Transdiagnostic Multimodal Neuroimaging in Psychosis: Structural, Resting-State, and Task Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates of Cognitive Control.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Disorders with psychotic features, including schizophrenia and some bipolar disorders, are associated with impairments in regulation of goal-directed behavior, termed cognitive control. Cognitive control-related neural alterations have been studied in psychosis. However, studies are typically unimodal, and relationships across modalities of brain function and structure remain unclear. Thus, we performed transdiagnostic multimodal analyses to examine cognitive control-related neural variation in psychosis. METHODS:Structural, resting, and working memory task imaging for 31 control participants, 27 participants with bipolar disorder, and 23 participants with schizophrenia were collected and processed identically to the Human Connectome Project, enabling identification of relationships with prior multimodal work. Two cognitive control-related independent components (ICs) derived from the Human Connectome Project using multiset canonical correlation analysis with joint IC analysis were used to predict performance in psychosis. De novo multiset canonical correlation analysis with joint IC analysis was performed, and the results were correlated with cognitive control. RESULTS:A priori working memory and cortical thickness maps significantly predicted cognitive control in psychosis. De novo multiset canonical correlation analysis with joint IC analysis identified an IC correlated with cognitive control that also discriminated groups. Structural contributions included insular and cingulate regions; task contributions included precentral, posterior parietal, cingulate, and visual regions; and resting-state contributions highlighted canonical network organization. Follow-up analyses suggested that correlations with cognitive control were primarily influenced by participants with schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS:A priori and de novo imaging replicably identified a set of interrelated patterns across modalities and the healthy-to-psychosis spectrum, suggesting robustness of these features. Relationships between imaging and cognitive control performance suggest that shared symptomatology may be key to identifying transdiagnostic relationships in psychosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cognitive and structural brain abnormalities range from mild to severe in psychosis. The relationships of specific cognitive functions to specific brain structures across the psychosis spectrum is less certain. METHODS:Participants (n = 678) with bipolar, schizoaffective, or schizophrenia psychoses and healthy control subjects were recruited via the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes. The Schizo-Bipolar Scale was used to create a psychosis continuum (from purely affective to purely nonaffective). Canonical correlation between 14 cognitive measures and structural brain measures (gray matter volume, cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and local gyrification indices) for 68 neocortical regions yielded constructs that defined shared cognition-brain structure relationships. Canonical discriminant analysis was used to integrate these constructs and efficiently summarize cognition-brain structure relationships across the psychosis continuum. RESULTS:General cognition was associated with larger gray matter volumes and thicker cortices but smaller cortical surface area in frontoparietal regions. Working memory was associated with larger volume and surface area in frontotemporal regions. Faster response speed was associated with thicker frontal cortices. Constructs that captured general cognitive ability and working memory and their relationship to cortical volumes primarily defined an ordered psychosis spectrum (purely affective, least abnormal through purely nonaffective, and most abnormal). A construct that captured general cognitive ability and its relationship to cortical surface area differentiated purely affective cases from other groups. CONCLUSIONS:General cognition and working memory with cortical volume deviations characterized more nonaffective psychoses. Alternatively, affective psychosis cases with general cognitive deficits had deviations in cortical surface area, perhaps accounting for heterogeneous findings across previous studies.
Project description:The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia are largely resistant to current treatments and thus are a lifelong illness burden. The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) provides a reliable and valid assessment of cognition across major cognitive domains; however, the multimodal brain alterations specifically associated with MCCB in schizophrenia have not been examined.The interrelationships between MCCB and the abnormalities seen in three types of neuroimaging-derived maps-fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gray matter (GM) density from structural MRI, and fractional anisotropy from diffusion MRI-were investigated by using multiset canonical correlation analysis in data from 47 schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotic medications and 50 age-matched healthy control subjects.One multimodal component (canonical variant 8) was identified as both group differentiating and significantly correlated with the MCCB composite. It demonstrated 1) increased cognitive performance associated with higher fALFF (intensity of regional spontaneous brain activity) and higher GM volumes in thalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and the mid-occipital region, with co-occurring fractional anisotropy changes in superior longitudinal fascicules, anterior thalamic radiation, and forceps major; 2) higher fALFF but lower GM volume in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex related to worse cognition in schizophrenia; and 3) distinct domains of MCCB might exhibit dissociable multimodal signatures, e.g., increased fALFF in inferior parietal lobule particularly correlated with decreased social cognition. Medication dose did not relate to these findings in schizophrenia.Our results suggest linked functional and structural deficits in distributed cortico-striato-thalamic circuits may be closely related to MCCB-measured cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.
Project description:Emotion dysfunction has long been considered a cardinal feature across psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and affective psychosis. However, few studies have used objective markers of emotional function to compare psychotic disorders to one another, and fewer studies have examined such markers within a longitudinal framework. Here, we examine one objective marker of emotional responsivity, the late positive potential (LPP), which is a centro-parietal event-related potential (ERP) that tracks the dynamic allocation of attention to emotional vs. neutral stimuli. We used the LPP to characterize abnormal emotional responsivity by relating it to negative, depressive, and psychotic symptoms among two clinical groups: individuals diagnosed with affective psychosis and individuals with schizophrenia. We also used a long-term longitudinal framework, examining concurrent associations between LPP amplitude and symptom severity, as well as prospective associations with symptoms 4 years later. Participants were 74 individuals with psychotic illness: 37 with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 37 with a primary affective disorder (psychotic bipolar disorder, psychotic depression). There were no mean-level differences in LPP amplitude between the schizophrenia spectrum and primary affective psychosis group. In the primary affective psychosis group, reduced LPP amplitude was associated with greater depressive, negative, and psychotic symptom severity, both concurrently and at follow-up; associations between LPP and symptoms were not observed within the schizophrenia spectrum group. This pattern of results suggests that the neural correlates of emotion dysfunction may differ across psychotic disorders. One possibility is that schizophrenia is characterized by a decoupling of symptom severity and emotional processing. Such findings underscore the importance of analyzing transdiagnostic samples to determine common or specific symptom relationships across various patient populations.
Project description:Cognitive deficits contribute to functional disability in patients with schizophrenia and may be related to altered functional networks that serve cognition. We evaluated the integrity of major functional networks and assessed their role in supporting two cognitive functions affected in schizophrenia: processing speed (PS) and working memory (WM). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data, N = 261 patients and 327 controls, were aggregated from three independent cohorts and evaluated using Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis rsfMRI analysis pipeline. Meta- and mega-analyses were used to evaluate patient-control differences in functional connectivity (FC) measures. Canonical correlation analysis was used to study the association between cognitive deficits and FC measures. Patients showed consistent patterns of cognitive and resting-state FC (rsFC) deficits across three cohorts. Patient-control differences in rsFC calculated using seed-based and dual-regression approaches were consistent (Cohen's d: 0.31?±?0.09 and 0.29?±?0.08, p?<?10-4 ). RsFC measures explained 12-17% of the individual variations in PS and WM in the full sample and in patients and controls separately, with the strongest correlations found in salience, auditory, somatosensory, and default-mode networks. The pattern of association between rsFC (within-network) and PS (r = .45, p = .07) and WM (r = .36, p = .16), and rsFC (between-network) and PS (r = .52, p = 8.4?×?10-3 ) and WM (r = .47, p = .02), derived from multiple networks was related to effect size of patient-control differences in the functional networks. No association was detected between rsFC and current medication dose or psychosis ratings. Patients demonstrated significant reduction in several FC networks that may partially underlie some of the core neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The strength of connectivity-cognition relationships in different networks was strongly associated with network's vulnerability to schizophrenia.
Project description:The DSM-5 includes depression as a dimension of psychosis. We tested whether persistent experience of depression, called 'trait depression', is a clinical feature separate from psychosis and several well-known, trait-like deficits of schizophrenia. 126 individuals with schizophrenia and 151 control participants completed the Maryland Trait and State Depression questionnaire, with a subset completing measures of cognition and functional capacity, and diffusion tensor imaging (n=73 patients and 102 controls for imaging analysis). Subjectively experienced, longitudinal trait depression is significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia compared with controls. Higher trait depression scores were associated with more severe psychosis. Surprisingly, individuals with higher trait depression manifested less cognitive and global functioning deficits. In addition, trait depression scores were positively associated with fractional anisotropy of white matter. Trait depression appears to be a highly relevant clinical domain in the care of patients with schizophrenia that also has distinct relationships with some other known traits of the disease. Trait depression may be an important contributor to the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia.
Project description:Functional disability is a key component of many psychiatric illnesses, particularly schizophrenia. Impairments in social and role functioning are linked to cognitive deficits, a core feature of psychosis. Retrospective analyses demonstrate that substantial functional decline precedes the onset of psychosis. Recent investigations reveal that individuals at clinical-high-risk (CHR) for psychosis show impairments in social relationships, work/school functioning and daily living skills. CHR youth also demonstrate a pattern of impairment across a range of cognitive domains, including social cognition, which is qualitatively similar to that of individuals with schizophrenia. While many studies have sought to elucidate predictors of clinical deterioration, specifically the development of schizophrenia, in such CHR samples, few have investigated factors relevant to psychosocial outcome. This review integrates recent findings regarding cognitive and social-cognitive predictors of outcome in CHR individuals, and proposes potential directions for future research that will contribute to targeted interventions and improved outcome for at-risk youth.
Project description:Childhood trauma (CT) has repeatedly been associated with cognitive deficits in patients with psychosis but many inconsistencies have been reported so that the nature of the relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to better characterize the contribution of CT to cognitive deficits by considering the type, severity and frequency of childhood traumatic events and their relationships with psychosis at all stages.Relevant studies were identified via electronic and manual literature searches and included original studies that investigated the relationship between CT and higher cognitive performance or social cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychosis at all stages of the illness stages (i.e. ultra-high risk, first episode or chronic phase).Overall, a majority of studies reported that patients who experienced CT displayed deficits in general cognitive ability compared to patients with psychosis without such a history. Associations between CT and other cognitive function were more mixed. When comparing patient groups, the association between CT and cognitive function was more inconsistent in patients with chronic schizophrenia than in healthy participants, ultra-high risk individuals, first-episode patients and patients with chronic bipolar disorder.In understanding the variability in the reported relationships between CT and cognition across study populations, we highlight the variety of questionnaires used and discuss the likelihood of there being differences in cognitive function based on specific stressors, severity and frequency. Finally, we consider future research steps that may shed light on psychobiological mechanisms underlying CT and cognitive performance in patients with psychosis.
Project description:Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42) and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47) participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant-Standard) tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR), comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON) peak sequence. To identify its cortical sources and to assess possible relationships between their response contributions and clinical SZ measures, we applied independent component analysis to the continuous 68-channel EEG data and clustered the resulting independent components (ICs) across subjects on spectral, ERP, and topographic similarities. Six IC clusters centered in right superior temporal, right inferior frontal, ventral mid-cingulate, anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal, and dorsal mid-cingulate cortex each made triphasic response contributions. Although correlations between measures of SZ clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning and standard (Fz) scalp-channel ADR peak measures were weak or absent, for at least four IC clusters one or more significant correlations emerged. In particular, differences in MMN peak amplitude in the right superior temporal IC cluster accounted for 48% of the variance in SZ-subject performance on tasks necessary for real-world functioning and medial orbitofrontal cluster P3a amplitude accounted for 40%/54% of SZ-subject variance in positive/negative symptoms. Thus, source-resolved auditory deviance response measures including MMN may be highly sensitive to SZ clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics.
Project description:Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia are commonly accompanied by cognitive deficits. Recent studies have reported negative genetic correlations between schizophrenia and indicators of cognitive ability such as general intelligence and processing speed. Here we compare the effect of polygenetic risk for schizophrenia (PRSSCZ) on measures that differ in their relationships with psychosis onset: a measure of current cognitive abilities (the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, BACS) that is greatly reduced in psychotic disorder patients, a measure of premorbid intelligence that is minimally affected by psychosis onset (the Wide-Range Achievement Test, WRAT); and educational attainment (EY), which covaries with both BACS and WRAT. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 314 psychotic and 423 healthy research participants in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) Consortium, we investigated the association of PRSSCZ with BACS, WRAT, and EY. Among apparently healthy individuals, greater genetic risk for schizophrenia (PRSSCZ) was significantly associated with lower BACS scores (r?=?-0.17, p?=?6.6?×?10-4 at PT?=?1?×?10-4), but not with WRAT or EY. Among individuals with psychosis, PRSSCZ did not associate with variations in any of these three phenotypes. We further investigated the association between PRSSCZ and WRAT in more than 4500 healthy subjects from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. The association was again null (p?>?0.3, N?=?4511), suggesting that different cognitive phenotypes vary in their etiologic relationship with schizophrenia.
Project description:This study sought to characterize the psychosis phenotype, contrasting cognitive features within traditional diagnosis and psychosis dimension in a family sample containing both schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar I disorder. Seventy-six probands with psychosis [44 probands with schizophrenia, 32 probands with psychotic bipolar I disorder] and 55 first-degree relatives [30 relatives of schizophrenia probands, 25 relatives of bipolar probands] were recruited. Standardized clinical and neuropsychological measures were administered. No differences in cognitive performance emerged between probands with schizophrenia and probands with psychotic bipolar disorder, or between relatives of probands with schizophrenia and relatives of probands with bipolar disorder in the domains of working and declarative memory, executive function and attention. Relatives overall showed higher cognitive performance compared to probands, as expected. However, when we segmented the probands and relatives along a psychosis dimension, independent of diagnostic groups, results revealed lower cognitive performance in probands compared to relatives without psychosis spectrum disorders, whereas relatives with psychosis spectrum disorders showed an intermediate level of performance across all cognitive domains. In this study, cognitive performance did not distinguish either probands or their first-degree relatives within traditional diagnostic groups (schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder), but distinguished probands and relatives with and without lifetime psychosis manifestations independent of diagnostic categories. These data support the notion that schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder present a clinical continuum with overlapping cognitive features defining the psychosis phenotype.