Autophagy regulates the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells in LPS-induced pulmonary microvascular barrier damage.
ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been shown to be beneficial in some pulmonary diseases, and the paracrine effect is the major mechanism underlying ADSC-based therapy. Autophagy plays a crucial role in maintaining stem cell homeostasis and survival. However, the role of autophagy in mediating ADSC paracrine effects has not been thoroughly elucidated. We examined whether ADSCs participate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) barrier damage in a paracrine manner and illuminated the role of autophagy in regulating ADSC paracrine effects. PMVECs and ADSCs with or without autophagy inhibition were cocultured without intercellular contact, and the microvascular barrier function was assessed after LPS treatment. ADSC paracrine function was evaluated by detecting essential growth factors for endothelial cells. For in vivo experiments, ADSCs with or without autophagy inhibition were transplanted into LPS-induced lung-injury mice, and lung injury was assessed. ADSCs significantly alleviated LPS-induced microvascular barrier injury. In addition, ADSC paracrine levels of VEGF, FGF, and EGF were induced by LPS treatment, especially in the coculture condition. Inhibiting autophagy weakened the paracrine function and the protective effects of ADSCs on microvascular barrier injury. Moreover, ADSC transplantation alleviated LPS-induced lung injury, and inhibiting autophagy markedly weakened the therapeutic effect of ADSCs on lung injury. Together, these findings show that ADSC paracrine effects play a vital protective role in LPS-induced pulmonary microvascular barrier injury. Autophagy is a positive mediating factor in the paracrine process. These results are helpful for illuminating the role and mechanism of ADSC paracrine effects and developing effective therapies in acute lung injury.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery. Four weeks after surgery mild OA was induced in the OA group. Subsequently, the OA rats were randomly divided into ADSC and control groups. A single dose of 1 × 106 ADSCs suspended in 60 ?L phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was intra-articularly injected into the rats of the ADSC group. The control group received only 60 ?L PBS. OA progression was evaluated macroscopically and histologically at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. ADSC treatment did not cause any adverse local or systemic reactions. The degeneration of articular cartilage was significantly weaker in the ADSC group compared to that in the control group at both 8 and 12 weeks. Chondrocytes were co-cultured with MHC-unmatched ADSCs in trans-wells to assess the paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes. Co-culture with ADSCs counteracted the IL-1?-induced mRNA upregulation of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 in chondrocytes. Importantly, ADSCs increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chondrocytes. The results of this study indicated that the intra-articular injection of culture-expanded allogenic ADSCs attenuated cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat OA model without inducing any adverse reactions. MHC-unmatched ADSCs protected chondrocytes from inflammatory factor-induced damage. The paracrine effects of ADSCs on OA chondrocytes are at least part of the mechanism by which ADSCs exert their therapeutic activity.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cells (AdSCs) have recently been considered a useful treatment tool for autoimmune disease because of their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. We investigated the therapeutic effect of intravenous AdSC transplantation in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. AdSCs accumulated in the pulmonary interstitium and inhibited both inflammation and fibrosis in the lung, markedly improving the survival rate of mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury in a cell number-dependent manner. AdSCs inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? and IL-12 in activated macrophages, and AdSCs also induced the apoptosis of activated macrophages. AdSCs inhibited the differentiation and proliferation of Th2-type mCD4+ T cells but promoted the differentiation and proliferation of regulatory T cells, suggesting that the phenotypic conversion of T cells may be one of the mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of AdSCs on pulmonary fibrosis. These findings suggest that intravenous AdSCs could be a promising treatment for patients with interstitial pneumonia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increased apoptosis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) limits their application in treating diabetes complications. Autophagy is a molecular process that allows cells to degrade and recover damaged macromolecules, and closely interacts with apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential role of autophagy in ADSC apoptosis induced by high glucose. METHODS:Human ADSCs were cultured in normal or high-glucose medium for 6 h, 12 h, or 24 h. The effects of high glucose on ADSC autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and apoptosis were evaluated. The impact of autophagy on ROS production and apoptosis was explored by treatment with rapamycin or 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The c-jun kinase (JNK) signaling pathway was investigated by pharmacological disruption of SP600125. RESULTS:ADSCs subjected to high glucose stress showed an obvious induction of autophagy and apoptosis and a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels. The JNK signaling pathway was confirmed to be involved in high glucose-induced autophagy. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or N-acetylcysteine reversed the effects of high glucose on the JNK signaling pathway and autophagy-related proteins. Pretreatment of ADSCs with 3-MA under high glucose stress induced a further increase in ROS levels compared to those of high glucose-treated cells. Furthermore, ADSCs pretreated with 3-MA under high glucose stress showed a marked increase in apoptosis compared with that of the cells treated with high glucose. Conversely, pre-treatment with rapamycin inhibited the apoptosis of ADSCs. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy may play a protective role in high glucose-induced apoptosis in ADSCs. ROS/JNK signaling is essential in upregulating high glucose-induced autophagy. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of autophagy involved in high glucose-induced apoptosis in ADSCs.
Project description:Inflammation leads to chondrocyte senescence and cartilage degeneration, resulting in osteoarthritis (OA). Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) exert paracrine effects protecting chondrocytes from degenerative changes. However, the lack of optimum delivery systems for ADSCs limits its use in the clinic. The use of extracellular matrix based injectable hydrogels has gained increased attention due to their unique properties. In the present study, we developed hydrogels from amnion tissue as a delivery system for ADSCs. We investigated the potential of amnion hydrogel to maintain ADSC functions, the synergistic effect of AM with ADSC in preventing the catabolic responses of inflammation in stimulated chondrocytes. We also investigated the role of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in IL-1? induced inflammation in chondrocytes and the ability of AM-ADSC to inhibit Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Our results showed that AM hydrogels supported cell viability, proliferation, and stemness. ADSCs, AM hydrogels and AM-ADSCs inhibited the catabolic responses of IL-1? and inhibited the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, indicating possible involvement of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways in IL-1? induced inflammation. The results also showed that the synergistic effect of AM-ADSCs was more pronounced in preventing catabolic responses in activated chondrocytes. In conclusion, we showed that AM hydrogels can be used as a potential carrier for ADSCs, and can be developed as a potential therapeutic agent for treating OA.
Project description:Pulmonary vascular dysfunction is a key event in acute lung injury. We recently demonstrated that PGE2 , via activation of E-prostanoid (EP)4 receptors, strongly enhances microvascular barrier function in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of concomitant EP4 receptor activation in murine models of acute pulmonary inflammation.Pulmonary inflammation in male BALB/c mice was induced by LPS (20 ?g per mouse intranasally) or oleic acid (0.15 ?L·g(-1) , i.v(.) ). In-vitro, endothelial barrier function was determined by measuring electrical impedance.PGE2 activation of EP4 receptors reduced neutrophil infiltration, pulmonary vascular leakage and TNF-? concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. Similarly, pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability induced by oleic acid was counteracted by EP4 receptor activation. In lung function assays, the EP4 agonist ONO AE1-329 restored the increased resistance and reduced compliance upon methacholine challenge in mice treated with LPS or oleic acid. In agreement with these findings, EP4 receptor activation increased the in vitro vascular barrier function of human and mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and diminished the barrier disruption induced by LPS. The EP2 agonist ONO AE1-259 likewise reversed LPS-induced lung dysfunction without enhancing vascular barrier function.Our results show that activation of the EP4 receptor strengthens the microvascular barrier function and thereby ameliorates the pathology of acute lung inflammation, including neutrophil infiltration, vascular oedema formation and airway dysfunction. This suggests a potential benefit for EP4 agonists in acute pulmonary inflammation.
Project description:Transplantation of stem cells into damaged hearts has had modest success as a treatment for ischemic heart disease. One of the limitations is the poor stem cell survival in the diseased microenvironment. Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) is a cellular oxygen sensor that regulates 2 key transcription factors involved in cell survival and inflammation: hypoxia-inducible factor and nuclear factor-?B.We studied whether and how PHD2 silencing in human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) enhances their cardioprotective effects after transplantation into infarcted hearts.ADSCs were transduced with lentiviral short hairpin RNA against prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (shPHD2) to silence PHD2. ADSCs, with or without shPHD2, were transplanted after myocardial infarction in mice. ADSCs reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, fibrosis, and infarct size and improved cardiac function. shPHD2-ADSCs exerted significantly more protection. PHD2 silencing induced greater ADSC survival, which was abolished by short hairpin RNA against hypoxia-inducible factor-1?. Conditioned medium from shPHD2-ADSCs decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were significantly higher in the conditioned medium of shPHD2-ADSCs versus ADSCs, and depletion of IGF-1 attenuated the cardioprotective effects of shPHD2-ADSC-conditioned medium. Nuclear factor-?B activation was induced by shPHD2 to induce IGF-1 secretion via binding to IGF-1 gene promoter.PHD2 silencing promotes ADSCs survival in infarcted hearts and enhances their paracrine function to protect cardiomyocytes. The prosurvival effect of shPHD2 on ADSCs is hypoxia-inducible factor-1? dependent, and the enhanced paracrine function of shPHD2-ADSCs is associated with nuclear factor-?B-mediated IGF-1 upregulation. PHD2 silencing in stem cells may be a novel strategy for enhancing the effectiveness of stem cell therapy after myocardial infarction.
Project description:Microvascular barrier dysfunction is the central pathophysiological feature of acute lung injury (ALI). RAB26 is a newly identified small GTPase involved in the regulation of endothelial cell (EC) permeability. However, the mechanism behind this protection has not been clearly elucidated. Here we found that RAB26 promoted the integrity of adherens junctions (AJs) in a macroautophagy/autophagy-dependent manner in ALI. RAB26 is frequently downregulated in mouse lungs after LPS treatment. Mice lacking Rab26 exhibited phosphorylated SRC expression and increased CDH5/VE-cadherin phosphorylation, leading to AJ destruction. rab26-null mice showed further aggravation of the effects of endotoxin insult on lung vascular permeability and water content. Depletion of RAB26 resulted in upregulation of phosphorylated SRC, enhancement of CDH5 phosphorylation, and aggravation of CDH5 internalization, thereby weakening AJ integrity and endothelial barrier function in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). RAB26 overexpression caused active interaction between SRC and the autophagy marker LC3-II and promoted degradation of phosphorylated SRC. Furthermore, RAB26 was involved in a direct and activation-dependent manner in autophagy induction through interaction with ATG16L1 in its GTP-bound form. These findings demonstrate that RAB26 exerts a protective effect on endothelial cell (EC) permeability, which is in part dependent on autophagic targeting of active SRC, and the resultant CDH5 dephosphorylation maintains AJ stabilization. Thus, RAB26-mediated autophagic targeting of phosphorylated SRC can maintain barrier integrity when flux through the RAB26-SRC pathway is protected. These findings suggest that activation of RAB26-SRC signaling provides a new therapeutic opportunity to prevent vascular leakage in ALI. ABBREVIATIONS:AJs: adherens junctions; ALI: acute lung injury; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG12: autophagy related 12; ATG 16L1: autophagy related 16 like; 1 BALF: bronchoalveolar lavage fluidCQ: chloroquine; Ctrl: control; EC: endothelial cell; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HA-tagged; RAB26WT: HA-tagged wild-type; RAB26 HA-tagged; RAB26QL: HA-tagged; RAB26Q123LHA-tagged; RAB26NI: HA-tagged; RAB26N177IHPMECs: human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells; H&E: hematoxylin & eosin; IgG: immunoglobulin; GIF: immunofluorescence; IP: immunoprecipitationi;. p.: intraperitoneal; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; PBS: phosphate-buffered salinesi; RNA: small interfering;RNASQSTM1/p62, sequestosome; 1TBS: Tris-buffered saline; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; WB: western blot; WT: wild-type.
Project description:Autophagy is an important protein quality control mechanism for cells under stress conditions to promote cell survival. Modulation of autophagy on biomaterial substrates is rarely reported. In this study, the autophagy of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) cultured on chitosan (CS) substrates was examined. Compared to the traditional monolayer culture, ADSCs cultured on CS substrates showed spheroid formation as well as a prolonged upregulation of autophagosomal marker-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II protein expression. In addition, the green fluorescent protein tagged-LC3 (GFP-LC3) expressing ADSCs also revealed more GFP-LC3 puncta on CS substrates. The enhanced autophagy on CS substrates was associated with Ca(2+), while ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), a Ca(2+) chelator, repressed the autophagy in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, ADSC spheroids on CS substrates demonstrated a higher survival rate and autophagy response upon H2O2 treatment. The upstream components of autophagy signal pathway-UNC51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1), autophagy-related protein 13 (Atg13), and autophagy/beclin-1 regulator 1 (Ambra1) genes were more highly expressed in ADSC spheroids before and after adding H2O2 than those in the conventional culture. EGTA also decreased the cell viability and autophagy-associated gene expression for ADSC spheroids on CS substrates after H2O2 treatment. Therefore, we suggest that three-dimensional (3D) cell culture on CS may confer ADSCs the ability to increase the autophagic flux in response to stimulations in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endothelial barrier dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated acute lung injury (ALI). Microtubule (MT) dynamics in vascular endothelium are crucial for the regulation of endothelial barrier function. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) possesses various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory activity and endothelial barrier protection during sepsis. METHODS:Here, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of UFH on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. C57BL/6 J mice were randomized into vehicle, UFH, LPS and LPS?+?UFH groups. Intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg LPS was used to induce sepsis. Mice in the LPS?+?UFH group received intravenous UFH 0.5 h prior to LPS injection. Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were cultured for analyzing the effects of UFH on LPS-induced and nocodazole-induced hyperpermeability, F-actin remodeling, and LPS-induced p38 MAPK activation. RESULTS:UFH pretreatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced pulmonary histopathological changes, and increased the lung W/D ratio and Evans blue accumulation in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that UFH pretreatment blocked the LPS-induced increase in guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF-H1) expression and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation, and microtubule (MT) disassembly in LPS-induced ALI mouse model and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). These results suggested that UFH ameliorated LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction by inhibiting MT disassembly and GEF-H1 expression. In addition, UFH attenuated LPS-induced hyperpermeability of HPMECs and F-actin remodeling. In vitro, UFH pretreatment inhibited LPS-induced increase in monomeric tubulin expression and decrease in tubulin polymerization and acetylation. Meanwhile, UFH ameliorates nocodazole-induced MTs disassembly and endothelial barrier dysfunction.Additionally, UFH decreased p38 phosphorylation and activation, which was similar to the effect of the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580. CONCLUSIONS:UFH exert its protective effects on pulmonary microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction via microtubule stabilization and is associated with the p38 MAPK pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although it has been preclinically suggested that adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC)-based therapy could effectively treat chronic liver diseases, the hepatic engraftment of ADSCs is still extremely low, which severely limits their long-term efficacy for chronic liver diseases. This study was designed to investigate the impact of antioxidant preconditioning on hepatic engraftment efficiency and therapeutic outcomes of ADSC transplantation in liver fibrotic mice. METHODS:Liver fibrosis model was established by using intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the male C57BL/6 mice. Subsequently, the ADSCs with or without antioxidant pretreatment (including melatonin and reduced glutathione (GSH)) were administrated into fibrotic mice via tail vein injection. Afterwards, the ADSC transplantation efficiency was analyzed by ex vivo imaging, and the liver functions were assessed by biochemical analysis and histopathological examination, respectively. Additionally, a typical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury model was applied to mimic the cell oxidative injury to further investigate the protective effects of antioxidant preconditioning on cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis of ADSCs. RESULTS:Our data showed that antioxidant preconditioning could enhance the therapeutic effects of ADSCs on liver function recovery by reducing the level of AST, ALT, and TBIL, as well as the content of hepatic hydroxyproline and fibrotic area in liver tissues. Particularly, we also found that antioxidant preconditioning could enhance hepatic engraftment efficiency of ADSCs in liver fibrosis model through inhibiting oxidative injury. CONCLUSIONS:Antioxidant preconditioning could effectively improve therapeutic effects of ADSC transplantation for liver fibrosis through enhancing intrahepatic engraftment efficiency by reducing oxidative injuries. These findings might provide a practical strategy for enhancing ADSC transplantation and therapeutic efficiency.