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Dynamic Relay of Protein-Bound Lipoic Acid in Staphylococcus aureus.


ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus competes for myriad essential nutrients during host infection. One of these nutrients is the organosulfur compound lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the activity of several metabolic enzyme complexes. In S. aureus, these include the E2 subunits of three ?-ketoacid dehydrogenases and two H proteins, GcvH of the glycine cleavage system and its paralog, GcvH-L. We previously determined that the S. aureus amidotransferase LipL is required for lipoylation of the E2 subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCODH) complexes. The results from this study, coupled with those from Bacillus subtilis, suggested that LipL catalyzes lipoyl transfer from H proteins to E2 subunits. However, to date, the range of LipL targets, the extent of LipL-dependent lipoic acid shuttling between lipoyl domain-containing proteins, and the importance of lipoyl relay in pathogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that LipL uses both lipoyl-H proteins as the substrates for lipoyl transfer to all E2 subunits. Moreover, LipL facilitates lipoyl relay between E2 subunits and between H proteins, a property that potentially constitutes an adaptive response to nutrient scarcity in the host, as LipL is required for virulence during infection. Together, these observations support a role for LipL in facilitating flexible lipoyl relay between proteins and highlight the complexity of protein lipoylation in S. aureus IMPORTANCE Protein lipoylation is a posttranslational modification that is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans. Lipoic acid modifications are found on five proteins in S. aureus, four of which are components of major metabolic enzymes. In some bacteria, the amidotransferase LipL is critical for the attachment of lipoic acid to these proteins, and yet it is unclear to what extent LipL facilitates the transfer of this cofactor. We find that S. aureus LipL flexibly shuttles lipoic acid among metabolic enzyme subunits, alluding to a dynamic redistribution mechanism within the bacterial cell. This discovery exemplifies a potential means by which bacteria optimize the use of scarce nutrients when resources are limited.

SUBMITTER: Teoh WP 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6805108 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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