Potassium Intake Prevents the Induction of the Renin-Angiotensin System and Increases Medullary ACE2 and COX-2 in the Kidneys of Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertensive Rats.
ABSTRACT: In angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertensive rats there is an increased expression of proximal tubule angiotensinogen (AGT), collecting duct renin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which contributes to intratubular Ang II formation. Ang II acts on Ang II type 1 receptors promoting sodium retention and vasoconstriction. However concurrently, the ACE2-Ang-(1-7) axis and the expression of kallikrein and medullary prostaglandins counteract the effects of Ang II, promoting natriuresis and vasodilation. Human studies demonstrate that dietary potassium (K+) intake lowers blood pressure. In this report we evaluate the expression of AGT, ACE, medullary prorenin/renin, ACE2, kallikrein and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in Ang II-infused rats fed with high K+ diet (2%) for 14 days. Dietary K+ enhances diuresis in non-infused and in Ang II-infused rats. The rise in systolic blood pressure in Ang II-infused rats was attenuated by dietary K+. Ang II-infused rats showed increased renal protein levels of AGT, ACE and medullary prorenin and renin. This effect was attenuated in the Ang II + K+ group. Ang II infusion decreased ACE2 compared to the control group; however, K+ diet prevented this effect in the renal medulla. Furthermore, medullary COX-2 was dramatically induced by K+ diet in non-infused and in Ang II infused rats. Dietary K+ greatly increased kallikrein immunostaining in normotensive rats and in Ang II-hypertensive rats. These results indicate that a high K+ diet attenuates Ang II-dependent hypertension by preventing the induction of ACE, AGT and collecting duct renin and by enhancing medullary COX-2 and ACE2 protein expression in the kidney.
Project description:Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to have both central and peripheral effects in mediating hypertension, for which the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an important brain cardio-regulatory centre. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a negative regulator of the pro-hypertensive actions of Ang II. Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that Ang II infusion decreases ACE2 expression in the PVN. In the present study, we hypothesized that ACE2 overexpression in the PVN will have beneficial effects in counteracting Ang II-induced hypertension.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Bilateral microinjection of an adenovirus encoding hACE2 (Ad-ACE2) into the PVN was used to overexpress ACE2 within this region. Mean arterial pressure measured by radiotelemetry was significantly increased after 14 days in Ang II-infused (200 ng/kg/min) rats vs. saline-infused controls (162.9 ± 3.6 vs. 102.3 ± 1.5 mmHg). Bilateral PVN microinjection of Ad-ACE2 attenuated this Ang II-induced hypertension (130.2 ± 5.7 vs. 162.9 ± 3.6 mmHg). ACE2 overexpression also significantly decreased AT(1)R and ACE expression and increased AT(2)R and Mas expression in the PVN. Additionally, ACE2 overexpression in the PVN attenuated the Ang II-induced increase in the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in the PVN.Our findings suggest that attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN in combination with the shift of the renin-angiotensin system towards the anti-hypertensive axis (ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas) may be responsible for the overall beneficial effects of ACE2 overexpression in the PVN on the Ang II-induced hypertensive response.
Project description:The testis determining protein, Sry, has functions outside of testis determination. Multiple Sry loci are found on the Y-chromosome. Proteins from these loci have differential activity on promoters of renin-angiotensin system genes, possibly contributing to elevation of blood pressure. Variation at amino acid 76 accounts for the majority of differential effects by rat proteins Sry1 and Sry3. Human SRY regulated rat promoters in the same manner as rat Sry, elevating Agt, Ren, and Ace promoter activity while downregulating Ace 2. Human SRY significantly regulated human promoters of AGT, REN, ACE2, AT2, and MAS compared to control levels, elevating AGT and REN promoter activity while decreasing ACE2, AT2, and MAS. While the effect of human SRY on individual genes is often modest, we show that many different genes participating in the renin-angiotensin system can be affected by SRY, apparently in coordinated fashion, to produce more Ang II and less Ang-(1-7).
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:We demonstrated that the Sry gene complex on the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) Y chromosome is a candidate locus for hypertension that accounts for the SHR Y chromosome blood pressure effect. All rat strains examined to date share six Sry loci, and a seventh Sry locus (Sry3) appears to be unique to SHR male rats. Previously, we showed that Sry1 increased activity of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter in transfected PC12 cells, and Sry1 delivered to adrenal gland of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats increased blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether renin-angiotensin system genes participate in Sry-mediated effects. METHOD:Sry expression vectors were co-transfected into CHO cells with luciferase reporter constructs containing promoters of angiotensinogen (Agt -1430/+22), renin (Ren -1050/-1), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (ACE -1677/+21) and ACE2 (ACE2 -1091/+83). RESULTS:Sry1, Sry2 and Sry3 differentially upregulated activity of the promoters of angiotensinogen, renin and ACE genes and downregulated ACE2 promoter activity. The largest effect was seen with Sry3, which increased activity of angiotensinogen promoter by 1.7-fold, renin promoter by 1.3-fold, ACE promoter by 2.6-fold and decreased activity of ACE2 promoter by 0.5-fold. The effect of Sry1 on promoter activity was significantly less than that of Sry3. Sry2 activated promoters at a significantly lower level than Sry1 did. The result of either an additive effect of Sry regulation of multiple genes in the renin-angiotensin system or alterations in expression of a single gene could favor increased levels of Ang II and decreased levels of Ang-(1-7). CONCLUSION:These actions of Sry could result in increased blood pressure in males and contribute to sex differences in blood pressure.
Project description:To determine whether in the transgenic rat model [TGR(Cyp1a1Ren2)] with inducible ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension changes in the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, we examined the gene expression of angiotensinogen (AGT) in renal cortical tissues and renin and prorenin receptor [(P)RR] in the collecting duct (CD) of the kidneys from Cyp1a1Ren2 rats (n = 6) fed a normal diet containing 0.3% indole-3-carbinol (I3C) for 10 days and noninduced rats maintained on a normal diet (0.6% NaCl diet; n = 6). Rats induced with I3C developed malignant hypertension and exhibited alterations in the expression of renin and (P)RR expressed by the CD cells. In the renal medullary tissues of the Cyp1a1Ren2 transgenic rats with malignant hypertension, renin protein levels in CD cells were associated with maintained renin content and lack of suppression of the endogenous Ren1c gene expression. Furthermore, these tissues exhibited increased levels of (P)RR transcript, as well as of the protein levels of the soluble form of this receptor, the s(P)RR. Intriguingly, although previous findings demonstrated that urinary AGT excretion is augmented in Cyp1a1Ren2 transgenic rats with malignant hypertension, in the present study we did not find changes in the gene expression of AGT in renal cortical tissues of these rats. The data suggest that upregulation of renin and the s(P)RR in the CD, especially in the renal medullary tissues of Cyp1a1Ren2 transgenic rats with malignant hypertension, along with the previously demonstrated increased availability of AGT in the urine of these rats, may constitute a leading mechanism to explain elevated formation of kidney ANG II levels in this model of ANG II-dependent hypertension.
Project description:Distal nephron renin may provide a possible pathway for angiotensin (Ang) I generation from proximally delivered angiotensinogen. To examine the effects of Ang II on distal nephron renin, we compared renin protein and mRNA expression in control and Ang II-infused rats. Kidneys from sham (n=9) and Ang II-infused (80 ng/kg per minute, 13 days, n=10) Sprague-Dawley rats were processed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Ang II infusion increased systolic blood pressure (181+/-4 versus 115+/-5 mm Hg) and suppressed plasma and kidney cortex renin activity. Renin immunoreactivity was suppressed in juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) cells in Ang II-infused rats compared with sham (0.1+/-0.1 versus 1.0+/-0.1 relative ratio) but increased in distal nephron segments (6.4+/-1.4 versus 1.0+/-0.1 cortex; 2.5+/-0.3 versus 1.0+/-0.2 medulla). Tubular renin immunostaining was apically distributed in principal cells colocalizing with aquaporin-2 in connecting tubules and cortical and medullary collecting ducts. Renin protein levels were decreased in the kidney cortex of Ang II-infused rats compared with that of sham (0.4+/-0.2 versus 1.0+/-0.4) rats but higher in the kidney medulla (1.2+/-0.4 versus 1.0+/-0.1). In kidney medulla, RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR showed similar levels of renin transcript in both groups. In summary, the detection of renin mRNA in the renal medulla, which is devoid of JGA, indicates local synthesis rather than an uptake of JGA renin. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of Ang II on JGA renin, Ang II infusion stimulates renin protein expression in collecting ducts and maintains renin transcriptional levels in the medulla, which may contribute to the increased intrarenal Ang II levels in Ang II-dependent hypertension.
Project description:High sodium intake is known to regulate the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. The complex nature of the RAS reveals that its various components may have opposing effects on natriuresis and blood pressure regulation. We hypothesized that high sodium intake differentially regulates and shifts a balance between opposing components of the renal RAS, namely, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-ANG II-type 1 ANG II receptor (AT(1)R) vs. AT(2)-ACE2-angiotensinogen (Ang) (1-7)-Mas receptor (MasR), in obesity. In the present study, we evaluated protein and/or mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, renin, AT(1A/B)R, ACE, AT(2)R, ACE2, and MasR in the kidney cortex following 2 wk of a 8% high-sodium (HS) diet in lean and obese Zucker rats. The expression data showed that the relative expression pattern of ACE and AT(1B)R increased, renin decreased, and ACE2, AT(2)R, and MasR remained unaltered in HS-fed lean rats. On the other hand, HS intake in obese rats caused an increase in the cortical expression of ACE, a decrease in ACE2, AT(2)R, and MasR, and no changes in renin and AT(1)R. The cortical levels of ANG II increased by threefold in obese rats on HS compared with obese rats on normal salt (NS), which was not different than in lean rats. The HS intake elevated mean arterial pressure in obese rats (27 mmHg) more than in lean rats (16 mmHg). This study suggests that HS intake causes a pronounced increase in ANG II levels and a reduction in the expression of the ACE2-AT(2)R-MasR axis in the kidney cortex of obese rats. We conclude that such changes may lead to the potentially unopposed function of AT(1)R, with its various cellular and physiological roles, including the contribution to the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension.
Project description:Objective- AGT (Angiotensinogen) is the unique precursor of the renin-angiotensin system that is sequentially cleaved by renin and ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) to produce Ang II (angiotensin II). In this study, we determined how these renin-angiotensin components interact with megalin in kidney to promote atherosclerosis. Approach and Results- AGT, renin, ACE, and megalin were present in the renal proximal convoluted tubules of wild-type mice. Hepatocyte-specific AGT deficiency abolished AGT protein accumulation in proximal tubules and diminished Ang II concentrations in kidney, while renin was increased. Megalin was most abundant in kidney and exclusively present on the apical side of proximal tubules. Inhibition of megalin by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) led to ablation of AGT and renin proteins in proximal tubules, while leading to striking increases of urine AGT and renin concentrations, and 70% reduction of renal Ang II concentrations. However, plasma Ang II concentrations were unaffected. To determine whether AGT and megalin interaction contributes to atherosclerosis, we used both male and female low-density lipoprotein receptor-/- mice fed a saturated fat-enriched diet and administered vehicles (PBS or control ASO) or megalin ASO. Inhibition of megalin did not affect plasma cholesterol concentrations, but profoundly reduced atherosclerotic lesion size in both male and female mice. Conclusions- These results reveal a regulatory role of megalin in the intrarenal renin-angiotensin homeostasis and atherogenesis, positing renal Ang II to be an important contributor to atherosclerosis that is mediated through AGT and megalin interactions.
Project description:Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue.RAS and BP of 6-month old rats exposed to prenatal DEX and/or postnatal HF diet were examined.Prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF exerted a synergistic effect on systolic BP. Prenatal DEX exposure suppressed plasma angiotensin (ANG) I and ANG II, whereas postnatal HF suppressed plasma ANG-(1-7) level. Prenatal DEX increased prorenin receptor and renin levels, but suppressed angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting-enzyme 1 (ACE1) mRNA expressions in adipose tissue. Postnatal HF increased AGT mRNA expression, but suppressed prorenin receptor, renin, ACE2, ANG II type 2 receptor (AT2R), and Mas receptor (MasR) mRNA expression levels.Prenatal GC exposure altered the ACE1/ANG II/ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis, whereas postnatal HF negatively impacted the ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/MasR axis. Prenatal DEX exposure and postnatal HF synergistically elevated BP through a distinct programming mechanism of systemic and adipose RAS. Adipose RAS might be a target for precise hypertension treatment.
Project description:Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a negative regulator of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) through its role to degrade angiotensin II. In rats with subtotal nephrectomy (STNx), adverse cardiac remodelling occurs despite elevated cardiac ACE2 activity. We hypothesised that diminazene aceturate (DIZE), which has been described as having an off-target effect to activate ACE2, would have beneficial cardiac effects in STNx rats. STNx led to hypertension, diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and increased cardiac ACE, ACE2, Ang II and Ang 1-7 levels. Cardiac gene expression of ADAM17 was also increased. In STNx, two-weeks of subcutaneous DIZE (15mg/kg/d) had no effect on blood pressure but improved diastolic dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis, reduced ADAM17 mRNA and shifted the cardiac RAS balance to a cardioprotective profile with reduced ACE and Ang II. There was no change in cardiac ACE2 activity or in cardiac Ang 1-7 levels with DIZE. In conclusion, our results suggest that DIZE exerts a protective effect on the heart under the pathological condition of kidney injury. This effect was not due to improved kidney function, a fall in blood pressure or a reduction in LVH but was associated with a reduction in cardiac ACE and cardiac Ang II levels. As in vitro studies showed no direct effect of DIZE on ACE2 or ACE activity, the precise mechanism of action of DIZE remains to be determined.
Project description:Renin synthesis and secretion by principal cells of the collecting duct are enhanced in angiotensin (Ang) II-dependent hypertension. The presence of renin/(pro)renin and its receptor, the (pro)renin receptor ([P]RR), in the collecting duct may provide a pathway for Ang I generation with further conversion to Ang II. To assess whether (P)RR activation occurs during Ang II-dependent hypertension, we examined renal (P)RR levels and soluble (P)RR excretion in the urine of chronic Ang II-infused rats (80 ng/min; for 2 weeks; n=10) and sham-operated rats (n=10). Systolic blood pressure and Ang II levels in the plasma and kidney were increased whereas plasma renin activity was suppressed in Ang II-infused rats. Renal (P)RR transcripts were upregulated in the cortex and medulla of Ang II-infused rats. (P)RR immunoreactivity in collecting duct cells and the protein levels of the full-length form (37-kDa band) were significantly decreased in the medulla of Ang II-infused rats. The soluble (P)RR (28-kDa band) was detected in the renal medulla and urine samples of Ang II-infused rats, which also showed increases in urinary renin content. To determine whether the soluble (P)RR could stimulate Ang I formation, urine samples were incubated with recombinant human (pro)renin. Urine samples of Ang II-infused rats exhibited increased Ang I formation compared with sham-operated rats. Thus, in chronic Ang II-infused rats, the catalytic activity of the augmented renin produced in the collecting duct may be enhanced by the intraluminal soluble (P)RR and cell-surface located (P)RR, thus contributing to enhanced intratubular Ang II formation.