A novel in situ bone elevation method to achieve vertical periodontal augmentation in dogs: A pilot study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a novel in situ interdental bone elevation method could achieve vertical bone augmentation around natural teeth. METHODS:Horizontal periodontal bone defects were created at nine quadrants of mandibles in five dogs. Six weeks later, one of the nine quadrants was randomly chosen as the model control. The remaining mandibles were allocated into two experimental groups: cortical bone removing (CBR) or interdental bone elevation (IBE). For the IBE group, four millimetres of interdental bone blocks were separated and elevated from the base of alveolar bone. Then bone xenografts were implanted beneath the elevated alveolar blocks. Animals were euthanised 12 weeks post-operation. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination and histological analysis were performed to evaluate the surgical outcomes. RESULTS:Enhanced soft tissue profiles were observed in the two experimental groups as compared to the model control group. CBCT images showed that the height of alveolar bone was significantly higher in the IBE group with bone blocks seated near the cementoenamel junction. Significantly larger area of bone tissues with the highest coronal level of new bone was observed in the IBE group. New bone was observed around the elevated bone blocks with bone remodelling and neovascularisation inside the elevated blocks. CONCLUSIONS:Vertical bone augmentation at interdental sites may be performed through in situ interdental bone elevation for patients with horizontal alveolar bone resorption.
Project description:Objective:The primary objective of this study was to quantitatively analyze the bone parameters (thickness and density) at four different interdental areas from the distal region of the canine to the mesial region of the second molar in the maxilla and the mandible. The secondary aim was to compare and contrast the bone parameters at these specific locations in terms of sex, growth status, and facial type. Methods:This retrospective cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) study reviewed 290 CBCT images of patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Cortical bone thickness in millimeters (mm) and density in pixel intensity value were measured for the regions (1) between the canine and first premolar, (2) between the first and second premolars, (3) between the second premolar and first molar, and (4) between the first and second molars. At each location, the bone thickness and density were measured at distances of 2, 6, and 10 mm from the alveolar crest. Results:The sex comparison (male vs. female) in cortical bone thickness showed no significant difference (p > 0.001). The bone density in growing subjects was significantly (p < 0.001) lower than that in non-growing subjects for most locations. There was no significant difference (p > 0.001) in bone parameters in relation to facial pattern in the maxilla and mandible for most sites. Conclusions:There was no significant sex-related difference in cortical bone thickness. The buccal cortical bone density was higher in females than in males. Bone parameters were similar for subjects with hyperdivergent, hypodivergent, and normodivergent facial patterns.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to compare three-dimensional alterations following the use of autogenous versus allogeneic onlay grafts for augmentation at single tooth defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Alveolar bone width at specific implant sites were assessed using sagittal and cross-sectional CBCT images prior grafting and at three subsequent time points. Twenty-one patients received autogenous bone blocks harvested from the retromolar region and another 21 patients received freeze-dried cancellous allogeneic bone blocks. RESULTS:The vertical and horizontal dimensions did not significantly differ between autogenous and allogeneic bone grafts at any time point. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences in graft remodeling rates between autogenous (mean shrinkage rate after 12 months: 12.5% ± 7.8%) and allogeneic onlay grafts (mean shrinkage rate after 12 months: 14.4% ± 9.8%). CONCLUSIONS:Freeze-dried cancellous allogeneic bone blocks showed equivalent volumetric shrinkage rates as autogenous bone blocks when used for treating circumscribed bone defects classified as Type-II to Type-IV according to the ITI-treatment guide categories. Therefore, it is not necessary to over-contour the alveolar ridge when using allogeneic blocks for treating single tooth defects, but to apply the same procedure as when using autogenous blocks.
Project description:Insufficient bone volume is one of the major challenges encountered by dentists after dental implant placement. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a customized three-dimensional polycaprolactone (3D PCL) scaffold implant fabricated with a 3D bio-printing system to facilitate rapid alveolar bone regeneration. Saddle-type bone defects were surgically created on the healed site after extracting premolars from the mandibles of four beagle dogs. The defects were radiologically examined using computed tomography for designing a customized 3D PCL scaffold block to fit the defect site. After fabricating 3D PCL scaffolds using rapid prototyping, the scaffolds were implanted into the alveolar bone defects along with ?-tricalcium phosphate powder. In vivo analysis showed that the PCL blocks maintained the physical space and bone conductivity around the defects. In addition, no inflammatory infiltrates were observed around the scaffolds. However, new bone formation occurred adjacent to the scaffolds, rather than directly in contact with them. More new bone was observed around PCL blocks with 400/1200 lattices than around blocks with 400/400 lattices, but the difference was not significant. These results indicated the potential of 3D-printed porous PCL scaffolds to promote alveolar bone regeneration for defect healing in dentistry.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the influence of cone beam CT (CBCT) volume orientation on alveolar bone measurements for dental implant planning using CBCT in patients with different facial profiles. METHODS:74 CBCT volumes were selected from a database and classified according to the facial profile of the patient. Height and width measurements of the alveolar bone were carried out with the volume of the mandible in two different orientations: occlusal plane and mandibular base parallel to the horizontal plane. The data were subjected to the mixed model methodology for repeated measures, through the PROC MIXED procedure. Multiple comparisons were performed by Tukey Kramer test (? = 0.05). RESULTS:Alveolar bone width was significantly greater when the CBCT volume was oriented with the mandibular base parallel to the horizontal plane, for all facial profiles (p ? 0.05). Alveolar bone height was significantly higher (p ? 0.05) for dolichofacial individuals when compared to that of mesofacial and brachyfacial individuals, who did not differ significantly between each other (p > 0.05), regardless of the CBCT volume orientations used in this study. CONCLUSIONS:CBCT-based alveolar bone width is increased when the image volume is oriented with the mandibular base parallel to the horizontal plane and dolichofacial individuals present greater alveolar bone height.
Project description:Repairing mandibular body fractures presents unique challenges not encountered when repairing long bones. Large tooth roots and the presence of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle limit safe placement for many types of orthopedic implants. Use of non-invasive fracture repair methods have increasingly become popular and have proven safe and effective at achieving bone healing. Non-invasive fixation constructs have not been tested in dogs using cantilevered bending. Furthermore, non-invasive fracture repair constructs have not been tested at the location of a common fracture location - the mandibular first molar tooth (M1). The objectives of this study were to test the strength and stiffness of three non-invasive mandibular fracture repair constructs and to characterize the impact that tooth crown preservation has on fixation strength for fractures occurring at the M1 location. Specimens were assigned to three treatment groups: (1) composite only, (2) interdental wiring and composite (IWC), and (3) transmucosal fixation screw and composite. For each pair of mandibles, one mandible received crown amputation at the alveolar margin to simulate the effect of crown loss on fixation strength and stiffness. Regardless of the status of crown presence, IWC demonstrated the greatest bending stiffness and load to failure. With the crown removed, IWC was significantly stronger compared to other treatments. All fixation constructs were stiffer when the tooth crown was preserved. In fractures at this location, retaining the tooth crown of M1 significantly increases stiffness of interdental wiring with composite and transmucosal screw with composite constructs. If the crown of M1 was removed, IWC was significantly stronger than the other two forms of fixation.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The current methods to image alveolar bone in humans include intraoral 2D radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, these methods expose the subject to ionizing radiation. Therefore, ultrasound imaging has been investigated as an alternative technique, as it is both non-invasive and free from ionizing radiation. In order to assess the validity and reliability of ultrasonography in visualizing alveolar bone, a systematic review was conducted comparing ultrasound imaging to CBCT for examination of the alveolar bone level. STUDY DESIGN:Seven databases were searched. Studies addressing examination of alveolar bone level via CBCT and ultrasound were selected. Risk of bias under Cochrane guidelines was used as a methodological quality assessment tool. RESULTS:All the four included studies were ex vivo studies that used porcine or human cadaver samples. The alveolar bone level was measured by the distance from the alveolar bone crest to certain landmarks such as cemento-enamel junction or gingival margin. The risk of bias was found as low. The mean difference between ultrasound and CBCT measurements ranged from 0.07 mm to 0.68 mm, equivalent to 1.6% - 8.8%. CONCLUSIONS:There is currently preliminary evidence to support the use of ultrasonography as compared to CBCT for the examination of alveolar bone level. Further studies comparing ultrasound to gold standard methods would be necessary to help validate the accuracy of ultrasonography as a diagnostic technique in periodontal imaging.
Project description:With the incidence of breast cancer rising worldwide, we are evaluating the iBreastExam (iBE) (UE LifeSciences Inc.), a handheld breast scanning device that can be utilized by community health workers to screen for breast abnormalities. The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity of the iBE in a population undergoing diagnostic breast imaging.Adult patients presenting to a breast imaging center for a diagnostic workup were eligible. Patients underwent an iBE exam performed by a trained ultrasound technician followed by their indicated imaging. Demographic, imaging, and biopsy data were recorded.Seventy-eight iBE exams were completed, 77 females and one male with a mean age of 42 (21-79). All patients were evaluated by ultrasound, 52 had diagnostic mammography and 39 had biopsies. Imaging and/or biopsy confirmed a mass (fibroadenoma, cyst, papilloma, myofibroblastoma, fat necrosis, DCIS, or cancer) in 60 patients. Twelve patients had a cancer diagnosed. In total, 342 quadrants were scanned, 77 quadrants had lesions confirmed on imaging, and iBE correctly identified 66 lesions for a sensitivity of 86 % and specificity of 89 %.This validation study demonstrated excellent sensitivity of iBE for the identification of clinically significant lesions in patients presenting for diagnostic imaging.A Cost-Effective Handheld Breast Scanner for Use in Low Resource Environments: A Validation Study: NCT02814292 .
Project description:A precise volumetric assessment of maxillary alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate can reduce donor site morbidity or allow accurate preparation of bone substitutes in future applications. However, there is a lack of agreement regarding the optimal volumetric technique to adopt. This study measured the alveolar bone defects by using two cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based surgical simulation methods. Presurgical CBCT scans from 32 patients with unilateral or bilateral clefts undergoing alveolar bone graft surgery were analyzed. Two hands-on CBCT-based volumetric measurement methods were compared: the 3D real-scale printed model-based surgical method and the virtual surgical method. Different densities of CBCT were compared. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was assessed. For patients with unilateral clefts, the average alveolar defect volumes were 1.09 ± 0.24 and 1.09 ± 0.25 mL (p > 0.05) for 3D printing- and virtual-based models, respectively; for patients with bilateral clefts, they were 2.05 ± 0.22 and 2.02 ± 0.27 mL (p > 0.05), respectively. Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the methods were equivalent for unilateral and bilateral alveolar cleft defect assessment. No significant differences or linear relationships were observed between adjacent different densities of CBCT for model production to obtain the measured volumes. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was moderate to good (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) > 0.6) for all measurements. This study revealed that the volume of unilateral and bilateral alveolar cleft defects can be equally quantified by 3D-printed and virtual surgical simulation methods and provides alveolar defect-specific volumes which can serve as a reference for planning and execution of alveolar bone graft surgery.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To investigate the reliability and accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) images obtained at different fields of view in detecting and quantifying simulated buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant defects. METHODS: Simulated buccal defects were prepared in 69 implants inserted into cadaver mandibles. CBCT images at three different fields of view were acquired: 40 × 40, 60 × 60 and 100 × 100 mm. The presence or absence of defects was assessed on three sets of images using a five-point scale by three observers. Observers also measured the depth, width and volume of defects on CBCT images, which were compared with physical measurements. The kappa value was calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement. Six-way repeated analysis of variance was used to evaluate treatment effects on the diagnosis. Pairwise comparisons of median true-positive and true-negative rates were calculated by the χ² test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between measurements. Significance level was set as p < 0.05. RESULTS: All observers had excellent intra-observer agreement. Defect status (p < 0.001) and defect size (p < 0.001) factors were statistically significant. Pairwise interactions were found between defect status and defect size (p = 0.001). No differences between median true-positive or true-negative values were found between CBCT field of views (p > 0.05). Significant correlations were found between physical and CBCT measurements (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: All CBCT images performed similarly for the detection of simulated buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant defects. Depth, width and volume measurements of the defects from various CBCT images correlated highly with physical measurements.
Project description:Objective:This study was performed to investigate the alveolar bone of lower incisors in skeletal Class III adults of different vertical facial patterns and to compare it with that of Class I adults using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods:CBCT images of 90 skeletal Class III and 29 Class I patients were evaluated. Class III subjects were divided by mandibular plane angle: high (SN-MP > 38.0°), normal (30.0° < SN-MP < 37.0°), and low (SN-MP < 28.0°) groups. Buccolingual alveolar bone thickness was measured using CBCT images of mandibular incisors at alveolar crest and 3, 6, and 9 mm apical levels. Linear mixed model, Bonferroni post-hoc test, and Pearson correlation analysis were used for statistical significance. Results:Buccolingual alveolar bone in Class III high, normal and low angle subjects was not significantly different at alveolar crest and 3 mm apical level while lingual bone was thicker at 6 and 9 mm apical levels than on buccal side. Class III high angle group had thinner alveolar bone at all levels except at buccal alveolar crest and 9 mm apical level on lingual side compared to the Class I group. Class III high angle group showed thinner alveolar bone than the Class III normal or low angle groups in most regions. Mandibular plane angle showed negative correlations with mandibular anterior alveolar bone thickness. Conclusions:Skeletal Class III subjects with high mandibular plane angles showed thinner mandibular alveolar bone in most areas compared to normal or low angle subjects. Mandibular plane angle was negatively correlated with buccolingual alveolar bone thickness.