Exosomes Derived From MicroRNA-148b-3p-Overexpressing Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restrain Breast Cancer Progression.
ABSTRACT: Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) expressing microRNAs (miRs) have been highlighted as important carriers for gene or drug therapy. Hence, this study aimed to explore the role of exosomal miR-148b-3p from HUCMSCs in breast cancer. Clinical samples subjected to RT-qPCR detection revealed that miR-148b-3p was poorly expressed, while tripartite motif 59 (TRIM59) was highly expressed in breast cancer tissues. Online analyses available at miRanda, TargetScan, and miRbase databases revealed that miR-148b-3p could bind to TRIM59, while dual-luciferase reporter gene assay further verified that TRIM59 was a target gene of miR-148b-3p. Next, miR-148b-3p mimic or inhibitor and siRNA against TRIM59 were delivered into the breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) to alter the expression of miR-148b-3p and TRIM59 so as to evaluate their respective effects on breast cancer cellular processes. Evidence was obtained demonstrating that miR-148b-3p inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, but promoted cell apoptosis in breast cancer by down-regulating TRIM59. Next, MDA-MB-231 cells were co-cultured with the exosomes derived from HUCMSCs expressing miR-148b-3p. The results of co-culture experiments demonstrated that HUCMSCs-derived exosomes carrying miR-148b-3p exerted inhibitory effects on MDA-MB-231 progression in vitro. In vivo experimentation further confirmed the anti-tumor effects of HUCMSCs-derived exosomes carrying miR-148b-3p. Taken together, HUCMSC-derived exosomes carrying miR-148b-3p might suppress breast cancer progression, which highlights the potential of exosomes containing miR-148b-3p as a promising therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Exosomes derived from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are known as important drivers of tumor progression. Previously, microRNA (miR)-148b-3p has been found to be upregulated in bladder cancers as well as in body fluids (blood, urine) of bladder cancer patients. Here, we aimed to explore the role of CAF-derived exosome miR-148b-3p in bladder cancer progression and chemosensitivity.<h4>Methods</h4>Transwell, MTT, flow cytometry and colony formation assays were applied to assess the effects of CAF-derived exosomes on bladder cancer cell metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemosensitivity. A dual luciferase reporter assay was employed to evaluate the targeting relationship between miR-148b-3p and PTEN. Gain- and loss- of function assays were conducted to explore the roles of miR-148b-3p and PTEN in the behavior of bladder cancer cells. The role of PTEN in the metastasis, EMT and chemosensitivity of bladder cancer cells was assessed both in vivo and in vitro.<h4>Results</h4>We found that CAF-derived exosomes promoted the metastasis, EMT and drug resistance of bladder cancer cells. We also found that CAF-derived exosomes could directly transport miR-148b-3p into bladder cancer cells. In a xenograft mouse model we found that CAF-derived exosomes increased miR-148b-3p expression levels and promoted tumor proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance. PTEN was validated as a target of miR-148b-3p. Concordantly, we found that PTEN overexpression inhibited EMT, metastasis and chemoresistance in bladder cancer cells, reversing the tumor promoting effects of miR-148b-3p via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that miR-148b-3p downregulation in CAF-derived exosomes, thereby inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and promoting PTEN expression, may offer potential opportunities for bladder cancer treatment.
Project description:Docetaxel is commonly used as an effective chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer treatment, but the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of miR-129-3p in breast cancer cell resistance to docetaxel. MiR-129 and miR-129-3p inhibitor were transfected into breast cancer cells to investigate their effects on chemoresistance to docetaxel. The function of miR-129-3p was evaluated by apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell cycle assays. We found that miR-129-3p was up-regulated in MDA-MB-231/Doc cells, concurrent with CP110 down-regulation, compared to the parental MDA-MB-231 cells. In vitro drug sensitivity assays demonstrated that miR-129-3p inhibition sensitized MDA-MB-231/Doc and MCF-7 cells to docetaxel, whereas miR-129 overexpression enhanced MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell resistance to docetaxel. Ectopic miR-129 expression reduced CP110 expression and the luciferase activity of a CP110 3' untranslated region-based reporter construct in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that CP110 is a direct miR-129-3p target. We demonstrated that restoration of CP110 expression in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells by miR-129 overexpression rendered the cells sensitive to docetaxel. In a nude xenograft model, miR-129 up-regulation significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 cells' response to docetaxel. Our findings suggest that miR-129-3p down-regulation potentially sensitizes breast cancer cells to docetaxel treatment.
Project description:Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels (LV) serve as a route of cancer dissemination through the prometastatic crosstalk between lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) lining the LVs and cancer cells. Compared to blood endothelial cell-derived angiocrine factors, however, LEC-secreted factors in the tumor microenvironment and their roles in tumor metastasis are poorly understood. Here, we report that ELK3 expressed in LECs contributes to the dissemination of cancer cells during tumor growth by providing oncogenic miRNAs to tumor cells through exosomes. We found that conditioned medium from ELK3-suppressed LECs (LCM) lost its ability to promote the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-231, Hs578T and BT20 in vitro. Suppression of ELK3 in LECs diminished the ability of LECs to promote tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 in vivo. Exosomes derived from LECs significantly increased the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 in vitro, but ELK3 suppression significantly diminished the pro-oncogenic activity of exosomes from LECs. Based on the miRNA expression profiles of LECs and functional analysis, we identified miR-503-3p, miR-4269 and miR-30e-3p as downstream targets of ELK3 in LECs, which cause the above phenotype of cancer cells. These findings strongly suggest that ELK3 expressed in LECs is a major regulator that controls the communication between the tumor microenvironment and tumors to support cancer metastasis.
Project description:Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are the severe lung damage and respiratory failure without effective therapy. However, there was a lack of understanding of the mechanism by which exosomes regulate autophagy during ALI/ARDS. Here, we found lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased inflammatory factors, administration of exosomes released by human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) successfully improved lung morphometry. Further studies showed that miR-377-3p in the exosomes played a pivotal role in regulating autophagy, leading to protect LPS induced ALI. Compared to exosomes released by human fetal lung fibroblast cells (HFL-1), hucMSCs-exosomes overexpressing miR-377-3p more effectively suppressed the bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and inflammatory factors and induced autophagy, causing recoveration of ALI. Administration of miR-377-3p expressing hucMSCs-exosomes or its target regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (RPTOR) knockdown significantly reduced ALI. In summary, miR-377-3p released by hucMSCs-exosomes ameliorated Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by targeting RPTOR to induce autophagy in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Bone metastasis of breast cancer makes patients suffer from pain, fractures, spinal cord compression, and hypercalcemia, and is almost incurable. Although the mechanisms of bone metastasis in breast cancers have been studied intensively, novel specific target will be helpful to the development of new therapeutic strategy of breast cancer. Herein, we focused on the microRNA of tumor cell-derived exosomes to investigate the communication between the bone microenvironment and tumor cells. The expression of miR-20a-5p in the primary murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), MCF-10A, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, as well as the cell-derived exosomes were assessed by qRT-PCR. Transwell assays were used to evaluate the effects of miR-20a-5p on tumor cell migration and invasion. The expression of exosomes marker including CD63and TSG101 was detected by Western Blot. Cell cycle distribution of BMMs was analyzed by flow cytometry. 3-UTR luciferase reporter assays were used to validate the putative binding between miR-20a-5p and SRCIN1. MiR-20a-5p was highly expressed in breast tumor tissues and the exosomes of MDA-MB-231 cells. MiR-20a-5p promoted migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells, and the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclasts. MDA-MB-231 cell-derived exosomes transferred miR-20a-5p to BMMs and facilitated the osteoclastogenesis via targeting SRCIN1. The present work provides evidence that miR-20a-5p transferred from breast cancer cell-derived exosomes promotes the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclasts by targeting SRCIN1, providing scientific foundations for the development of exosome or miR-20a-5p targeted therapeutic intervention in breast cancer progression.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA/mir)?490?3p has been defined as a tumor suppressor in different types of cancer, including breast cancer. However, miR?490?3p has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor and promoter in a context?dependent manner in hepatocellular and lung cancer. Contrary to previous studies, the present study revealed that miR?490?3p expression was significantly higher in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissue specimens, the most common form of breast cancer, compared to tumor?adjacent normal tissue specimens (n=20). Its expression was also higher in the more metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA?MB?231, compared to the non?metastatic breast cancer cell line, MCF7, and the moderately metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA?MB?468. The expression of miR?490?3p was induced following transforming growth factor (TGF)???induced epithelial?to?mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF10A cells. Gain?and loss?of?function assays revealed that the expression of miR?490?3p regulated the proliferation, colony formation, EMT, migration and invasion in vitro, but not the apoptosis of MDA?MB?468 and MDA?MB?231 cells. The knockdown of miR?490?3p expression in MDA?MB?231 cells inhibited experimental metastasis in a tumor xenograft assay. As in lung cancer, miR?490?3p was found to target and downregulate the expression of the tumor suppressor RNA binding protein poly r(C) binding protein 1 (PCBP1). PCBP1 protein and miR?490?3p expression inversely correlated in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; n=10; no nodal involvement) and IDC (n=10; different stages of metastatic progression) with a significantly higher miR?490?3p expression in patients with IDC compared to those with DCIS. The expression of miR?490?3p was negatively associated with both overall and disease?free survival in the patients with breast cancer included in the present study. On the whole, the results confirm a pro?metastatic role of miR?490?3p in IDC, establishing it as a biomarker for disease progression in these patients.
Project description:In this study, we aimed to evaluate the suppressive abilities of berberine (BBR) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and confirm its underlying mechanisms on miR-214-3p. We first built a panel of 18 miRNAs and 9 lncRNAs that were reported to participate in the mechanism of breast cancer. The RT-qPCR results suggested that BBR illustrated a dosage-dependent pattern in the stimulation to miR-214-3p in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Then, we performed gain-and-lose function tests to validate the role of miR-214-3p contributing to the anticancer effects of BBR. Both BBR and miR-214-3p mimic reduced the cell viability, repressed migration and invasion capacities, increased rates of total apoptotic cells and ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and increased the percentage of G2/M cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231?cells by colony formation and CKK8 assay, scratch wound healing and gelatin-based 3D conformation assay, transwell invasion assay, and cell cycle analysis, respectively. However, miR-214-3p inhibitor counteracted all these effects of BBR. Based on the bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter test, we identified binding sites between SCT and miR-214-3p. We further confirmed that BBR massively and dose-dependently reduced the mRNA expression and protein levels of SCT in both MCF-7 and MDA-231 cells. We testified that both miR-214-3p mimic and BBR could decrease the mRNA expression and protein levels of SCT, while miR-214-3p inhibitor weakened these reductions. In conclusion, BBR suppressed MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by upregulating miR-214-3p and increasing its inhibition to SCT.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in women, which remains a significant health concern worldwide. Gemcitabine is a frequently applied anticancer pharmacological agent. However, the efficacy of gemcitabine is limited by chemoresistance. In the present study, a combination of reverse transcription quantitative-PCR, cell viability, flow cytometry, luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis were performed to elucidate the potential effects of miR-187-3p on gemcitabine sensitivity in the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The results revealed that miR-187-3p was significantly decreased in the breast cancer tumor tissues. Moreover, the overexpression of miR-187-3p significantly inhibited cell viability and promoted apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, miR-187-3p overexpression enhanced the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of gemcitabine, indicating that miR-187-3p regulated gemcitabine sensitivity in breast cancer cells. Mechanistically, miR-187-3p negatively regulated the expression of fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) by binding to its 3'-untranslated region. Overexpression of FGF9 reversed the aforementioned effects of miR-187-3p overexpression on cell viability and apoptosis in the presence of gemcitabine. In conclusion, the present study indicated that miR-187-3p increased gemcitabine sensitivity in breast cancer cells by targeting FGF9 expression.
Project description:Melatonin, a hormone secreted by pineal gland, exerts antimetastatic effects by reducing tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that play a crucial role in regulation of gene expression and biological processes of the cells. Herein, we search for a link between the tumor/metastatic-suppressive actions of melatonin and miRNA expression in triple-negative breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that melatonin exerts its anti-tumor actions by reducing proliferation, migration and c-Myc expression of triple negative breast cancer cells. By using Taqman-based assays, we analyzed the expression levels of a set of miRNAs following melatonin treatment of triple negative breast cancer cells and we identified 17 differentially expressed miRNAs, 6 down-regulated and 11 up-regulated. We focused on the anti-metastatic miR-148b and the oncogenic miR-210 both up-regulated by melatonin treatment and studied the effect of their modulation on melatonin-mediated impairment of tumor progression. Surprisingly, when miR-148b or miR-210 were depleted in triple-negative breast cancer cells, using a specific miR-148b sponge or anti-miR-210, melatonin effects on migration inhibition and c-myc downregulation were still visible suggesting that the increase of miR-148b and miR-210 expression observed following melatonin treatment was not required for the efficacy of melatonin action. Nevertheless, ours results suggest that melatonin exhibit a compound for metastatic trait inhibition, especially in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells even if a direct link between modulation of expression of certain proteins or miRNAs and melatonin effects has still to be established.
Project description:Cancer cells secrete abundant exosomes, and the secretion can be promoted by an increase of intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup>. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) plays a key role in shaping Ca<sup>2+</sup> signals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be potential therapeutic targets for many diseases, including breast cancer. Recently, we investigated the effect of exosomes from STIM1-knockout breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells (Exo-STIM1-KO), and from SKF96365-treated MDA-MB-231 cells (Exo-SKF) on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and nude mice. The exosomes Exo-STIM1-KO and Exo-SKF inhibited tube formation by HUVECs remarkably. The miR-145 was increased in SKF96365 treated or STIM1-knockout MDA-MB-231 cells, Exo-SKF and Exo-STIM1-KO, and HUVECs treated with Exo-SKF or Exo-STIM1-KO. Moreover, the expressions of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which is the target of miR-145, and the downstream proteins such as Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Raf/extracellular signal regulated-protein kinase (ERK), and p38 were markedly inhibited in HUVECs treated with Exo-SKF or Exo-STIM1-KO. Matrigel plug assay in vivo showed that tumor angiogenesis was suppressed in Exo-STIM1-KO, but promoted when miR-145 antagomir was added. Taken together, our findings suggest that STIM1 promotes angiogenesis by reducing exosomal miR-145 in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.