Chemerin inhibits vascular calcification through ChemR23 and is associated with lower coronary calcium in chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Chemerin is an adipokine that signals through the G protein-coupled receptor ChemR23 and is associated with inflammation, glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and renal function, all of which strongly influence cardiovascular risk. However, elevated chemerin provides a survival advantage in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but how this relates to the cardiovascular phenotype is unknown. OBJECTIVES:The aim of the present study was to establish the association of chemerin with coronary calcification and to determine the effects of chemerin signalling, through ChemR23, in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. METHODS:Plasma chemerin was measured in 113 patients with CKD and 50 healthy controls. All patients underwent computed tomography to determine coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. VSMCs were isolated from wild-type and ChemR23 knock-out mice and treated with chemerin. RESULTS:Multivariate analyses established creatinine, cholesterol, body mass index and tumour necrosis factor as significant confounders for circulating chemerin levels. Despite these positive associations with renal function, cardiometabolic risk factors and inflammation, chemerin was inversely associated with CAC both in an age- and sex-adjusted analysis and in a multivariate analysis adjusting for the aforementioned confounders. In addition, circulating chemerin levels were associated with the calcification inhibitors matrix gla protein (MGP) and fetuin-A. Finally, chemerin significantly reduced phosphate-induced calcification and increased MGP expression in VSMCs, whereas chemerin was devoid of these effects in VSMCs lacking ChemR23. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, these results suggest that chemerin signalling through ChemR23 in VSMCs protects against vascular calcification in CKD.
Project description:Matrix gla protein (MGP) inhibits arterial and cartilaginous calcification. A threonine to alanine (Thr83Ala) polymorphism (codon 83) in MGP is associated with myocardial infarction and femoral artery calcification. We examined the association of the MGP Thr83Ala polymorphism with quantity and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a noninvasive measure of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.In 605 participants of the Epidemiology of Coronary Artery Calcification Study, generalized linear mixed models were fit to determine the association of MGP Thr83Ala with CAC quantity and progression. There was a significant additive relation between MGP Thr83Ala and CAC progression (P=0.001). In the fully adjusted model, every 1 Ala83 allele increase was associated with an estimated 1.9% (95% confidence interval, 0.7%-3.0%) per year since baseline larger increase in CAC quantity. A proxy single nucleotide polymorphism for MGP Thr83Ala (rs6488724) was similarly associated with CAC progression in an independent cohort from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study.Increased risk of myocardial infarction associated with MGP ThrAla83 genotype observed elsewhere may be related to faster progression of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. MGP genotype could be a potential candidate for identifying individuals at increased risk of atherosclerotic disease who would benefit from aggressive primary prevention strategies.
Project description:Chemerin is a chemotactic protein that binds to the G protein-coupled receptor, ChemR23. We demonstrate that murine chemerin possesses potent antiinflammatory properties that are absolutely dependent on proteolytic processing. A series of peptides was designed, and only those identical to specific C-terminal chemerin sequences exerted antiinflammatory effects at picomolar concentrations in vitro. One of these, chemerin15 (C15; A(140)-A(154)), inhibited macrophage (MPhi) activation to a similar extent as proteolyzed chemerin, but exhibited reduced activity as a MPhi chemoattractant. Intraperitoneal administration of C15 (0.32 ng/kg) to mice before zymosan challenge conferred significant protection against zymosan-induced peritonitis, suppressing neutrophil (63%) and monocyte (62%) recruitment with a concomitant reduction in proinflammatory mediator expression. Importantly, C15 was unable to ameliorate zymosan-induced peritonitis in ChemR23(-/-) mice, demonstrating that C15's antiinflammatory effects are entirely ChemR23 dependent. In addition, administration of neutralizing anti-chemerin antibody before zymosan challenge resulted in a significant exacerbation of peritoneal inflammation (up to 170%), suggesting an important endogenous antiinflammatory role for chemerin-derived species. Collectively, these results show that chemerin-derived peptides may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases through ChemR23.
Project description:Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification (VC) and requires carboxylation by vitamin K to exert calcification inhibition. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergo early vascular aging often involving extensive VC. The present cross-sectional study investigated the association between circulating dp-ucMGP levels, MGP expression in vascular tissue and MGP polymorphisms. In 141 CKD stage 5 patients, CAC score was significantly increased in the highest tertile of dp-ucMGP (p?=?0.002), and a high medial VC score was associated with elevated dp-ucMGP levels. MGP vascular expression was associated with increased circulating dp-ucMGP and CAC scores. MGP SNP analysis revealed that patients homozygous for the C allele of the rs1800801 variant had a higher CAC score (median 15 [range 0-1312]) compared to patients carrying a T allele (median 0 [range 0-966] AU). These results indicate that plasma levels of dp-ucMGP are an independent predictor of increased VC in CKD5 patients and correlate with both higher CAC scores and degree of medial calcification. Additionally, high vascular expression of MGP was associated with higher CAC scores and plasma dp-ucMGP levels. Taken together, our results support that MGP is involved in the pathogenesis of VC.
Project description:Chemerin peptides represent a recently identified component of the endogenous anti-inflammatory network that act via the G protein-coupled receptor ChemR23. The role of the chemerin peptide/ChemR23 pathway in phagocytosis, the clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis), and the resolution of inflammation is unknown. In this article, we report that low picomolar concentrations of the chemerin peptide chemerin15 (C15) enhance macrophage (MPhi) phagocytosis of microbial particles and apoptotic cells by up to 360% in vitro. These prophagocytic effects of C15 are significantly impaired in ChemR23(-/-) MPhis and are associated with increased actin polymerization and localization of F-actin to the phagocytic cup. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Syk activity completely abrogates the prophagocytic activities of C15 and associated changes in actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation, suggesting that C15 promotes phagocytosis by facilitating phagocytic cup development in a Syk-dependent manner. During peritoneal inflammation, C15 administration (8 pg/mouse) enhances microbial particle clearance and apoptotic neutrophil ingestion by MPhis in wild-type but not ChemR23(-/-) mice, such that levels of apoptotic and necrotic cells at the inflammatory site are profoundly reduced. In contrast, neutralization of endogenous chemerin species during peritoneal inflammation significantly impairs MPhi ingestion of apoptotic neutrophils and zymosan. Our data identify a key role of the chemerin peptide/ChemR23 axis in the efficient clearance of foreign material, efferocytosis, and, hence, the resolution of inflammation. Manipulation of the chemerin peptide/ChemR23 axis may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies, especially if failure to efficiently clear phagocytic targets has been implicated in their pathogenesis.
Project description:Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a key regulator of vascular calcification. Genetic variation at the MGP locus could modulate the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our aim was to examine the cross-sectional association between MGP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [rs1800802 (T-138C), rs1800801 (G-7A), and rs4236 (Ala102Thr)] and CAC. CAC was measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), in older men and women of European descent, (n=386; 60 to 80 y of age). Serum MGP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Linear, Tobit and Ordinal regression analyses all revealed that in men, homozygous carriers of the minor allele of rs1800802, rs1800801, or rs4236 (minor allele frequency: 21, 38, and 40%, respectively) were associated with a decreased quantity of CAC, relative to major allele carriers. This association was not found in women. Although genetic variation in MGP was associated with serum MGP concentrations, there were no associations between serum MGP and CAC. The results of this study suggest a role for MGP genetic variants in coronary atherosclerosis among men that is not reflected in serum MGP concentrations.
Project description:Vascular calcification is a common, serious and elusive complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a pro-calcifying risk factor, non-thyroidal illness may promote vascular calcification through a systemic lowering of vascular calcification inhibitors such as matrix-gla protein (MGP) and Klotho.In 97 ESRD patients eligible for living donor kidney transplantation, blood levels of thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH), total uncarboxylated MGP (t-ucMGP), desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA-II), and soluble Klotho (sKlotho) were measured. The degree of coronary calcification and arterial stiffness were assessed by means of cardiac CT-scans and applanation tonometry, respectively.fT3 levels were inversely associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores and measures of arterial stiffness, and positively with dp-ucMGP and sKlotho concentrations. Subfractions of MGP, PIVKA-II and sKlotho did not associate with CAC scores and arterial stiffness. fT4 and TSH levels were both inversely associated with CAC scores, but not with arterial stiffness.The positive associations between fT3 and dp-ucMGP and sKlotho suggest that synthesis of MGP and Klotho is influenced by thyroid hormones, and supports a link between non-thyroidal illness and alterations in calcification inhibitor levels. However, the absence of an association between serum calcification inhibitor levels and coronary calcification/arterial stiffness and the fact that MGP and Klotho undergo post-translational modifications underscore the complexity of this association. Further studies, measuring total levels of MGP and membrane bound Klotho, should examine this proposed pathway in further detail.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that heteromerization of the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR4 is associated to negative binding cooperativity. In the present study, we build on these previous results, and investigate the consequences of chemokine receptor heteromerization with ChemR23, the receptor of chemerin, a leukocyte chemoattractant protein structurally unrelated to chemokines. We show, using BRET and HTRF assays, that ChemR23 forms homomers, and provide data suggesting that ChemR23 also forms heteromers with the chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4. As previously described for other chemokine receptor heteromers, negative binding cooperativity was detected between ChemR23 and chemokine receptors, i.e. the ligands of one receptor competed for the binding of a specific tracer of the other. We also showed, using mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells prepared from wild-type and ChemR23 knockout mice, that ChemR23-specific ligands cross-inhibited CXCL12 binding on CXCR4 in a ChemR23-dependent manner, supporting the relevance of the ChemR23/CXCR4 interaction in native leukocytes. Finally, and in contrast to the situation encountered for other previously characterized CXCR4 heteromers, we showed that the CXCR4-specific antagonist AMD3100 did not cross-inhibit chemerin binding in cells co-expressing ChemR23 and CXCR4, demonstrating that cross-regulation by AMD3100 depends on the nature of receptor partners with which CXCR4 is co-expressed.
Project description:Viral diseases of the respiratory tract, which include influenza pandemic, children acute bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia of the elderly, represent major health problems. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play an important role in anti-viral immunity, and these cells were recently shown to express ChemR23, the receptor for the chemoattractant protein chemerin, which is expressed by epithelial cells in the lung. Our aim was to determine the role played by the chemerin/ChemR23 system in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, using the pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) as a model. Wild-type and ChemR23 knock-out mice were infected by PVM and followed for functional and inflammatory parameters. ChemR23(-/-) mice displayed higher mortality/morbidity, alteration of lung function, delayed viral clearance and increased neutrophilic infiltration. We demonstrated in these mice a lower recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and a reduction in type I interferon production. The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was further addressed by performing depletion and adoptive transfer experiments as well as by the generation of chimeric mice, demonstrating two opposite effects of the chemerin/ChemR23 system. First, the ChemR23-dependent recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells contributes to adaptive immune responses and viral clearance, but also enhances the inflammatory response. Second, increased morbidity/mortality in ChemR23(-/-) mice is not due to defective plasmacytoid dendritic cells recruitment, but rather to the loss of an anti-inflammatory pathway involving ChemR23 expressed by non-leukocytic cells. The chemerin/ChemR23 system plays important roles in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, and might therefore be considered as a therapeutic target for anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapies.
Project description:Intimal hyperplasia remains a significant clinical problem in for example coronary artery bypass graft failure. Since omega-3 fatty acids reduce intimal hyperplasia, we hypothesized that the G protein-coupled receptor ChemR23 for the omega-3-derived pro-resolving lipid mediator resolvin E1 drives those effects. ChemR23+/+ and ChemR23-/- mice were generated with or without introduction of the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 transgene, which leads to an endogenous omega-3 fatty acid synthesis and thus increasing the substrate for resolvin E1 formation. ChemR23 deletion significantly increased intimal hyperplasia 28 days after ligation of the left common carotid artery. Mice expressing the fat-1 transgene showed reduced intimal hyperplasia independently of ChemR23 expression. ChemR23-/- Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exhibited a significantly lower proliferation compared with VSMCs derived from ChemR23+/+ mice. In contrast, ChemR23-/- peritoneal macrophages had significantly higher mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with ChemR23+/+ macrophages. Finally, conditioned media (CM) transfer from ChemR23-/- macrophages to VSMCs significantly increased VSMC proliferation compared with CM from ChemR23+/+ macrophages. Taken together, these results point to a dual effect of ChemR23 in resolution pharmacology by directly stimulating VSMC proliferation and at the same time suppressing macrophage-induced VSMC proliferation. In conclusion, these differential effects of ChemR23 signaling in VSMC and macrophages open up a novel notion for intimal hyperplasia pathophysiology, where ChemR23-transduced effects on the vascular wall may vary, and even be opposing, depending on the degrees of resolution of inflammation.
Project description:Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating neurological event that contributes to the prolonged neurodevelopmental consequences in infants. Therapeutic strategies focused on attenuating neuronal apoptosis in the penumbra appears to be promising. Given the increasingly recognized neuroprotective roles of adipokines in HIE, we investigated the potential anti-apoptotic roles of a novel member of adipokines, Chemerin, in an experimental model of HIE. In the present study, 10-day-old rat pups underwent right common carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5?h hypoxia. At 1?h post hypoxia, pups were intranasally administered with human recombinant chemerin (rh-chemerin). Here, we showed that rh-chemerin prevented the neuronal apoptosis and degeneration as evidenced by the decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, as well as the numbers of Fluoro-Jade C and TUNEL-positive neurons. Furthermore, rh-Chemerin reversed neurological and morphological impairments induced by hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats at 24?h and 4 weeks after HIE. In addition, chemerin-mediated neuronal survival correlated with the elevation of chemerin receptor 23 (chemR23), phosphorylated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2), as well as phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Specific inhibition of chemR23, CAMKK2, and AMPK abolished the anti-apoptotic effects of rh-chemerin at 24?h after HIE, demonstrating that rh-chemerin ameliorated neuronal apoptosis partially via activating chemR23/CAMKK2/AMPK signaling pathway. Neuronal apoptosis is a well-established contributing factor of pathological changes and the neurological impairment after HIE. These results revealed mechanisms of neuroprotection by rh-chemerin, and indicated that activation of chemR23 might be harnessed to protect from neuronal apoptosis in HIE.