Follicular Lymphoma: Recent and Emerging Therapies, Treatment Strategies, and Remaining Unmet Needs.
ABSTRACT: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a heterogeneous disease with varying prognosis owing to differences in clinical, laboratory, and disease parameters. Although generally considered incurable, prognosis for early- and advanced-stage disease has improved because of therapeutic advances, several of which have resulted from elucidation of the biologic and molecular basis of the disease. The choice of treatment for FL is highly dependent on patient and disease characteristics. Several tools are available for risk stratification, although limitations in their routine clinical use exist. For limited disease, treatment options include radiotherapy, rituximab monotherapy or combination regimens, and surveillance. Treatment of advanced disease is often determined by tumor burden, with surveillance or rituximab considered for low tumor burden and chemoimmunotherapy for high tumor burden disease. Treatment for relapsed or refractory disease is influenced by initial first-line therapy and the duration and quality of the response. Presently, there is no consensus for treatment of patients with early or multiply relapsed disease; however, numerous agents, combination regimens, and transplant options have demonstrated efficacy. Although the number of therapies available to treat FL has increased together with an improved understanding of the underlying biologic basis of disease, the best approach to select the most appropriate treatment strategy for an individual patient at a particular time continues to be elucidated. This review considers prognostication and the evolving treatment landscape of FL, including recent and emergent therapies as well as remaining unmet needs. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In follicular lymphoma, a personalized approach to management based on disease biology, patient characteristics, and other factors continues to emerge. However, application of current management requires an understanding of the available therapeutic options for first-line treatment and knowledge of current development in therapies for previously untreated and for relapsed or refractory disease. Thus, this work reviews for clinicians the contemporary data in follicular lymphoma, from advances in characterizing disease biology to current treatments and emerging novel therapies.
Project description:For patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma who fail initial anti-CD20-based immunochemotherapy or develop relapsed or refractory disease, there remains a significant unmet clinical need for new therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes and quality of life. 177Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan is a next-generation single-dose CD37-directed radioimmunotherapy (RIT) which was investigated in a phase 1/2a study in 74 patients with relapsed/refractory indolent non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma, including 57 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). To improve targeting of 177Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan to tumor tissue and decrease hematologic toxicity, its administration was preceded by the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the "cold" anti-CD37 antibody lilotomab. The most common adverse events (AEs) were reversible grade 3/4 neutropenia (31.6%) and thrombocytopenia (26.3%) with neutrophil and platelet count nadirs 5 to 7 weeks after RIT. The most frequent nonhematologic AE was grade 1/2 nausea (15.8%). With a single administration, the overall response rate was 61% (65% in patients with FL), including 30% complete responses. For FL with ?2 prior therapies (n = 37), the overall response rate was 70%, including 32% complete responses. For patients with rituximab-refractory FL ?2 prior therapies (n = 21), the overall response rate was 67%, and the complete response rate was 24%. The overall median duration of response was 13.6 months (32.0 months for patients with a complete response). 177Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan may provide a valuable alternative treatment approach in relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma, particularly in patients with comorbidities unsuitable for more intensive approaches. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01796171.
Project description:Although rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), this disease is considered incurable in most patients. Thus, new therapies are needed not only for those in the relapsed/refractory setting, but also for initial treatment. Obinutuzumab (G, GA101) is a third-generation, fully humanized type II glycoengineered, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that results in increased direct cell death and antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity/phagocytosis compared to rituximab. Obinutuzumab has significant antitumor activity when used alone or in combinations in untreated or relapsed refractory FL patients. Studies have demonstrated its ability to prolong progression-free survival and, in some cases, overall survival, and to eliminate minimal residual disease. Several ongoing trials are investigating combinations with chemotherapy, immunomodulators, targeted drugs, and immunotherapy agents. G is generally well tolerated, with associated adverse effects including infusion-related reactions, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and reactivation of hepatitis B virus. Future studies with this antibody should focus on identifying predictive markers and developing chemotherapy-free combinations that will improve the outcome of patients with FL.
Project description:Polatuzumab vedotin (polatuzumab vedotin-piiq; Polivy™) is an antibody-drug conjugate comprising a monoclonal antibody against CD79b (a B cell receptor component) covalently conjugated to the anti-mitotic cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin (MMAE) via a cleavable linker. After binding to CD79b on the B-cell surface, polatuzumab vedotin is internalized and the linker is cleaved, releasing MMAE into the cell, where it inhibits division and induces apoptosis. Polatuzumab vedotin is being developed by Genentech (a subsidiary of Roche) for the treatment of haematological malignancies. In June 2019, the US FDA granted accelerated approval to polatuzumab vedotin, in combination with bendamustine plus rituximab, for the treatment of adults with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who have received at least two prior therapies. Use of the compound in combination with bendamustine plus rituximab is also under regulatory review for relapsed/refractory DLBCL in the EU and is in ongoing phase 1b/2 development in this setting or relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) in several countries. Various other polatuzumab vedotin combination therapy regimens are also in phase 1b/2 development for relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) [including DLBCL and FL] or in phase 2 or 3 development for previously untreated DLBCL, while polatuzumab vedotin monotherapy has been in phase 1 development for relapsed/refractory B-cell NHL in Japan. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of polatuzumab vedotin leading to this first approval for its use in combination with bendamustine plus rituximab for relapsed/refractory DLBCL.
Project description:Because of high relapse rates with rituximab combinations, there is an unmet need for new therapeutic agents for treatment of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL) or follicular lymphoma (FL). In previous trials, ofatumumab in combination with chemotherapy showed good results in relapsed/refractory FL pretreated with rituximab. This phase 3 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-agent ofatumumab vs single-agent rituximab in rituximab-sensitive relapsed FL that relapsed at least 6 months after completing the last prior treatment with single-agent rituximab or a rituximab-containing regimen. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either ofatumumab (1000 mg) or rituximab (375 mg/m2) every week for 4 weeks for the induction phase, followed by once every 2 months for 4 additional doses. The primary endpoint, progression-free survival (PFS) and secondary endpoints, overall response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS), were evaluated. Overall, 438 patients were assigned to receive ofatumumab (n = 219) and rituximab (n = 219). Baseline characteristics were similar in both arms. The independent review committee assessed whether median PFS was shorter in the ofatumumab arm than in the rituximab arm (16.33 vs 21.29 months), with no significant difference (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.49; P = .29) and also showed a lower ORR (50%) compared with the rituximab arm (66%). At the time of analysis, data were not matured for OS results. The number of grade >3 adverse events was higher in the ofatumumab arm (37%) than the rituximab arm (28%). Ofatumumab showed no superiority over rituximab in patients with FL who had relapsed after a rituximab-containing therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01200589.
Project description:Standard of care for patients with symptomatic, advanced-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) is rituximab-containing chemoimmunotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance. This prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study analyzed how efficacy and safety data from randomized controlled trials translate into clinical practice in Germany. Both treatment-naïve and relapsed/refractory patients with FL, who responded to rituximab-containing induction and were scheduled for rituximab maintenance, were observed for 24 months. Effectiveness was measured by response and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. In addition, treatment patterns of induction and maintenance, as well as adverse events, were documented. The evaluable study population consisted of 310 first-line patients and 173 relapsed/refractory patients, including 116 patients with initial Ann-Arbor stage I/II and 20 patients with FL grade 3B. Regarding first-line induction, a shift from R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) to R-bendamustine was observed over time, as well as a decline in radiotherapy. 2-year progression-free survival rates were 88.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84.0-92.6) for first-line patients and 76.0% (95% CI: 68.8-83.3) for relapsed/refractory patients. Conversion from partial to complete remission (PR, CR) occurred in 53.4% of analyzed first-line patients with PR, resulting in 69.4% CRs at study end (relapsed/refractory: conversion in 42.9%, final CRs 57.9%). Safety results were consistent with the known safety profile of rituximab in this setting. Both treatment-naïve and relapsed/refractory patients with FL show favorable 2-year PFS rates and improvements in the remission status with postinduction rituximab monotherapy as maintenance and consolidation therapy.
Project description:Rituximab combined with chemotherapy has improved the survival of previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). Nevertheless, many patients neither want nor can tolerate chemotherapy, leading to interest in biological approaches. Epratuzumab is a humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody with efficacy in relapsed FL. Because both rituximab and epratuzumab have single-agent activity in FL, the antibody combination was evaluated as initial treatment of patients with FL.Fifty-nine untreated patients with FL received epratuzumab 360 mg/m2 with rituximab 375 mg/m2 weekly for 4 induction doses. This combination was continued as extended induction in weeks 12, 20, 28, and 36. Response assessed by computed tomography was correlated with clinical risk factors, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings at week 3, Fc? polymorphisms, immunohistochemical markers, and statin use.Therapy was well-tolerated, with toxicities similar to expected with rituximab monotherapy. Fifty-two (88.2%) evaluable patients responded, including 25 complete responses (42.4%) and 27 partial responses (45.8%). At 3 years follow-up, 60% of patients remain in remission. Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) risk strongly predicted progression-free survival (P = .022).The high response rate and prolonged time to progression observed with this antibody combination are comparable to those observed after standard chemoimmunotherapies and further support the development of biologic, nonchemotherapeutic approaches for these patients.
Project description:The randomized phase 3 LYM3001 trial in relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL) demonstrated higher overall (ORR) and complete response (CR) rates and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab. We report findings in high-risk patients (FL International Prognostic Index [FLIPI] score ?3, and high tumor burden by modified Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomas Folliculaires [GELF] criteria).Patients aged ?18 years with grade 1/2 FL, ?1 measurable lesion, and documented relapse or progression following prior therapy, rituximab-naïve or rituximab-sensitive, were enrolled at 164 centers in 29 countries across Europe, the Americas, and Asia-Pacific. Patients were randomized (1:1) to five 5-week cycles of bortezomib-rituximab (bortezomib 1.6 mg/m2, days 1, 8, 15, and 22, all cycles; rituximab 375 mg/m2, days 1, 8, 15, and 22, cycle 1, and day 1, cycles 2-5; N=336) or rituximab alone (N=340). Randomization was stratified by FLIPI score, prior rituximab, time since last dose of anti-lymphoma therapy, and geographical region. The primary endpoint of the study was PFS.103 bortezomib-rituximab and 98 rituximab patients had high-risk FL. The ORR was 59% versus 37% (p=0.002), the CR/CRu rate was 13% versus 6% (p=0.145), and the durable response rate was 45% versus 26% (p=0.008) with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab. Median PFS was 9.5 versus 6.7 months (hazard ratio [HR] 0.667, p=0.012) with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab; median time to progression was 10.9 versus 6.8 months (HR 0.656, p=0.009); median time to next anti-lymphoma treatment was 14.8 versus 9.1 months (HR 0.762, p=0.103); and the 1-year Overall Survival rate was 83.1% versus 76.6%. Overall, 51% of bortezomib-rituximab and 32% of rituximab patients reported grade ?3 adverse events, including neutropenia (18%, 6%), anemia (4%, 5%), diarrhea (8%, 0%), thrombocytopenia (5%, 2%), and sensory neuropathy (1%, 0%).High-risk FL patients treated with bortezomib-rituximab had significantly higher ORR and longer PFS than patients receiving rituximab alone, with greater clinical benefit than in the overall study population; additional toxicity was acceptable and did not affect treatment feasibility.The phase 3 LYM3001 trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, with the identifier NCT00312845.
Project description:Inotuzumab ozogamicin (INO) is an antibody-targeted chemotherapy agent composed of a humanized anti-CD22 antibody conjugated to calicheamicin, a potent cytotoxic agent. We performed a phase I/II study to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of INO plus rituximab (R-INO) for treatment of relapsed/refractory CD20(+)/CD22(+) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).A dose-escalation phase to determine the MTD of R-INO was followed by an expanded cohort to further evaluate the efficacy and safety at the MTD. Patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL), relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), or refractory aggressive NHL received R-INO every 4 weeks for up to eight cycles.In all, 118 patients received one or more cycles of R-INO (median, four cycles). Most common grade 3 to 4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (31%) and neutropenia (22%). Common low-grade toxicities included hyperbilirubinemia (25%) and increased AST (36%). The MTD of INO in combination with rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) was confirmed to be the same as that for single-agent INO (1.8 mg/m(2)). Treatment at the MTD yielded objective response rates of 87%, 74%, and 20% for relapsed FL (n = 39), relapsed DLBCL (n = 42), and refractory aggressive NHL (n = 30), respectively. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 68% (median, not reached) for FL and 42% (median, 17.1 months) for relapsed DLBCL.R-INO demonstrated high response rates and long PFS in patients with relapsed FL or DLBCL. This and the manageable toxicity profile suggest that R-INO may be a promising option for CD20(+)/CD22(+) B-cell NHL.
Project description:Although initial rituximab-containing chemotherapies achieve high response rates, indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), such as follicular lymphoma (FL), is still incurable. Therefore, new effective agents with novel mechanisms are anticipated. In this multicentre phase II study, patients with relapsed/refractory indolent B-NHL and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) received vorinostat 200 mg twice daily for 14 consecutive days in a 21-d cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) in FL patients and safety and tolerability in all patients. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-six eligible patients were enrolled; 50 patients (39 with FL, seven with other B-NHL, and four with MCL) were evaluable for ORR, and 40 patients had received rituximab-containing prior chemotherapeutic regimens. For the 39 patients with FL, the ORR was 49% [95% confidence interval (CI): 32·4, 65·2] and the median PFS was 20 months (95% CI: 11·2, 29·7). Major toxicities were manageable grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Vorinostat offers sustained antitumour activity in patients with relapsed or refractory FL with an acceptable safety profile. Further investigation of vorinostat for clinical efficacy is warranted.
Project description:Duvelisib (Copiktra®) is a dual inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K? and PI3K?). In 2018, duvelisib was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/ small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) after at least two prior therapies. Duvelisib has also been approved under accelerated track for relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) after at least two prior systemic therapies. In this review, we provide a series of information about duvelisib, such as the development of clinical trials for LLC/SLL and FL and the steps used for its synthesis.