Identification of Gut Microbiota and Metabolites Signature in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. However, the underlying mechanism of IBS is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate potential mechanism and novel biomarkers of IBS through evaluation of the metabolomic and microbiologic profile. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from 15 irritable bowel syndrome patients and 15 healthy controls. By using gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing, fecal metabolites and microbiota of healthy controls and the IBS patients were measured. Results: IBS patients had a significantly differential metabolite profile as compared to healthy controls, and 4 clusters with 31 metabolites, including a group of amino acids and fatty acids, were significantly up-regulated as compared to the healthy controls. In addition, 19 microbes were significantly up-regulated, and 12 microbes were down-regulated in the IBS group, when compared with the healthy controls. Some clusters of fecal metabolites or microorganisms were significantly correlated with the severity of IBS symptoms, such as the frequency of abdominal pain/discomfort and the number of bowel movements. Correlation of the metabolite levels with abundances of microbial genera showed some statistically significant metabolite-microbe associations. Four differentially abundant amino acids clustered together were positively correlated with some microbes, including Lachnospira, Clostridium, and so on. Conclusion: The finding of this study puts a global perspective on metabolomics and microbiota profiling in IBS patients and provides a theoretical basis for future research on pathophysiology of IBS.
Project description:Accurate diagnosis and stratification of children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain challenging. Given the central role of recurrent abdominal pain in IBS, we evaluated the relationships of pediatric IBS and abdominal pain with intestinal microbes and fecal metabolites using a comprehensive clinical characterization and multiomics strategy. Using rigorous clinical phenotyping, we identified preadolescent children (aged 7 to 12 years) with Rome III IBS (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 22) and characterized their fecal microbial communities using whole-genome shotgun metagenomics and global unbiased fecal metabolomic profiling. Correlation-based approaches and machine learning algorithms identified associations between microbes, metabolites, and abdominal pain. IBS cases differed from controls with respect to key bacterial taxa (eg, Flavonifractor plautii and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA), metagenomic functions (eg, carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism), and higher-order metabolites (eg, secondary bile acids, sterols, and steroid-like compounds). Significant associations between abdominal pain frequency and severity and intestinal microbial features were identified. A random forest classifier built on metagenomic and metabolic markers successfully distinguished IBS cases from controls (area under the curve, 0.93). Leveraging multiple lines of evidence, intestinal microbes, genes/pathways, and metabolites were associated with IBS, and these features were capable of distinguishing children with IBS from healthy children. These multi-omics features, and their links to childhood IBS coupled with nutritional interventions, may lead to new microbiome-guided diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Project description:The goal of this study was to determine if fecal metabolite and microbiota profiles can serve as biomarkers of human intestinal diseases, and to uncover possible gut microbe-metabolite associations. We employed proton nuclear magnetic resonance to measure fecal metabolites of healthy children and those diagnosed with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Metabolite levels were associated with fecal microbial abundances. Using several ordination techniques, healthy and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) samples could be distinguished based on the metabolite profiles of fecal samples, and such partitioning was congruent with the microbiota-based sample separation. Measurements of individual metabolites indicated that the intestinal environment in IBS-D was characterized by increased proteolysis, incomplete anaerobic fermentation and possible change in methane production. By correlating metabolite levels with abundances of microbial genera, a number of statistically significant metabolite-genus associations were detected in stools of healthy children. No such associations were evident for IBS children. This finding complemented the previously observed reduction in the number of microbe-microbe associations in the distal gut of the same cohort of IBS-D children.
Project description:Alterations in brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) interactions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Here, we apply a systems biology approach, leveraging neuroimaging and fecal metabolite data, to characterize BGM interactions that are driving IBS pathophysiology. Fecal samples and resting state fMRI images were obtained from 138 female subjects (99 IBS, 39 healthy controls (HCs)). Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was conducted to explore group differences, and partial correlation analysis explored significantly changed metabolites and neuroimaging data. All correlational tests were performed controlling for age, body mass index, and diet; results are reported after FDR correction, with q?<?0.05 as significant. Compared to HCs, IBS showed increased connectivity of the putamen with regions of the default mode and somatosensory networks. Metabolite pathways involved in nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism differentiated the two groups. Only a subset of metabolites, primarily amino acids, were associated with IBS-specific brain changes, including tryptophan, glutamate, and histidine. Histidine was the only metabolite positively associated with both IBS-specific alterations in brain connectivity. Our findings suggest a role for several amino acid metabolites in modulating brain function in IBS. These metabolites may alter brain connectivity directly, by crossing the blood-brain-barrier, or indirectly through peripheral mechanisms. This is the first study to integrate both neuroimaging and fecal metabolite data supporting the BGM model of IBS, building the foundation for future mechanistic studies on the influence of gut microbial metabolites on brain function in IBS.
Project description:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is diagnosed by subjective clinical symptoms. We aimed to establish an objective IBS prediction model based on gut microbiome analyses employing machine learning. We collected fecal samples and clinical data from 85 adult patients who met the Rome III criteria for IBS, as well as from 26 healthy controls. The fecal gut microbiome profiles were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and the determination of short-chain fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The IBS prediction model based on gut microbiome data after machine learning was validated for its consistency for clinical diagnosis. The fecal microbiome alpha-diversity indices were significantly smaller in the IBS group than in the healthy controls. The amount of propionic acid and the difference between butyric acid and valerate were significantly higher in the IBS group than in the healthy controls (p < 0.05). Using LASSO logistic regression, we extracted a featured group of bacteria to distinguish IBS patients from healthy controls. Using the data for these featured bacteria, we established a prediction model for identifying IBS patients by machine learning (sensitivity >80%; specificity >90%). Gut microbiome analysis using machine learning is useful for identifying patients with IBS.
Project description:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal dysfunctional disease. The pathophysiology of IBS is, however, largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether evaluation of fecal metabolite and microbiota profiles may offer an opportunity to identify a novel pathophysiological target for IBS, and to reveal possible gut microbe-metabolite associations. By using gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we measured fecal metabolites and microbiota of the control and water avoidance stress (WAS)-induced IBS rats. We found a significantly differential metabolite profile between the IBS and control groups; a cluster of metabolites was also found to be significantly associated with the amount of defecations. Moreover, the WAS group exhibited a decreased alpha diversity of the microbial population as compared to the control group. However, the characteristics of gut microbiota could not differentiate the IBS group from the control group. Correlation of the metabolite level with the number of microbial genera showed no significant association between the control and IBS groups. This study provides a global perspective on metabolomics and microbiota profiling in WAS-induced IBS model and a theoretical basis for research on the pathophysiology of IBS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Psychological co-morbidities in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been widely recognized, whereas less is known regarding the role of gut microbial and host metabolic changes in clinical and psychological symptoms in IBS. RESULTS:A total of 70 diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients and 46 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Stool and urine samples were collected from both groups for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomic analysis. The results showed that fecal microbiota in IBS-D featured depleted Faecalibacterium (adjusted P?= 0.034), Eubacterium rectale group (adjusted P?= 0.048), Subdoligranulum (adjusted P?= 0.041) and increased Prevotella (adjusted P?= 0.041). O-ureido-L-serine, 3,4-dihydroxybenzenesulfonic acid and (R)-2-Hydroxyglutarate demonstrated lower urinary concentrations in IBS-D patients. We further built correlation matrices between gut microbe abundance, differentiated metabolite quantities and clinical parameters. Dialister manifested negative association with IBS severity (r?=?-?0.285, P?=?0.017), anxiety (r?=?-?0.347, P?=?0.003) and depression level (r?=?-?0.308, P?=?0.010). Roseburia was negatively associated with IBS severity (r?=?-?0.298, P?=?0.012). Twenty metabolites correlated with anxiety or depression levels, including 3,4-dihydroxymandelaldehyde with SAS (r?=?-?0.383, P?=?0.001), 1-methylxanthine with SDS (r?=?-?0.347, P?=?0.004) and 1D-chiro-inositol with SAS (r?=?-?0.336, P?=?0.005). In analysis of microbe-metabolite relationship, 3,4-dihydroxymandelaldehyde and 1-methylxanthine were negatively correlated with relative abundance of Clostridiumsensu stricto. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings demonstrated altered microbial and metabolomic profiles associated with clinically and psychological symptoms in IBS-D patients, which may provide insights for further investigations.
Project description:A subset of post-infection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) patients have elevated, or high fecal proteolytic activity (PA). Fecal PA has been shown to correlate with increased symptom severity as well as lower quality of life scores, increased fecal output and increased intestinal permeability. To address the underlying mechanisms of barrier disruption as a consequence of high fecal PA, colonic biopsies were collected from healthy individuals PI-IBS patients (n=11). Individuals diagnosed with PI-IBS were further divided in to 2 subgroups, high PA and low PA as defined by the PA in matched fecal samples. RNA was extracted from the biopsies for bulk RNA sequencing to understand transcriptional differences between healthy and high PA PI-IBS patients as well as high PA and Low PA PI-IBS patients. Overall design: Colonic biopsies were collected from healthy individuals (5) and PI-IBS patients (n=11). Healthy individuals provide a baseline transcriptomic profile of a normal colon and therefore used as a basis for understanding changes at the transcriptomic level in high PA PI-IBS patients. Additionally, low PA PI-IBS patients were included to understand transcriptional differences between high and low PA within the disease state.
Project description:The pathogenesis of ME/CFS, a disease characterized by fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and lymphadenopathy, is poorly understood. We report biomarker discovery and topological analysis of plasma metabolomic, fecal bacterial metagenomic, and clinical data from 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls. We confirm reports of altered plasma levels of choline, carnitine and complex lipid metabolites and demonstrate that patients with ME/CFS and IBS have increased plasma levels of ceramide. Integration of fecal metagenomic and plasma metabolomic data resulted in a stronger predictive model of ME/CFS (cross-validated AUC?=?0.836) than either metagenomic (cross-validated AUC?=?0.745) or metabolomic (cross-validated AUC?=?0.820) analysis alone. Our findings may provide insights into the pathogenesis of ME/CFS and its subtypes and suggest pathways for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) alteration have been reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the results are conflicting. Our study aims to explore the alteration of SCFAs in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and their potential role in the occurrence and development of IBS. METHODS:We recruited patients with IBS-D defined by Rome IV criteria and age-and-gender matched healthy controls (HCs). A headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of acetic, propionic and butyric acid in feces and serum. RESULTS:Compared with HCs, the levels of the serum propionate (2.957?±?0.157 vs 2.843?±?0.098?mmol/L, P?=?0.012) and butyrate (2.798?±?0.126 vs 2.697?±?0.077?mmol/L, P?=?0.012) were significantly higher in IBS-D group. No significant differences were found among two groups with regard to the concentration of fecal acetate (4.953?±?1.065 vs 4.774?±?1.465?mg/g, P?=?0.679), propionate (6.342?±?1.005 vs 6.282?±?1.077?mg/g, P?=?0.868) and butyrate (2.984?±?0.512 vs 3.071?±?0.447?mg/g, P?=?0.607). CONCLUSIONS:Metabolites of gut microbiota, the propionic and butyric acid, are increased in patients with IBS-D in serum but not in feces. It suggests that propionic and butyric acid might be associated with the occurrence and development of IBS.