Incidence, etiology, and outcome of pleural effusions in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
ABSTRACT: Pleural effusion is a known entity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); however, the incidence, risk factors, and morbidity-mortality outcomes associated with pleural effusions remain unknown. We retrospectively evaluated pleural effusions in 618 consecutive adult patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT from January 2008 to December 2013 at our institution. Seventy one patients developed pleural effusion at a median of 40 days (range, 1?-?869) post-HSCT with the cumulative incidence of 9.9% (95% CI, 7.7?-?12.5%) at 1 year. Infectious etiology was commonly associated with pleural effusions followed by volume overload and serositis type chronic GVHD. In multivariate analysis, higher comorbidity index (P?=?0.03) and active GVHD (P?=?0.018) were found to be significant independent predictors for pleural effusion development. Higher comorbidity index, very high disease risk index, ?7/8 HLA matching, and unrelated donor were associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (P < 0.03). More importantly, patients with pleural effusion were noted to have poor OS in comparison to patients without pleural effusion (P?
Project description:Dasatinib is considered an effective drug in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. Although reported to be well-tolerated, severe events such as pleural or pericardial effusion have been reported at 140 mg daily. We examined our chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with dasatinib at 100 mg or 50 mg daily and identified 4 of 13 patients who developed marked effusion formation. In 2 patients, grade III/IV pleural and/or pericardial effusions were recorded. All 4 patients had received previous anti-leukemia therapy but none had pre-existing cardiac or pulmonary diseases. In 3 patients, dasatinib had to be discontinued despite treatment with diuretics and glucocorticosteroids. In conclusion, dasatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia patients are at risk for the development of pleural and pericardial effusions even when the drug is administered at 100 mg or 50 mg daily. Therefore, all patients should be examined for pre-existing comorbidity and risk factors before starting dasatinib and all should have repeated chest X-rays during long-term dasatinib therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pleural effusion at presentation in Hodgkin lymphoma has been associated with inferior outcome but has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether pleural effusion at presentation in children with Hodgkin lymphoma is a primary indicator of poor prognosis or secondary to associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Children's Oncology Group (COG) AHOD0031, a randomized, response-based, centrally reviewed protocol, enrolled 1,712 eligible patients <22 years of age with initial presentation of intermediate risk, biopsy-proven Hodgkin lymphoma; 1,423 had available imaging for retrospective review. We coded effusions as fluid-only or with associated pleural nodule or adjacent lung or bone involvement and correlated this with disease stage, tumor response, large mediastinal adenopathy, and mass effect on the superior vena cava (SVC) and left innominate vein. We recorded change in size and character of effusions post-chemotherapy. RESULTS:Pleural effusions were present in 217, with 204 having fluid-only and 13 having associated solid components. Patients with effusions were more likely to have large mediastinal adenopathy (P<0.0001), be slow early responders (P<0.0001) and have higher relapse rate (P<0.0001). Vascular compression was not significantly correlated with pleural effusion. Of 121 patients with adequate [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging, no FDG PET avidity was seen in any pleural effusion but was present in solid components. The side of the pleural effusion in those with moderate or large effusions was highly associated with the side of large mediastinal adenopathy (P<0.0001). Statistical analysis indicates that pleural effusion is an independent risk factor for poorer response and relapse. CONCLUSION:Pleural effusion in Hodgkin lymphoma is an important independent poor prognostic indicator for response and relapse.
Project description:CD34+ cell selection significantly improves GvHD-free survival in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, specific information regarding long-term prognosis and risk factors for late mortality after CD34+ cell-selected allo-HSCT is lacking. We conducted a single-center landmark analysis in 276 patients alive without relapse 1 year after CD34+ cell-selected allo-HSCT for AML (n=164), ALL (n=33) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n=79). At 5 years' follow-up after the 1-year landmark (range 0.03-13 years), estimated relapse-free survival (RFS) was 73% and overall survival (OS) 76%. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 11% and 16%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index score?3 correlated with marginally worse RFS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-3.28, P=0.06) and significantly worse OS (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.26-5.08, P=0.004). Despite only 24% of patients with acute GvHD within 1 year, this also significantly correlated with worse RFS and OS, with increasing grades of acute GvHD associating with increasingly poorer survival on multivariate analysis (P<0.0001). Of 63 deaths after the landmark, GvHD accounted for 27% of deaths and was the most common cause of late mortality, followed by relapse and infection. Although prognosis is excellent for patients alive without relapse 1 year after CD34+ cell-selected allo-HSCT, risks of late relapse and NRM persist, particularly due to GvHD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:EGFR genotyping in pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients who develop pleural effusions is mostly performed using cytology or cell block slides with low sensitivity. Liquid biopsy using the supernatant of pleural effusions may be more effective because they contain many components released by cancer cells. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to carry oncogenic double-stranded DNA that is considered a notable biomarker. Here, we investigate the efficiency of liquid biopsy using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and extracellular vesicle-derived DNA (EV-derived DNA) from the supernatant of pleural effusions for EGFR genotyping in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. METHODS:Fifty pleural effusion samples from patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma were evaluated. The supernatant, after removing the cell pellet by centrifugation, was used for liquid biopsy, and EVs were isolated from the pleural effusion by ultracentrifugation. EV-derived DNA and cfDNA were extracted separately, and EGFR genotyping was performed by the PNA clamping method. RESULTS:Among 32 patients who were EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) naïve with a known tissue EGFR genotype, liquid biopsy using EV-derived DNA from the pleural effusion supernatant showed 100% matching results with tissue EGFR genotyping in 19 EGFR mutant cases and detected three additional EGFR mutations in patients with wild-type (WT) tissue. Liquid biopsy using cfDNA from pleural effusion supernatants missed two cases of tissue-based EGFR mutations and found two additional EGFR mutation cases. In 18 patients who acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI, EGFR genotyping using EV-derived DNA from the pleural effusion supernatant detected the T790?M mutation in 13 of 18 (72.2%) patients, and this mutation was detected in 11 (61.1%) patients using cfDNA. By contrast, only three patients were found to present the T790?M mutation when using cell block or cytology slides. CONCLUSIONS:Liquid biopsy using the supernatant of pleural effusions showed significantly improved results for EGFR genotyping compared to those using conventional cell block or cytology samples. Liquid biopsy using EV-derived DNA is promising for EGFR genotyping, including T790?M detection in pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients who develop pleural effusions.
Project description:Soluble HLA (sHLA) molecules released to the plasma, carry their original peptide cargo and provide insight into the protein synthesis and degradation schemes of their source cells and tissues. Other body fluids, such as pleural effusions, may also contain sHLA-peptide complexes, and can potentially serve as a source of tumor antigens since these fluids are drained from the tumor microenvironment. Thus, we developed a methodology for purifying and analysing large pleural effusion sHLA class I peptidomes of patients inflicted with malignancies or benign diseases. The cleared pleural fluids, the cell pellets present in the pleural effusions, and the primary tumor cells cultured from cancer patients’ effusions, were used for immunoaffinity purification of the HLA molecules. The recovered HLA peptides were analyzed by capillary chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the resulting LC-MS/MS data was analyzed with the MaxQuant software tool. Large HLA peptidomes were obtained by the analysis of the pleural effusions. The majority of peptides identified from the pleural effusions were defined as HLA ligands that fit the patients’ HLA consensus sequence motifs. The membranal and soluble HLA peptidomes of each individual patient were somewhat similar to each other. Many of the HLA peptides were derived from known tumor-associated antigens, lung-related proteins, and VEGF pathway proteins. Thus, the pleural effusion HLA peptidome of patients with malignant tumors can serve as a rich source of biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and personalized immunotherapy.
Project description:Malignant pleural effusions are common complications in patients with primary or metastatic cancer to the lungs. In this article, we describe a unique case of a patient with history of diffuse pulmonary metastases from gallbladder adenocarcinoma who acutely developed a bilious pleural effusion following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. We believe the bilious pleural effusion (cholethorax or bilothorax) developed as a complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography rather than tumor burden causing a fistula from the biliary tree to the right pleural space. We discuss possible mechanisms of formation of the bilious pleural effusion in our patient and present a literature review of previously reported cases of bilious pleural effusions.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The functional aspects of programmed death 1 (PD-1) and PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoints in malignant mesothelioma have not been studied. METHODS:Tumor samples from 65 patients with mesothelioma were evaluated for PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry, and its prognostic significance was examined. Malignant effusions from patients with pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma were evaluated for PD-1-positive and PD-L1-positive infiltrating lymphocytes and their role in inducing PD-L1 expression in tumor cells. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of avelumab, a fully humanized immunoglobulin G1 anti PD-L1 antibody against primary mesothelioma cell lines, was evaluated in presence of autologous and allogeneic natural killer cells. RESULTS:Of 65 pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma tumors examined, 41 (63%) were PD-L1-positive, which was associated with slightly inferior overall survival compared to patients with PD-L1-negative tumors (median 23.0 versus 33.3 months, p = 0.35). The frequency of PD-L1 expression was similar in patients with pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, with 62% and 64% of samples testing positive, respectively. In nine mesothelioma effusion samples evaluated, the fraction of cells expressing PD-L1 ranged from 12% to 83%. In seven patients with paired malignant effusion and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, PD-L1 expression was significantly higher on CD3-positive T cells present in malignant effusions as compared with PBMCs (p = 0.016). In addition, the numbers of CD14-positive PD-1-positive cells were increased in malignant effusions compared with PBMCs (p = 0.031). The lymphocytes present in malignant effusions recognized autologous tumor cells and induced interferon-?-mediated PD-L1 expression on the tumor cell surface. Of the three primary mesothelioma cell lines tested, two were susceptible to avelumab-mediated ADCC in the presence of autologous natural killer cells. CONCLUSIONS:Most pleural as well as peritoneal mesotheliomas express PD-L1. Malignant effusions in this disease are characterized by the presence of tumor cells and CD3-positive T cells that highly express PD-L1. In addition, mesothelioma tumor cells are susceptible to ADCC by the anti-PD-L1 antibody avelumab.
Project description:Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Posttransplant immunosuppressive drugs incompletely control GVHD and increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In this study, we used flagellin, a TLR5 agonist protein (?50 kDa) extracted from bacterial flagella, as a novel experimental treatment strategy to reduce both acute and chronic GVHD in allogeneic HSCT recipients. On the basis of the radioprotective effects of flagellin, we hypothesized that flagellin could ameliorate GVHD in lethally irradiated murine models of allogeneic HSCT. Two doses of highly purified flagellin (administered 3 h before irradiation and 24 h after HSCT) reduced GVHD and led to better survival in both H-2(b) ? CB6F1 and H-2(K) ? B6 allogeneic HSCT models while preserving >99% donor T cell chimerism. Flagellin treatment preserved long-term posttransplant immune reconstitution characterized by more donor thymic-derived CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and significantly enhanced antiviral immunity after murine CMV infection. The proliferation index and activation status of donor spleen-derived T cells and serum concentration of proinflammatory cytokines in flagellin-treated recipients were reduced significantly within 4 d posttransplant compared with those of the PBS-treated control recipients. Allogeneic transplantation of radiation chimeras previously engrafted with TLR5 knockout hematopoietic cells showed that interactions between flagellin and TLR5 expressed on both donor hematopoietic and host nonhematopoietic cells were required to reduce GVHD. Thus, the peritransplant administration of flagellin is a novel therapeutic approach to control GVHD while preserving posttransplant donor immunity.
Project description:Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management but requires hospitalisation (and substantial healthcare resources), can cause significant side effects, and has a suboptimal success rate. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) allow ambulatory fluid drainage without hospitalisation, and are increasingly employed for management of malignant effusions. Previous studies have only investigated the length of hospital care immediately related to IPC insertion. Whether IPC management reduces time spent in hospital in the patients' remaining lifespan is unknown. A strategy of malignant effusion management that reduces hospital admission days will allow patients to spend more time outside hospital, reduce costs and save healthcare resources.The Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial is a multicentred, randomised trial designed to compare IPC with talc pleurodesis for the management of malignant pleural effusion. This study will randomise 146 adults with malignant pleural effusions (1:1) to IPC management or talc slurry pleurodesis. The primary end point is the total number of days spent in hospital (for any admissions) from treatment procedure to death or end of study follow-up. Secondary end points include hospital days specific to pleural effusion management, adverse events, self-reported symptom and quality-of-life scores.The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as have the ethics boards of all the participating hospitals. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences.Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry-ACTRN12611000567921; National Institutes of Health-NCT02045121.
Project description:Introduction:We investigated whether tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) in pleural effusions and serum can be used to distinguish pleural effusion aetiology. Materials and methods:During the first thoracentesis, we measured pleural fluid and serum tumour marker concentrations and calculated the pleural fluid/serum ratio for patients diagnosed with pleural effusion, using electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out and the Hanley and McNeil method was used to test the significance of the difference between the areas under ROC curves (AUCs). In order to detect which tumour marker best discriminates between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions and to establish the predictive value of those markers, discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis were utilized. Results:Serum tumour markers CYFRA 21-1 and NSE as well as pleural NSE were good predictors of pleural effusion malignancy and their combined model was found statistically significant (Chi-square = 28.415, P < 0.001). Respective ROC analysis showed significant discrimination value of the combination of these three markers (AUC = 0.79). Conclusions:Serum markers showed superiority to pleural fluid markers in determining pleural fluid aetiology. Serum CYFRA 21-1 and NSE concentrations as well as pleural fluid NSE values had the highest clinical value in differentiating between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions. The combination of these three markers produced a significant model to resolve pleural effusion aetiology.