee contact forces (166N<MAD<404N, 212N<RMSD<448N) and vertical ground reaction forces (66N<MAD<90N, 97N<RMSD<128N) well within 28% and 16% of experimental loads, respectively. However the simplified muscle length feedback control scheme did not realistically represent physiological motor control patterns during gait. Consequently, the simulations did not accurately predict medial/lateral tibio-femoral force distribution and muscle activation timing.
Project description:Background/Objective:The muscle activity before the initial contact between during jump landings is referred to as the pre-activity. The muscle pre-activity that occur during jump landing are considered to be an important predictor of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. ACL injury prevention programs have been widely conducted; these programs are generally focused on increasing the muscle pre-activity and include rotational jump landing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the timing of the muscle pre-activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps during 180° and 360° rotational jump landing. Methods:The participants were 10 healthy females. Electromyography was conducted on the knee joint muscles of the left leg (the non-dominant leg) during clockwise 180° and 360° rotational jump landings. Results:The muscle pre-activities during 180° rotational jump landing was VM: 35.68?±?11.22 msec, RF: 38.05?±?14.77 msec, VL: 47.10?±?19.96 msec, BF: 115.63?±?30.48 msec and SM: 136.45?±?47.52 msec. And the muscle pre-activities during 360° rotational jump landing was VM: 45.25?±?17.41 msec, RF: 42.38?±?13.35 msec, VL: 48.75?±?19.20 msec, BF: 132.20?±?46.74 msec and SM: 140.70?±?40.64 msec. For both the 180° rotational jump landing and the 360° jump landing, the pre-activities of the hamstrings occurred significantly earlier than those of the quadriceps (p?<?0.01). Conclusion:The results of the present study indicate that it may be beneficial for ACL injury prevention programs to include rotational jump landing tasks.
Project description:Varus-valgus (LAX(VV)) and internal-external (LAX(IER)) rotational knee laxity have received attention as potential contributing factors in anterior cruciate ligament injury. This study compared persons with above-and below-average LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) values on hip and knee neuromechanics during drop jump landings.People with greater LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) values will have greater challenges controlling frontal and transverse plane knee motions, as evidenced by greater joint excursions, joint moments, and muscle activation levels during the landing phase.Descriptive laboratory study.Recreationally active participants (52 women and 44 men) between 18 and 30 years old were measured for LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) and for their muscle activation and transverse and frontal plane hip and knee kinetics and kinematics during the initial landing phase of a drop jump. The mean value was obtained for each sex, and those with above-average values on LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) (LAX(HIGH) = 17 women, 16 men) were compared with those with below-average values (LAX(LOW) = 18 women, 17 men).Women with LAX(HIGH) verus LAX(LOW) were initially positioned in greater hip adduction and knee valgus and also produced more prolonged internal hip adduction and knee varus moments as they moved toward greater hip adduction and internal rotation as the landing progressed. These patterns in LAX(HIGH) women were accompanied by greater prelanding and postlanding muscle activation amplitudes. Men with LAX(HIGH) versus LAX(LOW) also demonstrated greater hip adduction motion and produced greater internal hip internal rotation and knee varus and internal rotation moments.Participants with greater LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) landed with greater hip and knee transverse and frontal plane hip and knee motions.People (especially, women) with increased frontal and transverse plane knee laxity demonstrate motions associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms.
Project description:Posterolateral corner (PLC) structures of the knee joint comprise complex anatomical soft tissues that support static and dynamic functional movements of the knee. Most previous studies analyzed posterolateral stability in vitro under static loading conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the contributions of the lateral (fibular) collateral ligament (LCL), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), and popliteus tendon (PT) to cruciate ligament forces under simulated dynamic loading conditions by using selective individual resection. We combined medical imaging and motion capture of healthy subjects (four males and one female) to develop subject-specific knee models that simulated the 12 degrees of freedom of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint behaviors. These computational models were validated by comparing electromyographic (EMG) data with muscle activation data and were based on previous experimental studies. A rigid multi-body dynamics simulation using a lower extremity musculoskeletal model was performed to incorporate intact and selective resection of ligaments, based on a novel force-dependent kinematics method, during gait (walking) and squatting. Deficiency of the PLC structures resulted in increased loading on the posterior cruciate ligament and anterior cruciate ligament. Among PLC structures, the PT is the most influential on cruciate ligament forces under dynamic loading conditions.