False negative single antigen bead assay: Is it always an effect of prozone?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Bead based flow cytometry and Luminex play a major role in identification of alloantibodies in renal transplant work-up. Strong sensitization events may lead to prozone phenomenon that can affect single antigen bead (SAB) assay and result in false negativity. However, this can also be due to high titer of other blocking antibodies. While methods like, heat inactivation, C1 inhibitor, Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic-acid and Dithio threitol treatment can remove interfering antibodies of complement and IgM, these methods are not optimal if false negativity is due to prozone effect, which is high titer of antibodies alone. METHODS:We hereby present a case of a highly sensitized renal transplant recipient with 64% panel reactive antibody positivity (PRA) and a subsequent negative SAB assay. This paradoxical finding hinted at SAB being a false negative result and serial dilutions were used to perform further tests. RESULTS:Serum dilutions lead to positive flow based panel reactive antibody (PRA) and flow cytometry crossmatch (FCXM), with an increasing trend in FCXM. CONCLUSIONS:In highly sensitized patients serial dilution should be considered during a transplant work-up to avoid missing any underlying antibodies. Serum dilution can be used as first option to circumvent prozone. Also, interference of other antibodies should not be labeled as prozone effect.
Project description:The Luminex-based single antigen bead (SAB) assay is widely used to detect HLA antibody in transplant recipients. However, one limitation of the SAB assay is the prozone effect, which occurs mostly as a result of complement interference. We investigated the efficacy of EDTA treatment for overcoming the prozone effect and predicting C1q binding of HLA antibody. We subjected 27 non-treated (naïve) and EDTA-treated serum samples from highly sensitized patients to IgG-SAB assays, and we confirmed the prozone effect in 53% and 31% of class I and class II antibody tests, respectively, after EDTA treatment. When we conducted additional assays after dithiothreitol treatment and serum dilution, EDTA was the most efficacious in eliminating the prozone effect. Reducing the prozone effect by EDTA treatment strengthened the correlation between IgG mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and C1q MFI values (ρ=0.825) as compared with the naïve sera (ρ=0.068). Although C1q positivity was dependent on the concentration of HLA antibody in EDTA-treated sera, the correlations varied individually. Overall, our results confirmed the efficacy of EDTA treatment for overcoming the prozone effect. EDTA treatment showed a positive effect on the correlation between IgG MFI and C1q MFI values.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute cellular rejection (ACR) is associated with complications after kidney transplantation, such as graft dysfunction and graft loss. Early risk assessment is therefore critical for the improvement of transplantation outcomes. In this work, we retrospectively analyzed a pre-transplant HLA antigen bead assay data set that was acquired by the e:KID consortium as part of a systems medicine approach. RESULTS:The data set included single antigen bead (SAB) reactivity profiles of 52 low-risk graft recipients (negative complement dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch, PRA?<?30%) who showed detectable pre-transplant anti-HLA 1 antibodies. To assess whether the reactivity profiles provide a means for ACR risk assessment, we established a novel approach which differs from standard approaches in two aspects: the use of quantitative continuous data and the use of a multiparameter classification method. Remarkably, it achieved significant prediction of the 38 graft recipients who experienced ACR with a balanced accuracy of 82.7% (sensitivity?=?76.5%, specificity?=?88.9%). CONCLUSIONS:The resultant classifier achieved one of the highest prediction accuracies in the literature for pre-transplant risk assessment of ACR. Importantly, it can facilitate risk assessment in non-sensitized patients who lack donor-specific antibodies. As the classifier is based on continuous data and includes weak signals, our results emphasize that not only strong but also weak binding interactions of antibodies and HLA 1 antigens contain predictive information. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00724022 . Retrospectively registered July 2008.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The prozone effect (or high doses-hook phenomenon) consists of false-negative or false-low results in immunological tests, due to an excess of either antigens or antibodies. Although frequently cited as a cause of false-negative results in malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially at high parasite densities of Plasmodium falciparum, it has been poorly documented. In this study, a panel of malaria RDTs was challenged with clinical samples with P. falciparum hyperparasitaemia (> 5% infected red blood cells). METHODS: Twenty-two RDT brands were tested with seven samples, both undiluted and upon 10 x, 50 x and 100 x dilutions in NaCl 0.9%. The P. falciparum targets included histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2, n = 17) and P. falciparum-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pf-pLDH, n = 5). Test lines intensities were recorded in the following categories: negative, faint, weak, medium or strong. The prozone effect was defined as an increase in test line intensity of at least one category after dilution, if observed upon duplicate testing and by two readers. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 17 HRP-2 based RDTs were affected by prozone: the prozone effect was observed in at least one RDT sample/brand combination for 16/17 HRP-2 based RDTs in 6/7 samples, but not for any of the Pf-pLDH tests. The HRP-2 line intensities of the undiluted sample/brand combinations with prozone effect (n = 51) included a single negative (1.9%) and 29 faint and weak readings (56.9%). The other target lens (P. vivax-pLDH, pan-specific pLDH and aldolase) did not show a prozone effect. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the prozone effect as a cause of false-negative HRP-2 RDTs in samples with hyperparasitaemia.
Project description:The current state-of-the-art technology employed to assess anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies (Anti-HLA Ab) for donor-recipient matching and patient risk stratification in renal transplantation is the single antigen bead (SAB) assay. However, there are limitations to the SAB assay as it is not quantitative and due to variations in techniques and reagents, there is no standardization across laboratories. In this study, a structurally-defined human monoclonal alloantibody was employed to provide a mechanistic explanation for how fundamental alloantibody biology influences the readout from the SAB assay. Performance of the clinical SAB assay was evaluated by altering Anti-HLA Ab concentration, subclass, and detection reagents. Tests were conducted in parallel by two internationally accredited laboratories using standardized protocols and reagents. We show that alloantibody concentration, subclass, laboratory-specific detection devices, subclass-specific detection reagents all contribute to a significant degree of variation in the readout. We report a significant prozone effect affecting HLA alleles that are bound strongly by the test alloantibody as opposed to those bound weakly and this phenomenon is independent of complement. These data highlight the importance for establishing international standards for SAB assay calibration and have significant implications for our understanding of discordance in previous studies that have analyzed its clinical relevance.
Project description:Background Complement-fixing antibodies against donor HLA are considered a contraindication for kidney transplant. A modification of the IgG single-antigen bead (SAB) assay allows detection of anti-HLA antibodies that bind C3d. Because early humoral graft rejection is considered to be complement mediated, this SAB-based technique may provide a valuable tool in the pretransplant risk stratification of kidney transplant recipients.Methods Previously, we established that pretransplant donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) are associated with increased risk for long-term graft failure in complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch-negative transplants. In this study, we further characterized the DSA-positive serum samples using the C3d SAB assay.Results Among 567 pretransplant DSA-positive serum samples, 97 (17%) contained at least one C3d-fixing DSA, whereas 470 (83%) had non-C3d-fixing DSA. At 10 years after transplant, patients with C3d-fixing antibodies had a death-censored, covariate-adjusted graft survival of 60%, whereas patients with non-C3d-fixing DSA had a graft survival of 64% (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 1.48 for C3d-fixing DSA compared with non-C3d-fixing DSA; P=0.93). Patients without DSA had a 10-year graft survival of 78%.Conclusions The C3d-fixing ability of pretransplant DSA is not associated with increased risk for graft failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Single antigen beads (SAB) are used for monitoring HLA antibodies in pretransplant and posttransplant patients despite the discrepancy between virtual and actual crossmatch results and transplant outcomes. This discrepancy can be attributed to the presence of conformational variants of HLA-I on SAB, assessment of which would increase the concordance between SAB and flow cytometry crossmatch (FCXM) results, thus enabling improved organ accessibility for the waiting list patients and a better prediction of antibody-mediated rejection. METHODS:The conformational variants were examined on HLA-I beads, iBeads, acid-/alkali-treated beads, and T cells using HLA-I monoclonal antibodies (W6/32, TFL-006, and heavy chain (HC)-10). RESULTS:The affinity of the monoclonal antibodies against HLA-I beads confirmed the presence and heterogeneous density of peptide-associated ?2-microglobulin-associated HLA HC (pepA-?2aHC), peptide-free-?2aHC (pepF-?2aHC), and ?2-free HC (?2fHC) on every single antigen-coated bead. In contrast, iBeads harbor a high density of pepA-?2aHC, low density of pepF-?2aHC, and are lacking ?2fHC. The FCXM analyses confirmed the prevalence of pepA-?2aHC, but not pepF-?2aHC or ?2fHC on resting T cells. CONCLUSIONS:The strength of a donor-specific antibody should be assessed with a bead-specific mean fluorescence intensity cutoff based on TFL-006 reactivity against HLA-I beads, and HC-10 against iBeads, where the ?2fHC or pepF-?2aHC normalized donor-specific antibody level would reveal the true anti-pepA-?2aHC reactivity associated with positive FCXM.
Project description:Acute allograft dysfunction (AAD) is an important cause of morbidity among heart transplant recipients. The role of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) in AAD, with the increasing use of single antigen bead (SAB) assays that have improved the ability to detect DSA, remains unclear.We retrospectively reviewed 329 heart transplant recipients followed up at our institution. AAD was defined as an acute decline in left ventricular ejection fraction to less than 50% and a decrement of 10% or higher compared to baseline in the absence of cellular rejection. Patients with AAD were compared with matched 30 heart transplant controls.There were 10 (3%) patients with AAD, 4 (40%) had DSA detectable by SAB assay compared to 16 (53%) controls (P=0.43). Peak DSA mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) levels were significantly higher at baseline (class I and class II) in AAD compared to controls. DSA MFI values increased at the time of AAD and returned to baseline values during follow-up for these patients with AAD (P<0.05) but remained unchanged over time for controls. Six (60%) patients with AAD and 1 (3%) control had antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) by endomyocardial biopsy (P<0.01). There were 4 (40%) patients with AAD with no DSA or AMR.AAD after heart transplant is a heterogeneous process characterized by 1) AMR and DSA, 2) AMR but no DSA, and 3) no AMR or DSA. The presence of DSA is not associated with AAD, but the quantity assessed by MFI levels may play a role.
Project description:Cardiovascular mortality is the leading cause of death in ESRD. Whereas innate and adaptive immunity have established roles in cardiovascular disease, the role of humoral immunity is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in first-time adult kidney transplant candidates (N=161,308) using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to evaluate whether anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies, measured as panel reactive antibodies (PRAs), are related to mortality in ESRD. Relationships between time-varying PRAs and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. The analysis was repeated in subcohorts of candidates at lower risk for significant comorbidities, activated on the waiting list after 2007, or unsensitized at activation. Competing risks analyses were also conducted. Fully adjusted models showed increased hazard ratios (HRs [95% confidence intervals]) for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.06]; HR, 1.11 [95% CI,1.07 to 1.16]; and HR,1.21 [95% CI,1.15 to 1.27]) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.05 [95% CI,1.00 to 1.10]; HR,1.11 [95% CI,1.05 to 1.18]; and HR,1.21 [95% CI,1.12 to 1.31]) in PRA 1%-19%, PRA 20%-79%, and PRA 80%-100% categories compared with PRA 0%, respectively. Associations between PRA and the study outcomes were accentuated in competing risks models and in lower-risk patients and persisted in other subcohorts. Our findings suggest that PRA is an independent predictor of mortality in wait-listed kidney transplant candidates. The mechanisms by which PRA confers an incremental mortality risk in sensitized patients, and the role of transplantation in modifying this risk, warrant further study.
Project description:We explored an emerging technology to produce anti-Hantaan virus (HTNV) and anti-Puumala virus (PUUV) neutralizing antibodies for use as pre- or post-exposure prophylactics. The technology involves hyperimmunization of transchomosomic bovines (TcB) engineered to express human polyclonal IgG antibodies with HTNV and PUUV DNA vaccines encoding GnGc glycoproteins. For the anti-HTNV product, TcB was hyperimmunized with HTNV DNA plus adjuvant or HTNV DNA formulated using lipid nanoparticles (LNP). The LNP-formulated vaccine yielded fivefold higher neutralizing antibody titers using 10-fold less DNA. Human IgG purified from the LNP-formulated animal (SAB-159), had anti-HTNV neutralizing antibody titers >100,000. SAB-159 was capable of neutralizing pseudovirions with monoclonal antibody escape mutations in Gn and Gc demonstrating neutralization escape resistance. SAB-159 protected hamsters from HTNV infection when administered pre- or post-exposure, and limited HTNV infection in a marmoset model. An LNP-formulated PUUV DNA vaccine generated purified anti-PUUV IgG, SAB-159P, with a neutralizing antibody titer >600,000. As little as 0.33 mg/kg of SAB-159P protected hamsters against PUUV infection for pre-exposure and 10 mg/kg SAB-159P protected PUUV-infected hamsters post-exposure. These data demonstrate that DNA vaccines combined with the TcB-based manufacturing platform can be used to rapidly produce potent, human, polyclonal, escape-resistant anti-HTNV, and anti-PUUV neutralizing antibodies that are protective in animal models.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) pretreatment has been shown to overcome complement interference in the single-antigen bead (SAB) assay. However, a quantitative evaluation of its impact on the assay for preemptive application to diverse clinical samples is still lacking. METHODS:Serum samples from 95 renal transplant candidates were tested with and without EDTA-pretreatment in parallel. Changes in mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values were analyzed to determine the impact of EDTA-pretreatment and the characteristics of complement interference. RESULTS:MFI values from EDTA-treated and untreated sera showed good correlations (r = 0.99) and were linear after excluding outliers (slopes, 1; intercepts, -63.7 and -24.2 for class I and II, respectively). Using an assay cutoff of 2000 MFI, positive/negative assignments were concordant for 99% of the 9215 class I beads and 9025 class II beads tested. As defined by an MFI increment above 4000 after EDTA pretreatment, complement interference affected 172 class I beads in 12 samples (12.6%) and 60 class II beads in 7 samples (7.4%), and the findings were supported in 83% and 86% of these samples by dilution studies. In a case study, EDTA pretreatment prevented falsely low MFI values and facilitated the interpretation of titration curves. Finally, EDTA pretreatment reduced the coefficient of variance (CV) by 2.1% and 2.4% for class I and II beads respectively (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:It is safe to preemptively treat all clinical samples with EDTA before SAB assay to prevent false negative results or falsely low MFI values. EDTA pretreatment has the added benefit of improved assay precision.