Dynamic Relay of Protein-Bound Lipoic Acid in Staphylococcus aureus.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus competes for myriad essential nutrients during host infection. One of these nutrients is the organosulfur compound lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the activity of several metabolic enzyme complexes. In S. aureus, these include the E2 subunits of three ?-ketoacid dehydrogenases and two H proteins, GcvH of the glycine cleavage system and its paralog, GcvH-L. We previously determined that the S. aureus amidotransferase LipL is required for lipoylation of the E2 subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCODH) complexes. The results from this study, coupled with those from Bacillus subtilis, suggested that LipL catalyzes lipoyl transfer from H proteins to E2 subunits. However, to date, the range of LipL targets, the extent of LipL-dependent lipoic acid shuttling between lipoyl domain-containing proteins, and the importance of lipoyl relay in pathogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that LipL uses both lipoyl-H proteins as the substrates for lipoyl transfer to all E2 subunits. Moreover, LipL facilitates lipoyl relay between E2 subunits and between H proteins, a property that potentially constitutes an adaptive response to nutrient scarcity in the host, as LipL is required for virulence during infection. Together, these observations support a role for LipL in facilitating flexible lipoyl relay between proteins and highlight the complexity of protein lipoylation in S. aureus IMPORTANCE Protein lipoylation is a posttranslational modification that is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans. Lipoic acid modifications are found on five proteins in S. aureus, four of which are components of major metabolic enzymes. In some bacteria, the amidotransferase LipL is critical for the attachment of lipoic acid to these proteins, and yet it is unclear to what extent LipL facilitates the transfer of this cofactor. We find that S. aureus LipL flexibly shuttles lipoic acid among metabolic enzyme subunits, alluding to a dynamic redistribution mechanism within the bacterial cell. This discovery exemplifies a potential means by which bacteria optimize the use of scarce nutrients when resources are limited.
Project description:Lipoic acid is a cofactor required for intermediary metabolism that is either synthesized de novo or acquired from environmental sources. The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus encodes enzymes required for de novo biosynthesis, but also encodes two ligases, LplA1 and LplA2, that are sufficient for lipoic acid salvage during infection. S. aureus also encodes two H proteins, GcvH of the glycine cleavage system and the homologous GcvH-L encoded in an operon with LplA2. GcvH is a recognized conduit for lipoyl transfer to ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase E2 subunits, while the function of GcvH-L remains unclear. The potential to produce two ligases and two H proteins is an unusual characteristic of S. aureus that is unlike most other Gram positive Firmicutes and might allude to an expanded pathway of lipoic acid acquisition in this microorganism. Here, we demonstrate that LplA1 and LplA2 facilitate lipoic acid salvage by differentially targeting lipoyl domain-containing proteins; LplA1 targets H proteins and LplA2 targets ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase E2 subunits. Furthermore, GcvH and GcvH-L both facilitate lipoyl relay to E2 subunits. Altogether, these studies identify an expanded mode of lipoic acid salvage used by S. aureus and more broadly underscore the importance of bacterial adaptations when faced with nutritional limitation.
Project description:In the companion paper we reported that Bacillus subtilis requires three proteins for lipoic acid metabolism, all of which are members of the lipoate protein ligase family. Two of the proteins, LipM and LplJ, have been shown to be an octanoyltransferase and a lipoate?:?protein ligase respectively. The third protein, LipL, is essential for lipoic acid synthesis, but had no detectable octanoyltransferase or ligase activity either in vitro or in vivo. We report that LipM specifically modifies the glycine cleavage system protein, GcvH, and therefore another mechanism must exist for modification of other lipoic acid requiring enzymes (e.g. pyruvate dehydrogenase). We show that this function is provided by LipL, which catalyses the amidotransfer (transamidation) of the octanoyl moiety from octanoyl-GcvH to the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. LipL activity was demonstrated in vitro with purified components and proceeds via a thioester-linked acyl-enzyme intermediate. As predicted, ?gcvH strains are lipoate auxotrophs. LipL represents a new enzyme activity. It is a GcvH:[lipoyl domain] amidotransferase that probably uses a Cys-Lys catalytic dyad. Although the active site cysteine residues of LipL and LipB are located in different positions within the polypeptide chains, alignment of their structures show these residues occupy similar positions. Thus, these two homologous enzymes have convergent architectures.
Project description:Lipoic acid is synthesized by a remarkably atypical pathway in which the cofactor is assembled on its cognate proteins. An octanoyl moiety diverted from fatty acid synthesis is covalently attached to the acceptor protein, and sulfur insertion at carbons 6 and 8 of the octanoyl moiety form the lipoyl cofactor. Covalent attachment of this cofactor is required for function of several central metabolism enzymes, including the glycine cleavage H protein (GcvH). In Bacillus subtilis, GcvH is the sole substrate for lipoate assembly. Hence lipoic acid-requiring 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase (OADH) proteins acquire the cofactor only by transfer from lipoylated GcvH. Lipoyl transfer has been argued to be the primordial pathway of OADH lipoylation. The Escherichia coli pathway where lipoate is directly assembled on both its GcvH and OADH proteins, is proposed to have arisen later. Because roughly 3 billion years separate the divergence of these bacteria, it is surprising that E. coli GcvH functionally substitutes for the B. subtilis protein in lipoyl transfer. Known and putative GcvHs from other bacteria and eukaryotes also substitute for B. subtilis GcvH in OADH modification. Because glycine cleavage is the primary GcvH role in ancestral bacteria that lack OADH enzymes, lipoyl transfer is a "moonlighting" function: that is, development of a new function while retaining the original function. This moonlighting has been conserved in the absence of selection by some, but not all, GcvH proteins. Moreover, Aquifex aeolicus encodes five putative GcvHs, two of which have the moonlighting function, whereas others function only in glycine cleavage.
Project description:The virulence factors of pathogenic microbes often have single functions that permit immune suppression. However, a proportion possess multiple activities and are considered moonlighting proteins. By examining secreted virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus, we determine that the bacterial lipoic acid synthetase LipA suppresses macrophage activation. LipA is known to modify the E2 subunit of the metabolic enzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase (E2-PDH) with a fatty acid derivative, lipoic acid, yielding the metabolic protein lipoyl-E2-PDH. We demonstrate that lipoyl-E2-PDH is also released by S. aureus and moonlights as a macrophage immunosuppressant by reducing Toll-like receptor 1/2 (TLR1/2) activation by bacterial lipopeptides. A LipA-deficient strain induces heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which is diminished in the absence of TLR2. During murine systemic infection, LipA suppresses pro-inflammatory macrophage activation, rendering these cells inefficient at controlling infection. These observations suggest that bacterial metabolism and immune evasion are linked by virtue of this moonlighting protein.
Project description:Metagenomic analyses have advanced our understanding of ecological microbial diversity, but to what extent can metagenomic data be used to predict the metabolic capacity of difficult-to-study organisms and their abiotic environmental interactions? We tackle this question, using a comparative genomic approach, by considering the molecular basis of aerobiosis within archaea. Lipoylation, the covalent attachment of lipoic acid to 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes (OADHCs), is essential for metabolism in aerobic bacteria and eukarya. Lipoylation is catalysed either by lipoate protein ligase (LplA), which in archaea is typically encoded by two genes (LplA-N and LplA-C), or by a lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase (LipB or LipM) plus a lipoic acid synthetase (LipA). Does the genomic presence of lipoylation and OADHC genes across archaea from diverse habitats correlate with aerobiosis? First, analyses of 11,826 biotin protein ligase (BPL)-LplA-LipB transferase family members and 147 archaeal genomes identified 85 species with lipoylation capabilities and provided support for multiple ancestral acquisitions of lipoylation pathways during archaeal evolution. Second, with the exception of the Sulfolobales order, the majority of species possessing lipoylation systems exclusively retain LplA, or either LipB or LipM, consistent with archaeal genome streamlining. Third, obligate anaerobic archaea display widespread loss of lipoylation and OADHC genes. Conversely, a high level of correspondence is observed between aerobiosis and the presence of LplA/LipB/LipM, LipA and OADHC E2, consistent with the role of lipoylation in aerobic metabolism. This correspondence between OADHC lipoylation capacity and aerobiosis indicates that genomic pathway profiling in archaea is informative and that well characterized pathways may be predictive in relation to abiotic conditions in difficult-to-study extremophiles. Given the highly variable retention of gene repertoires across the archaea, the extension of comparative genomic pathway profiling to broader metabolic and homeostasis networks should be useful in revealing characteristics from metagenomic datasets related to adaptations to diverse environments.
Project description:The LipB octanoyltransferase catalyzes the first step of lipoic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli, transfer of the octanoyl moiety from octanoyl-acyl carrier protein to the lipoyl domains of the E2 subunits of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases of aerobic metabolism. Strains containing null mutations in lipB are auxotrophic for either lipoic acid or octanoic acid. We report the isolation of two spontaneously arising mutant strains that allow growth of lipB strains on glucose minimal medium; we determined that suppression was caused by single missense mutations within the coding sequence of the gene (lplA) that encodes lipoate-protein ligase. The LplA proteins encoded by the mutant genes have reduced K(m) values for free octanoic acid and thus are able to scavenge cytosolic octanoic acid for octanoylation of lipoyl domains.
Project description:Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the causative agent of pandemic pneumonia among pigs, namely, swine enzootic pneumonia. Although M. hyopneumoniae was first identified in 1965, little is known regarding its metabolic pathways, which might play a pivotal role during disease pathogenesis. Lipoate is an essential cofactor for enzymes important for central metabolism. However, the lipoate metabolism pathway in M. hyopneumoniae is definitely unclear. Here, we identified a novel gene, lpl, encoding a lipoate protein ligase in the genome of M. hyopneumoniae (Mhp-Lpl). This gene contains 1,032 base pairs and encodes a protein of 343 amino acids, which is between 7.5 and 36.09% identical to lipoate protein ligases (Lpls) of other species. Similar to its homologs in other species, Mhp-Lpl catalyzes the ATP-dependent activation of lipoate to lipoyl-AMP and the transfer of the activated lipoyl onto the lipoyl domains of M. hyopneumoniae GcvH (Mhp H) in vitro. Enzymatic and mutagenesis analysis indicate that residue K56 within the SKT sequence of Mhp H protein is the lipoyl moiety acceptor site. The three-dimensional structure showed typical lipoate protein ligase folding, with a large N-terminal domain and a small C-terminal domain. The large N-terminal domain is responsible for the full enzymatic activity of Mhp-Lpl. The identification and characterization of Mhp-Lpl will be beneficial to our understanding of M. hyopneumoniae metabolism. Summary:Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for the activation of some enzyme complexes involved in key metabolic processes. Lipoate protein ligases (Lpls) are responsible for the metabolism of lipoic acid. To date, little is known regarding the Lpls in M. hyopneumoniae. In this study, we identified a lipoate protein ligase of M. hyopneumoniae. We further analyzed the function, overall structure and ligand-binding site of this protein. The lipoate acceptor site on M. hyopneumoniae GcvH was also identified. Together, these findings reveal that Lpl exists in M. hyopneumoniae and will provide a basis for further exploration of the pathway of lipoic acid metabolism in M. hyopneumoniae.
Project description:Although a complete pathway of lipoic acid metabolism has been established in Escherichia coli, lipoic acid metabolism in other bacteria is more complex and incompletely understood. Listeria monocytogenes has been shown to utilize two lipoate-protein ligases for lipoic acid scavenging, whereas only one of the ligases can function in utilization of host-derived lipoic acid-modified peptides. We report that lipoic acid scavenging requires not only ligation of lipoic acid but also a lipoyl relay pathway in which an amidotransferase transfers lipoyl groups to the enzyme complexes that require the cofactor for activity. In addition, we provide evidence for a new lipoamidase activity that could allow utilization of lipoyl peptides by lipoate-protein ligase. These data support a model of an expanded, three-enzyme pathway for lipoic acid scavenging that seems widespread in the Firmicutes phylum of bacteria.
Project description:The lack of attachment of lipoic acid to its cognate enzyme proteins results in devastating human metabolic disorders. These mitochondrial disorders are evident soon after birth and generally result in early death. The mutations causing specific defects in lipoyl assembly map in three genes, LIAS, LIPT1, and LIPT2 Although physiological roles have been proposed for the encoded proteins, only the LIPT1 protein had been studied at the enzyme level. LIPT1 was reported to catalyze only the second partial reaction of the classical lipoate ligase mechanism. We report that the physiologically relevant LIPT1 enzyme activity is transfer of lipoyl moieties from the H protein of the glycine cleavage system to the E2 subunits of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases required for respiration (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase) and amino acid degradation. We also report that LIPT2 encodes an octanoyl transferase that initiates lipoyl group assembly. The human pathway is now biochemically defined.
Project description:Lipoyl synthases are key enzymes in lipoic acid biosynthesis, a co-factor of several enzyme complexes involved in central metabolism. Plant pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), located in mitochondria and plastids, catalyses the first step of fatty acid biosynthesis in these organelles. Among their different components, the E2 subunit requires the lipoic acid prosthetic group to be active. De novo lipoic acid biosynthesis is achieved by the successive action of two enzymes on octanoyl-ACP: octanoyltransferase (LIP2) and lipoyl synthase (LIP1). In this study, two plastidial lipoyl synthase genes from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were identified (HaLIP1p1 and HaLIP1p2), sequenced and cloned in a heterologous production system (Escherichia coli). Gene expression studies revealed similar expression patterns for both isoforms, with a slight predominance of HaLIP1p1 in vegetative tissues and mature seeds. Tertiary structural models for these enzymes indicate they both have the same theoretical catalytic sites, using lipoyl-lys and 5-deoxyadenosine as docking substrates. The fatty acid profile of E. coli cells overexpressing HaLIP1p1 and HaLIP1p2 did not present major differences, and the in vivo activity of both proteins was confirmed by complementation of an E. coli JW0623 mutant in which lipoyl synthase is defective. Although no significant differences were detected in the total fatty acid composition of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seeds overexpressing any of both proteins, a lipidomic analysis revealed a redistribution of the glycerolipid species, accompanied with increased phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content and a decrease in diacyglycerols (DAG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Depletion of the SAM co-factor caused by HaLIP1p1 and HaLIP1p2 overexpression in transgenic plants could explain this remodelling through its effects on PC synthesis.