Efficient production of isomelezitose by a glucosyltransferase activity in Metschnikowia reukaufii cell extracts.
ABSTRACT: Metschnikowia reukaufii is a widespread yeast able to grow in the plants' floral nectaries, an environment of extreme conditions with sucrose concentrations exceeding 400 g l-1 , which led us into the search for enzymatic activities involved in this sugar use/transformation. New oligosaccharides were produced by transglucosylation processes employing M. reukaufii cell extracts in overload-sucrose reactions. These products were purified and structurally characterized by MS-ESI and NMR techniques. The reaction mixture included new sugars showing a great variety of glycosidic bonds including ?-(1?1), ?-(1?3) and ?-(1?6) linkages. The main product synthesized was the trisaccharide isomelezitose, whose maximum concentration reached 81 g l-1 , the highest amount reported for any unmodified enzyme or microbial extract. In addition, 51 g l-1 of the disaccharide trehalulose was also produced. Both sugars show potential nutraceutical and prebiotic properties. Interestingly, the sugar mixture obtained in the biosynthetic reactions also contained oligosaccharides such as esculose, a rare trisaccharide with no previous NMR structure elucidation, as well as erlose, melezitose and theanderose. All the sugars produced are naturally found in honey. These compounds are of biotechnological interest due to their potential food, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications.
Project description:Several hemipteran species feed on the phloem sap of plants and produce large amounts of honeydew that is collected by bees to produce honeydew honey. Therefore, it is important to know whether it is predominantly the hemipteran species or the host plant to influence the honeydew composition. This is particularly relevant for those botanical and zoological species from which the majority of honeydew honey originates. To investigate this issue, honeydew from two Cinara species located on Abies alba as well as from two Cinara and two Physokermes species located on Picea abies were collected. Phloem exudates of the host plants were also analyzed. Honeydew of all species contained different proportions of hexoses, sucrose, melezitose, erlose, and further di- and trisaccharides, whereas the phloem exudates of the host trees contained no trisaccharides. Moreover, the proportions of sugars differed significantly between hemipteran species feeding on the same tree species. Sucrose hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation was shown in whole-body homogenates of aphids. The type of the produced oligosaccharides in the aphid-extracts correlated with the oligosaccharide composition in the honeydew of the different aphid species. The total contents of amino acids and inorganic ions in the honeydew were much lower than the sugar content. Glutamine and glutamate were predominant amino acids in the honeydew of all six hemipteran species and also in the phloem exudates of both tree species. Potassium was the dominant inorganic ion in all honeydew samples and also in the phloem exudate. Statistical analyses reveal that the sugar composition of honeydew is determined more by the hemipteran species than by the host plant. Consequently, it can be assumed that the sugar composition of honeydew honey is also more influenced by the hemipteran species than by the host tree.
Project description:1. Partially purified sucrose phosphatase from immature stem tissue of sugarcane is inhibited by sucrose. The enzyme was also inhibited by maltose, melezitose and 6-kestose but not by eight other sugars, including glucose and fructose. 2. The relative effectiveness of sucrose, maltose and melezitose as inhibitors is different for sucrose phosphatase from different plants. 3. The inhibition of the sugar-cane enzyme by sucrose was shown to be partially competitive. The K(i) for sucrose is about 10mm. 4. Melezitose is also a partially competitive inhibitor of the enzyme but the inhibition by maltose is probably mixed. 5. The possibility that sucrose controls both the rate of accumulation of sucrose in stems of sugar-cane and sucrose synthesis in leaves by inhibiting sucrose phosphatase is discussed.
Project description:In general, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) feed on honey produced from collected nectar. In the absence of nectar, during certain times of the year or in monocultural landscapes, honey bees forage on honeydew. Honeydew is excreted by different herbivores of the order Hemiptera that consume phloem sap of plant species. In comparison to nectar, honeydew is composed of a higher variety of sugars and additional sugars with higher molecular weight, like the trisaccharide melezitose that can be a major constituent of honeydew. However, melezitose-containing honey is known to cause malnutrition in overwintering honey bees. Following the hypothesis that melezitose may be the cause for the so called 'honeydew flow disease', three independent feeding experiments with caged bees were conducted in consecutive years. Bees fed with melezitose showed increased food uptake, higher gut weights and elevated mortality compared to bees fed a control diet. Moreover, severe disease symptoms, such as swollen abdomen, abdomen tipping and impaired movement were observed in melezitose-fed bees. 16S-amplicon sequencing indicated that the melezitose diet changed the species composition of the lactic acid bacteria community within the gut microbiota. Based on these results, we conclude that melezitose cannot be easily digested by the host and may accumulate in the hindgut. Within cages or during winter, when there is no opportunity for excretion, the accumulated melezitose can cause severe intestinal symptoms and death of the bees, probably as result of poor melezitose metabolism capabilities in the intestinal microbiota. These findings confirm the causal relation between the trisaccharide melezitose and the honeydew flow disease and indicate a possible mechanism of pathogenesis.
Project description:Background:The reports about valuable oligosaccharides in ginseng are quite limited. There is an urgent need to develop a practical procedure to detect and analyze ginseng oligosaccharides. Methods:The oligosaccharide extracts from ginseng were permethylated by solid-phase methylation method and then were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q-Orbitrap/MS. The sequence, linkage, and configuration information of oligosaccharides were determined by using accurate m/z value and tandem mass information. Several standard references were used to further confirm the identification. The oligosaccharide composition in white ginseng and red ginseng was compared using a multivariate statistical analysis method. Results:The nonreducing oligosaccharide erlose among 12 oligosaccharides identified was reported for the first time in ginseng. In the comparison of the oligosaccharide extracts from white ginseng and red ginseng, a clear separation was observed in the partial least squares-discriminate analysis score plot, indicating the sugar differences in these two kinds of ginseng samples. The glycans with variable importance in the projection value large than 1.0 were considered to contribute most to the classification. The contents of oligosaccharides in red ginseng were lower than those in white ginseng, and the contents of maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, maltoheptaose, maltooctaose, maltononaose, sucrose, and erlose decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in red ginseng. Conclusion:A solid-phase methylation method combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to analyze the oligosaccharides in ginseng extracts, which provides the possibility for holistic evaluation of ginseng oligosaccharides. The comparison of oligosaccharide composition of white ginseng and red ginseng could help understand the differences in pharmacological activities between these two kinds of ginseng samples from the perspective of glycans.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses.<h4>Results</h4>Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: ?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-?-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-?-D-glucopyranoside (named ?-planteose), ?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1)-?-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-?-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose), ?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-?-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose), and ?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-?-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose). 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical, the microbiological, and the antioxidant characteristics of unifloral honey, polyfloral honey, honeydew, and hay meadows honey. Hay meadow is type of semi-natural grassland with a great floral diversity, an important resource for pollinators. Grasslands are the source of the spring nectar honey obtained in May and June. Water content, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose, melezitose, maltose, erlose, turanose, and raffinose), electrical conductivity, phenolic content (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-hydrxybenzoic acid, vanilic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, myricetin, quercitin, luteolin, kaempferol), color, viscosity, and microbiological characteristics were performed for all samples of honey. The total polyphenols content was significant for grassland honey (21.50 mg/100 g) and honeydew (30.49 mg/100 g) and less significant for acacia (0.08 mg/100 g) and rape honey (0.14 mg/100 g). All samples were microbiologically safe, and standard plate count (SPC) values were <10 cfu/g for all the samples, but the grassland honey had the highest microbiological quality: 33.3% of samples without microorganisms, 50.0% with the presence of yeast under limit, and 16.7% with yeast and mold under limit, a situation that does not meet other types of honey. The results of statistical analysis obtained with principal component analysis (PCA) showed a major difference between the grassland honey and the other types of honey.
Project description:The naturally occurring structural isomer of sucrose, trehalulose, is produced by sucrose isomerase (SI). Screening of chromosomal DNA from "Pseudomonas mesoacidophila" MX-45 with an SI-specific probe facilitated the cloning of two adjacent gene homologs, mutA and mutB. Both genes were expressed separately in Escherichia coli, and their enzyme products were characterized. MutA hydrolyzed the substrates trehalulose, isomaltulose, and sucrose into glucose and fructose. Due to its highest activity on trehalulose, MutA was referred to as trehalulase. mutB encodes the SI (trehalulose synthase) and catalyzes the isomerization of sucrose to mainly trehalulose. From Northern blot analysis it is apparent that the mutB gene is not transcribed as part of an operon and was transcriptionally upregulated when P. mesoacidophila MX-45 cells were grown in sucrose medium, whereas under investigated conditions no transcript for mutA was detected. Mutants of mutB were created by a random mutagenesis approach in order to alter the product specificity of MutB. Two types of mutants have emerged, one type that prefers the hydrolytic reaction on sucrose and another type that still acts as an SI but with a significant shift in the product from trehalulose to isomaltulose. The hydrolytic character of MutB R311C was demonstrated through its higher catalytic efficiency for glucose production over trehalulose production. MutB D442N favored the transfer reaction, with an isomer preference for isomaltulose.
Project description:The ability of an inulosucrase (IS) from Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604 to synthesize fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and maltosylfructosides (MFOS) in the presence of sucrose and sucrose-maltose mixtures was investigated after optimization of synthesis conditions, including enzyme concentration, temperature, pH, and reaction time. The maximum formation of FOS, which consist of ?-2,1-linked fructose to sucrose, was 45% (in weight with respect to the initial amount of sucrose) and was obtained after 24 h of reaction at 55°C in the presence of sucrose (300 g liter(-1)) and 1.6 U ml(-1) of IS-25 mM sodium acetate buffer-1 mM CaCl2 (pH 5.2). The production of MFOS was also studied as a function of the initial ratios of sucrose to maltose (10:50, 20:40, 30:30, and 40:20, expressed in g 100 ml(-1)). The highest yield in total MFOS was attained after 24 to 32 h of reaction time and ranged from 13% (10:50 sucrose/maltose) to 52% (30:30 sucrose/maltose) in weight with respect to the initial amount of maltose. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural characterization indicated that IS from L. gasseri specifically transferred fructose moieties of sucrose to either C-1 of the reducing end or C-6 of the nonreducing end of maltose. Thus, the trisaccharide erlose [?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-fructofuranoside] was the main synthesized MFOS followed by neo-erlose [?-d-fructofuranosyl-(2?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranose]. The formation of MFOS with a higher degree of polymerization was also demonstrated by the transfer of additional fructose residues to C-1 of either the ?-2,1-linked fructose or the ?-2,6-linked fructose to maltose, revealing the capacity of MFOS to serve as acceptors.
Project description:Two alpha-glucosidase-encoding genes (agl1 and agl2) from Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 were identified and characterized. Based on their similarity to characterized carbohydrate hydrolases, the Agl1 and Agl2 enzymes are both assigned to a subgroup of the glycosyl hydrolase family 13, the alpha-1,6-glucosidases (EC 184.108.40.206). Recombinant Agl1 and Agl2 into which a His(12) sequence was incorporated (Agl1(His) and Agl2(His), respectively) exhibited hydrolytic activity towards panose, isomaltose, isomaltotriose, and four sucrose isomers--palatinose, trehalulose, turanose, and maltulose--while also degrading trehalose and, to a lesser extent, nigerose. The preferred substrates for both enzymes were panose, isomaltose, and trehalulose. Furthermore, the pH and temperature optima for both enzymes were determined, showing that Agl1(His) exhibits higher thermo and pH optima than Agl2(His). The two purified alpha-1,6-glucosidases were also shown to have transglycosylation activity, synthesizing oligosaccharides from palatinose, trehalulose, trehalose, panose, and isomaltotriose.
Project description:The transport of carbohydrates by Streptococcus mutans is accomplished by the phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (PTS) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. To undertake a global transcriptional analysis of all S. mutans sugar transporters simultaneously, we used a whole-genome expression microarray. Global transcription profiles of S. mutans UA159 were determined for several monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose, and mannose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, and trehalose), a beta-glucoside (cellobiose), oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose, and maltotriose), and a sugar alcohol (mannitol). The results revealed that PTSs were responsible for transport of monosaccharides, disaccharides, beta-glucosides, and sugar alcohol. Six PTSs were transcribed only if a specific sugar was present in the growth medium; thus, they were regulated at the transcriptional level. These included transporters for fructose, lactose, cellobiose, and trehalose and two transporters for mannitol. Three PTSs were repressed under all conditions tested. Interestingly, five PTSs were always highly expressed regardless of the sugar source used, presumably suggesting their availability for immediate uptake of most common dietary sugars (glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose). The ABC transporters were found to be specific for oligosaccharides, raffinose, stachyose, and isomaltosaccharides. Compared to the PTSs, the ABC transporters showed higher transcription under several tested conditions, suggesting that they might be transporting multiple substrates.