ACTL6A regulates follicle-stimulating hormone-driven glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells via PGK1.
ABSTRACT: Enhanced glycolysis has been identified as a hallmark of cancer. As a novel oncogene, ACTL6A is aberrantly amplified in several types of human cancers and has been shown to regulate tumor growth and progression. However, the roles of ACTL6A in the development of ovarian cancer and the regulation of cancer glucose metabolism are mostly unknown. Here we show that ACTL6A is overexpressed in ovarian cancers compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues, and that ACTL6A overexpression correlates with poor prognosis. Silencing of ACTL6A in vitro inhibits proliferation, clonal growth, and migration, and decreases glucose utilization, lactate production, and pyruvate levels of ovarian cancer cells. We found a positive correlation between ACTL6A and PGK1 expression in ovarian cancer tissues. Enforced ACTL6A expression increased PGK1 expression, whereas knockdown of ACTL6A had the opposite effect. Altered ACTL6A expression inhibits the tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells in vivo by downregulating PGK1. In addition, the expression of ACTL6A is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation via PI3K/AKT pathway. Importantly, ACTL6A regulates FSH-enhanced glycolysis in ovarian cancer. Taken together, our findings highlight the critical role of ACTL6A in ovarian cancer development and identify its contribution to glucose metabolism of cancer cells.
Project description:Many cancer cells display enhanced glycolysis and suppressed mitochondrial metabolism. This phenomenon, known as the Warburg effect, is critical for tumor development. However, how cancer cells coordinate glucose metabolism through glycolysis and the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is largely unknown. We demonstrate here that phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), the first ATP-producing enzyme in glycolysis, is reversibly and dynamically modified with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) at threonine 255 (T255). O-GlcNAcylation activates PGK1 activity to enhance lactate production, and simultaneously induces PGK1 translocation into mitochondria. Inside mitochondria, PGK1 acts as a kinase to inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex to reduce oxidative phosphorylation. Blocking T255 O-GlcNAcylation of PGK1 decreases colon cancer cell proliferation, suppresses glycolysis, enhances the TCA cycle, and inhibits tumor growth in xenograft models. Furthermore, PGK1 O-GlcNAcylation levels are elevated in human colon cancers. This study highlights O-GlcNAcylation as an important signal for coordinating glycolysis and the TCA cycle to promote tumorigenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancer cells reprogram metabolism for proliferation. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), as a glycolytic enzyme and newly identified protein kinase, coordinates glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism. However, the clinical significance of PGK1 expression and function in cancer progression is unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between the progression and prognosis of multiple cancer types and PGK1 expression and its function in the mitochondrial metabolism regulation. METHODS:We performed pan-cancer analyses of PGK1 mRNA level and DNA methylation in 11,908 tumor tissues and 1582 paired normal tissues across 34 cancer types in The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. Using specific antibodies against PGK1 S203 and PDHK1 T338 phosphorylation, we performed immunohistochemistry with tissue microarray assay in additional 818 cancer cases with 619 paired normal tissues from five cancer types. RESULTS:The PGK1 mRNA level was significantly elevated with hypomethylation in promotor regions and associated with advanced TNM stage in 15 and four cancer types, respectively. In breast carcinoma, elevated PGK1 mRNA level and promoter hypomethylation were associated with poor prognosis. Positively correlated PGK1 S203 and PDHK1 T338 phosphorylation levels were significantly associated with short overall survival (OS) in cancers of the breast, liver, lung, stomach, and esophagus and with advanced TNM stage in breast and esophageal cancers. PGK1 pS203 and PDHK1 pT338 were also independent predictors of short OS in liver, lung, and stomach cancer. CONCLUSIONS:The elevated expression, promoter hypomethylation, and phosphorylation of PGK1 and PDHK1 were related with disease progression and short OS in diverse types of cancer. PGK1 and PDHK1 phosphorylation may be potential prognostic biomarkers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with advanced stage colon cancer. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in invasion and metastasis. Actin-like 6A (ACTL6A) is vital for embryogenesis and differentiation and is also critical for metastasis and EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma, as observed in our previous study. In the present study, we further explored the role of ACTL6A in colon cancer metastasis. METHODS:ACTL6A expression levels were analyzed in normal colon, colon adenoma and colon cancer specimens using public databases and tissue samples. ACTL6A expression and its association with clinicopathologic features of colon cancer patients were also analyzed. ACTL6A-overexpression and ACTL6A-knockdown colon cancer cells were used to perform cytological experiments to explore the potential biological function of ACTL6A in metastasis and EMT in colon cancer. RESULTS:The data from both the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Oncomine databases showed that ACTL6A expression levels in colon adenoma and cancer were higher than those in normal colon samples. The ACTL6A expression level in fresh colon cancer specimens was also higher than that in the corresponding adjacent normal colon specimens. Patients with high ACTL6A expression directly correlated with advanced pT status, distant metastasis, poor differentiation and microvascular/perineural invasion. ACTL6A overexpression promoted migration and invasion of colon cancer cells, whereas ACTL6A knockdown exhibited the opposite effect in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated that ACTL6A promoted EMT in colon cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that ACTL6A exhibits pro-tumor function and acts as an EMT activator in colon cancer. ACTL6A may serve as a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Disordered folliculogenesis is a core characteristic of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and androgen receptors (ARs) are closely associated with hyperandrogenism and abnormalities in folliculogenesis in PCOS. However, whether the new AR binding partner phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) in granulosa cells (GCs) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. METHODS:We identified the new AR binding partner PGK1 by co-IP (co-immunoprecipitation) in luteinized GCs, and reconfirmed by co-IP, co-localization and GST pull down assay, and checked PGK1 expression levels with qRT-PCR and western blotting. Pharmaceuticals rescue assays in mice, and metabolism assay, AR protein stability and RNA-seq of PGK1 targets in cells proved the function in PCOS. FINDINGS:PGK1 and AR are highly expressed in PCOS luteinized GCs and PCOS-like mouse ovarian tissues. PGK1 regulated glucose metabolism and deteriorated PCOS-like mouse metabolic disorder, and paclitaxel rescued the phenotype of PCOS-like mice and reduced ovarian PGK1 and AR protein levels. PGK1 inhibited AR ubiquitination levels and increased AR stability in an E3 ligase SKP2-dependent manner. Additionally, PGK1 promoted AR nuclear translocation, and RNA-seq data showed that critical ovulation-related genes were regulated by the PGK1-AR axis. INTERPRETATION:PGK1 regulated GCs metabolism and interacted with AR to regulate the expression of key ovulation genes, and also mediated cell proliferation and apoptosis, which resulted in the etiology of PCOS. This work highlights the pathogenic mechanism and represents a novel therapeutic target for PCOS. FUNDING:National Key Research and Development Program of China; National Natural Science Foundation of China grant.
Project description:It is unclear how the Warburg effect that exemplifies enhanced glycolysis in the cytosol is coordinated with suppressed mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism. We demonstrate here that hypoxia, EGFR activation, and expression of K-Ras G12V and B-Raf V600E induce mitochondrial translocation of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1); this is mediated by ERK-dependent PGK1 S203 phosphorylation and subsequent PIN1-mediated cis-trans isomerization. Mitochondrial PGK1 acts as a protein kinase to phosphorylate pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDHK1) at T338, which activates PDHK1 to phosphorylate and inhibit the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. This reduces mitochondrial pyruvate utilization, suppresses reactive oxygen species production, increases lactate production, and promotes brain tumorigenesis. Furthermore, PGK1 S203 and PDHK1 T338 phosphorylation levels correlate with PDH S293 inactivating phosphorylation levels and poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. This work highlights that PGK1 acts as a protein kinase in coordinating glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which is instrumental in cancer metabolism and tumorigenesis.
Project description:Somatic progenitors suppress differentiation to maintain tissue self-renewal. While epigenetic regulators of DNA and histone modifications can support such repression, a role for nuclear actin-like proteins is unclear. In epidermis, ACTL6a/BAF53A was found enriched in progenitors and down-regulated during differentiation. Conditional ACTL6a deletion abolished epidermal self-renewal and induced terminal differentiation, whereas ectopically expressed ACTL6a suppressed differentiation. Among known activators of epidermal differentiation, KLF4 was found to control 227 genes also regulated by ACTL6a. ACTL6a loss upregulated KLF4 and its target genes, effects that were blocked by KLF4 depletion. Among multiple ACTL6a-interacting epigenetic regulators, the SWI/SNF complex was required for KLF4 activation and differentiation. In progenitors, ACTL6a loss led to enhanced SWI/SNF binding to the promoters of KLF4 and other differentiation genes. ACTL6a thus maintains the undifferentiated progenitor state, in part by suppressing SWI/SNF complex-enabled induction of KLF4. Gene expression analysis: To identify the gene set controlled by ACTL6a in human keratinocyte. Total RNA was isolated in biologic duplicate from cells with ACTL6a loss as compared to controls, and hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 2.0 Plus arrays.
Project description:Somatic progenitors suppress differentiation to maintain tissue self-renewal. The mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates nucleosome packaging to control differentiation in embryonic and adult stem cells. Catalytic Brg1 and Brm subunits are required for these processes; however, the roles of SWI/SNF regulatory subunits are not fully understood. Here, we show that ACTL6a/BAF53A modulates the SWI/SNF complex to suppress differentiation in epidermis. Conditional loss of ACTL6a resulted in terminal differentiation, cell-cycle exit, and hypoplasia, whereas ectopic expression of ACTL6a promoted the progenitor state. A significant portion of genes regulated by ACTL6a were found to also be targets of KLF4, a known activator of epidermal differentiation. Mechanistically, we show that ACTL6a prevents SWI/SNF complex binding to promoters of KLF4 and other differentiation genes and that SWI/SNF catalytic subunits are required for full induction of KLF4 targets. Thus, ACTL6a controls the epidermal progenitor state by sequestering SWI/SNF to prevent activation of differentiation programs.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations in SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling subunit genes are observed in many cancers, but an oncogenic role for SWI/SNF is not well established. Here, we reveal that ACTL6A, encoding an SWI/SNF subunit linked to stem cell and progenitor cell function, is frequently co-amplified and highly expressed together with the p53 family member p63 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). ACTL6A and p63 physically interact, cooperatively controlling a transcriptional program that promotes proliferation and suppresses differentiation, in part through activation of the Hippo-YAP pathway via regulators including WWC1. Ectopic ACTL6A/p63 expression promotes tumorigenesis, while ACTL6A expression and YAP activation are highly correlated in primary HNSCC and predict poor patient survival. Thus, ACTL6A and p63 collaborate as oncogenic drivers in HNSCC.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the solid tumors that metastasize to the bone. Once there, the phenotype of the bone lesions is dependent upon the balance between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. We previously reported that overexpression of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) in PCa cell lines enhanced bone formation at the metastatic site in vivo. Here, the role of PGK1 in the bone formation was further explored. We show that PCa-derived PGK1 induces osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells. We also found that PGK1 secreted by PCa inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Finally, the expression levels of the bone-specific markers in PCa cells were higher in cells overexpressing PGK1 than controls. Together, these data suggest that PGK1 secreted by PCa regulates bone formation at the metastatic site by increasing osteoblastic activity, decreasing osteoclastic function, and expressing an osteoblastic phenotype by PCa cells.
Project description:The mechanisms that regulate the switch between epidermal progenitor state and differentiation are not fully understood. Recent findings indicate that the chromatin-remodelling BAF complex (Brg1-associated factor complex, or SWI/SNF complex) and the transcription factor p63 mutually recruit one another to open chromatin during epidermal differentiation. Here, we identify a long non-coding transcript that includes an ultraconserved element, uc.291, which physically interacts with ACTL6A and modulates chromatin remodelling to allow differentiation. Loss of uc.291 expression, both in primary keratinocytes and in three-dimensional skin equivalents, inhibits differentiation as indicated by epidermal differentiation complex genes down-regulation. ChIP experiments reveal that upon uc.291 depletion, ACTL6A is bound to the differentiation gene promoters and inhibits BAF complex targeting to induce terminal differentiation genes. In the presence of uc.291, the ACTL6A inhibitory effect is released, allowing chromatin changes to promote the expression of differentiation genes. Thus, uc.291 interacts with ACTL6A to modulate chromatin remodelling activity, allowing the transcription of late differentiation genes.