The Delta-Subunit Selective GABA A Receptor Modulator, DS2, Improves Stroke Recovery via an Anti-inflammatory Mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory processes are known to contribute to tissue damage in the central nervous system (CNS) across a broad range of neurological conditions, including stroke. Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, has been implicated in modulating peripheral immune responses by acting on GABA A receptors on antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of the delta-selective compound, DS2, to improve stroke recovery and modulate inflammation. We report a decrease in nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation in innate immune cells over a concentration range in vitro. Following a photochemically induced motor cortex stroke, treatment with DS2 at 0.1 mg/kg from 1 h post-stroke significantly decreased circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-17, and IL-6 levels, reduced infarct size and improved motor function in mice. Free brain concentrations of DS2 were found to be lower than needed for robust modulation of central GABA A receptors and were not affected by the presence and absence of elacridar, an inhibitor of both P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Finally, as DS2 appears to dampen peripheral immune activation and only shows limited brain exposure, we assessed the role of DS2 to promote functional recovery after stroke when administered from 3-days after the stroke. Treatment with DS2 from 3-days post-stroke improved motor function on the grid-walking, but not on the cylinder task. These data highlight the need to further develop subunit-selective compounds to better understand change in GABA receptor signaling pathways both centrally and peripherally. Importantly, we show that GABA compounds such as DS2 that only shows limited brain exposure can still afford significant protection and promote functional recovery most likely via modulation of peripheral immune cells and could be given as an adjunct treatment.
Project description:In atrial fibrillation, stroke risk is assessed by the CHA2 DS2 -VASc score. Heart failure is included in CHA2 DS2 -VASc, but the rationale is uncertain. Our objective was to test if heart failure is a risk factor for stroke, independent of other risk factors in CHA2 DS2 -VASc.We studied 300 839 patients with atrial fibrillation in the Swedish Patient Register 2005-11. Three definitions of heart failure were used in order to assess the robustness of the results. In the main analysis, heart failure was defined by a hospital discharge diagnosis of heart failure as first or second diagnosis and a filled prescription of a diuretic within 3 months before index + 30 days. The second definition counted first or second discharge diagnoses <1 year before index + 30 days and the third definition any heart failure diagnosis in open or hospital care before index + 30 days. Associations with outcomes were assessed with multivariable Cox analyses. Patients with heart failure were older (80.5 vs. 74.0 years, P < 0.001) and had higher CHA2 DS2 -VASc score (4.4 vs. 2.7, P < 0.001). The 1 year incidence of ischaemic stroke without warfarin was 4.4% with heart failure and 3.1% without. Adjustment for the cofactors in CHA2 DS2 -VASc eradicated the difference in stroke risk between patients with and without heart failure (hazard ratio 1.01 with 95% confidence interval 0.96-1.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for CHA2 DS2 -VASc was not improved by points for heart failure.A clinical diagnosis of heart failure was not an independent risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, which may have implications for anticoagulation management.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine whether the CHA2 DS2 -VASc score can predict adverse outcomes such as death, ischaemic stroke, and major haemorrhage, in patients with systolic heart failure in sinus rhythm.CHA2 DS2 -VASc scores were calculated for 1101 patients randomized to warfarin and 1123 patients randomized to aspirin. Adverse outcomes were defined as death or ischaemic stroke, death alone, ischaemic stroke alone, and major haemorrhage. Using proportional hazards models, we found that each 1-point increase in the CHA2 DS2 -VASc score was associated with increased hazard of death or ischaemic stroke events [hazard ratio (HR) for the warfarin arm = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.30, P < 0.001; for aspirin, HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.11-1.29, P < 0.001]. Similar increased hazards for higher CHA2 DS2 -VASc scores were observed for death alone, ischaemic stroke alone, and major haemorrhage. Overall performance of the CHA2 DS2 -VASc score was assessed using c-statistics for full models containing the risk score, treatment assignment, and score-treatment interaction, with the c-statistics for the full models ranging from 0.57 for death to 0.68 for major haemorrhage.The CHA2 DS2 -VASc score predicted adverse outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure in sinus rhythm, with modest prediction accuracy.
Project description:Brain injury from stroke is typically considered an event exclusive to the CNS, but injury progression and repair processes are profoundly influenced by peripheral immunity. Stroke stimulates an acute inflammatory response that results in a massive infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the ischemic area. While these cells contribute to the development of brain injury, their recruitment has been considered as a key step for tissue repair. The paradoxical role of inflammatory monocytes in stroke raises the possibility that the manipulation of peripheral immune cells before infiltration into the brain could influence stroke outcome. One such manipulation is remote ischemic limb conditioning (RLC), which triggers an endogenous tolerance mechanism. We observed that mice subjected to poststroke RLC shifted circulating monocytes to a CCR2+ proinflammatory monocyte subset and had reduced acute brain injury, swelling, and improved motor/gait function in chronic stroke. The RLC benefits were observed regardless of injury severity, with a greater shift to a CCR2+ subset in severe stroke. Adoptive transfer of CCR2-deficient monocytes abolished RLC-mediated protection. The study demonstrates the importance of RLC-induced shift of monocytes to a CCR2+ proinflammatory subset in attenuating acute injury and promoting functional recovery in chronic stroke. The defined immune-mediated mechanism underlying RLC benefits allows for an evidence-based framework for the development of immune-based therapeutic strategies for stroke patients.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stroke is the leading cause of physical disability worldwide but has few treatment options for patients. Because remote ischemic limb conditioning (RLC) elicits endogenous tolerance in neither an organ- nor a tissue-specific manner, the immune system has been considered a mediator for an RLC-related benefit. Application of RLC after stroke increased a proinflammatory CCR2+ monocyte subset in the blood and the brain. RLC reduced acute stroke injury and promoted motor/gait function during the recovery phase. The RLC benefits were absent in mice that received CCR2-deficient monocytes. This preclinical study shows the importance of CCR2+ proinflammatory monocytes in RLC benefits in stroke and provides a therapeutic RLC platform as a novel immune strategy to improve outcomes in stroke patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The magnitude of increased risk of stroke in women with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains uncertain. HYPOTHESIS:We investigated the risk of ischemic stroke and death in women and men with AF, and the risk associated with individual non-sex CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk factors. METHODS:Retrospective cohort study of 231 077 (48.1% women) nonselected patients with AF not receiving oral anticoagulation from 2006 to 2014. Data from cross-linked national Swedish registers. The outcome was the first occurrence of ischemic stroke or death. Median age was 82 and 75 years in women and men, respectively. Mean follow-up was 2.5 years. RESULTS:Hazard ratios, adjusted for non-sex CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk factors, for women vs men were 1.53, 95% CI: 1.49-1.58 for ischemic stroke and 1.24, 95% CI: 1.22-1.26 for death, respectively. When divided into age groups the differences in ischemic stroke rates between women and men were attenuated. In patients with only one non-sex CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk factor allotted 1 point, ischemic stroke rates per 100 person-years were 1.22 in women (n = 9838) and 1.02 in men (n = 15 609), respectively, P < .006. In both women and men, age of 65 to 74 years was associated with higher ischemic stroke risk compared to other non-sex CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk factors allotted 1 point. CONCLUSIONS:The risk of ischemic stroke was 1.5-fold higher in women compared to men but this association appears to be the result of confounding by age. In the low risk end, the CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk score underestimates the ischemic stroke risk conferred by age 65 to 74 years, while it overestimates the risk conferred by female sex.
Project description:Stroke is a leading cause of disability, but no pharmacological therapy is currently available for promoting recovery. The brain region adjacent to stroke damage-the peri-infarct zone-is critical for rehabilitation, as it shows heightened neuroplasticity, allowing sensorimotor functions to re-map from damaged areas. Thus, understanding the neuronal properties constraining this plasticity is important for the development of new treatments. Here we show that after a stroke in mice, tonic neuronal inhibition is increased in the peri-infarct zone. This increased tonic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors and is caused by an impairment in GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) transporter (GAT-3/GAT-4) function. To counteract the heightened inhibition, we administered in vivo a benzodiazepine inverse agonist specific for ?5-subunit-containing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors at a delay after stroke. This treatment produced an early and sustained recovery of motor function. Genetically lowering the number of ?5- or ?-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors responsible for tonic inhibition also proved beneficial for recovery after stroke, consistent with the therapeutic potential of diminishing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor function. Together, our results identify new pharmacological targets and provide the rationale for a novel strategy to promote recovery after stroke and possibly other brain injuries.
Project description:Recovery from stroke engages mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we examine a role for MHC class I (MHCI) H2-Kb and H2-Db, as well as PirB receptor. These molecules restrict synaptic plasticity and motor learning in the healthy brain. Stroke elevates neuronal expression not only of H2-Kb and H2-Db, but also of PirB and downstream signaling. KbDb knockout (KO) or PirB KO mice have smaller infarcts and enhanced motor recovery. KO hippocampal organotypic slices, which lack an intact peripheral immune response, have less cell death after in vitro ischemia. In PirB KO mice, corticospinal projections from the motor cortex are enhanced, and the reactive astrocytic response is dampened after MCAO. Thus, molecules that function in the immune system act not only to limit synaptic plasticity in healthy neurons, but also to exacerbate brain injury after ischemia. These results suggest therapies for stroke by targeting MHCI and PirB.
Project description:Ischemic stroke, which accounts for 75-80% of all strokes, is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The post-stroke immune response has recently emerged as a new breakthrough target in the treatment strategy for ischemic stroke. Glial cells, including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, are the primary components of the peri-infarct environment in the central nervous system (CNS) and have been implicated in post-stroke immune regulation. However, increasing evidence suggests that glial cells exert beneficial and detrimental effects during ischemic stroke. Microglia, which survey CNS homeostasis and regulate innate immune responses, are rapidly activated after ischemic stroke. Activated microglia release inflammatory cytokines that induce neuronal tissue injury. By contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors secreted by alternatively activated microglia are beneficial for recovery after ischemic stroke. Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis in ischemic stroke contribute to limiting brain injury and re-establishing CNS homeostasis. However, glial scarring hinders neuronal reconnection and extension. Neuroinflammation affects the demyelination and remyelination of oligodendrocytes. Myelin-associated antigens released from oligodendrocytes activate peripheral T cells, thereby resulting in the autoimmune response. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which can differentiate into oligodendrocytes, follow an ischemic stroke and may result in functional recovery. Herein, we discuss the mechanisms of post-stroke immune regulation mediated by glial cells and the interaction between glial cells and neurons. In addition, we describe the potential roles of various glial cells at different stages of ischemic stroke and discuss future intervention targets.
Project description:Lymphocytes infiltrate the stroke core and penumbra and often exacerbate cellular injury. B cells, however, are lymphocytes that do not contribute to acute pathology but can support recovery. B cell adoptive transfer to mice reduced infarct volumes 3 and 7 d after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo), independent of changing immune populations in recipient mice. Testing a direct neurotrophic effect, B cells cocultured with mixed cortical cells protected neurons and maintained dendritic arborization after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Whole-brain volumetric serial two-photon tomography (STPT) and a custom-developed image analysis pipeline visualized and quantified poststroke B cell diapedesis throughout the brain, including remote areas supporting functional recovery. Stroke induced significant bilateral B cell diapedesis into remote brain regions regulating motor and cognitive functions and neurogenesis (e.g., dentate gyrus, hypothalamus, olfactory areas, cerebellum) in the whole-brain datasets. To confirm a mechanistic role for B cells in functional recovery, rituximab was given to human CD20+ (hCD20+) transgenic mice to continuously deplete hCD20+-expressing B cells following tMCAo. These mice experienced delayed motor recovery, impaired spatial memory, and increased anxiety through 8 wk poststroke compared to wild type (WT) littermates also receiving rituximab. B cell depletion reduced stroke-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and cell survival. Thus, B cell diapedesis occurred in areas remote to the infarct that mediated motor and cognitive recovery. Understanding the role of B cells in neuronal health and disease-based plasticity is critical for developing effective immune-based therapies for protection against diseases that involve recruitment of peripheral immune cells into the injured brain.
Project description:Summary The immune checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) plays a critical role in immune regulation. Recent studies have demonstrated functional PD-1 expression in peripheral sensory neurons, which contributes to neuronal excitability, pain, and opioid analgesia. Here we report neuronal expression and function of PD-1 in the central nervous system (CNS), including the spinal cord, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Notably, GABA-induced currents in spinal dorsal horn neurons, thalamic neurons, and cortical neurons are suppressed by the PD-1-neutralizing immunotherapeutic Nivolumab in spinal cord slices, brain slices, and dissociated cortical neurons. Reductions in GABA-mediated currents in CNS neurons were also observed in Pd1?/? mice without changes in GABA receptor expression. Mechanistically, Nivolumab binds spinal cord neurons and elicits ERK phosphorylation to suppress GABA currents. Finally, both GABA-mediated analgesia and anesthesia are impaired by Pd1 deficiency. Our findings reveal PD-1 as a CNS-neuronal inhibitor that regulates GABAergic signaling and GABA-mediated behaviors. Graphical Abstract Highlights • Pd1 mRNA and PD-1 protein are widely expressed in spinal cord and brain neurons• GABA-induced currents in CNS neurons are suppressed by PD-1 blockade with Nivolumab• Nivolumab binds neuronal PD-1 to induce ERK activation and GABAergic inhibition• GABA-mediated pain inhibition and anesthesia is impaired after Pd1 deficiency Immunology ; Molecular Biology; Neuroscience
Project description:Nicotiana benthamiana is a potential host to several plant pathogens, and immature leaves of N. benthamiana are susceptible to Phytophthora infestans. In contrast, mature leaves of N. benthamiana are weakly susceptible and show basal resistance to P. infestans. We screened a gene-silenced mature plant showing high resistance to P. infestans, designated as DS2 (Disease suppression 2). The deduced amino acid sequence of cDNA responsible for DS2 encoded a putative aminoacylase. Growth of P. infestans decreased in DS2 plants. Trypan blue staining revealed inhibited hyphae growth of P. infestans with an increased number of dead cells under the penetration site in DS2 plants. Consistent with growth inhibition of P. infestans, defense responses such as reactive oxygen generation and expression of a salicylic acid-dependent PR-1a increased markedly in DS2 plants compared with that of control plants. DS2 phenotype was compromised in NahG plants, suggesting DS2 phenotype depends on the salicylic acid signaling pathway. Accelerated defense response was observed in DS2 plants elicited by INF1 elicitin as well as by NbMEK2(DD), which is the constitutive active form of NbMEK2, and act as a downstream regulator of INF1 perception. On the other hand, INF1- and NbMEK2(DD)-induced defense responses were prevented by DS2-overexpressing transgenic tobacco. These results suggest that DS2 negatively regulates plant defense responses against P. infestans via NbMEK2 and SA-dependent signaling pathway in N. benthamiana.