Diagnostic tools used in the evaluation of acute febrile illness in South India: a scoping review.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Acute febrile illness (AFI) is characterized by malaise, myalgia and a raised temperature that is a nonspecific manifestation of infectious diseases in the tropics. The lack of appropriate diagnostics for the evaluation of AFI leads to increased morbidity and mortality in resource-limited settings, specifically low-income countries like India. The review aimed to identify the number, type and quality of diagnostics used for AFI evaluation during passive case detection at health care centres in South India. METHODS:A scoping review of peer-reviewed English language original research articles published between 1946-July 2018 from four databases was undertaken to assess the type and number of diagnostics used in AFI evaluation in South India. Results were stratified according to types of pathogen-specific tests used in AFI management. RESULTS:The review included a total of 40 studies, all conducted in tertiary care centres (80% in private settings). The studies demonstrated the use of 5-22 tests per patient for the evaluation of AFI. Among 25 studies evaluating possible causes of AFI, 96% tested for malaria followed by 80% for dengue, 72% for scrub typhus, 68% for typhoid and 60% for leptospirosis identifying these as commonly suspected causes of AFI. 54% studies diagnosed malaria with smear microscopy while others diagnosed dengue, scrub typhus, typhoid and leptospirosis using antibody or antigen detection assays. 39% studies used the Weil-Felix test (WFT) for scrub typhus diagnosis and 82% studies used the Widal test for diagnosing typhoid. CONCLUSIONS:The review demonstrated the use of five or more pathogen-specific tests in evaluating AFI as well as described the widespread use of suboptimal tests like the WFT and Widal in fever evaluation. It identified the need for the development of better-quality tests for aetiological diagnosis and improved standardised testing guidelines for AFI.
Project description:Background & objectives:In India, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) are an underdiagnosed cause of acute febrile illness (AFI). The non-specific Weil-Felix test is the first diagnostic modality for the diagnosis of SFGR in many laboratories due to the lack of advanced diagnostic facilities in developing countries. The aim of this study was to detect SFGR using molecular methods in the patients, presenting with AFI in a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods:Consecutive patients (>14 yr of age) with AFI were enrolled over a six month period. Standard investigations for common pathogens causing AFI in India (malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, leptospirosis and enteric fever) were carried out. In patients who were negative for all of the above investigations, blood was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene of Rickettsia. Results:Of the 51 patients with an undiagnosed aetiology, three were positive by ompA PCR. Two of the PCR products produced good sequences and BLAST identification confirmed them as Rickettsia conorii. The sequences of R. conorii reported from south India clustered with two previously reported novel rickettsial genotypes. The study sequences clustered in a group different from that of Rickettsia spp. of the south Indian sequences reported earlier. Interpretation & conclusions:This study showed the existence of R. conorii in north India. Testing for SFGR may be included in the diagnostic workup of AFI for better disease management.
Project description:Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi characterized by focal or disseminated vasculitis and perivasculitis which may involve the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and central nervous system. It was thought to have been eradicated from India. Recently it is being reported from many areas of India. The clinical picture and severity of the symptoms varies widely. The neurological manifestations of scrub typhus are not uncommon but are diverse. Meningoencephalitis is classical manifestation of scrub typhus but cerebellitis, cranial nerve palsies, plexopathy, transverse myelitis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Guillan-Barré syndrome are other manifestations reported in literature. The availability of literature on the neurological manifestations of scrub typhus is limited to case reports mainly. This article reviews various neurological manifestations of scrub typhus reported in literature.
Project description:Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus.
Project description:A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25.7%) had neither of them (non-scrub and murine typhus [non-ST/MT]). The proportion of murine typhus was highest among patients living in Hanoi whereas that of scrub typhus was highest in national or regional border areas. The presence of an eschar, dyspnea, hypotension, and lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of scrub typhus (OR = 46.56, 10.90, 9.01, and 7.92, respectively). Patients with murine typhus were less likely to have these findings but more likely to have myalgia, rash, and relative bradycardia (OR = 1.60, 1.56, and 1.45, respectively). Scrub typhus and murine typhus were shown to be common causes of AUF in northern Vietnam although the occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was not determined. Clinical and epidemiological information may help local clinicians make clinical diagnosis of specific rickettsioses in a resource-limited setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We conducted a diagnostic surveillance study to identify Plasmodium, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and Orientia tsutsugamushi infections among febrile patients who underwent triage for malaria in the outpatient department at Ispat General Hospital, Rourkela, Odisha, India. METHODS:Febrile patients were enrolled from January 2016-January 2017. Blood smears and small volumes or vacutainers of blood were collected from study participants to carry out diagnostic assays. Malaria was diagnosed using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), microscopy, and PCR. Dengue, chikungunya, and scrub typhus infections were identified using rapid diagnostic test kits and ELISA. RESULTS:Nine hundred and fifty-four patients were prospectively enrolled in our study. The majority of patients were male (58.4%) and more than 15?years of age (66.4%). All 954 enrollees underwent additional testing for malaria; a subset of enrollees (293/954) that had larger volumes of plasma available was also tested for dengue, chikungunya and scrub typhus by either RDT or ELISA or both tests. Fifty-four of 954 patients (5.7%) were positive for malaria by RDT, or microscopy, or PCR. Seventy-four of 293 patients (25.3%) tested positive for dengue by either RDT or ELISA, and 17 of 293 patients (5.8%) tested positive for chikungunya-specific IgM by either ELISA or RDT. Ten of 287 patients tested (3.5%) were positive for scrub typhus by ELISA specific for scrub typhus IgM. Seventeen patients among 290 (5.9%) with results for ?3 infections tested positive for more than one infection. Patients with scrub typhus and chikungunya had high rates of co-infection: of the 10 patients positive for scrub typhus, six were positive for dengue (p =?0.009), and five of 17 patients positive for chikungunya (by RDT or ELISA) were also diagnosed with malaria (p <?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Dengue, chikungunya and scrub typhus are important etiologies of non-malarial febrile illness in Rourkela, Odisha, and comorbidity should be considered. Routine febrile illness surveillance is required to accurately establish the prevalence of these infections in this region, to offer timely treatment, and to implement appropriate methods of control.
Project description:Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness that is widespread in the Asia-Pacific region, is caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which displays high levels of antigenic variation. We conducted an investigation to identify the circulating genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi in 3 scrub typhus-endemic geographic regions of India: South India, Northern India, and Northeast India. Eschar samples collected during September 2010-August 2012 from patients with scrub typhus were subjected to 56-kDa type-specific PCR and sequencing to identify their genotypes. Kato-like strains predominated (61.5%), especially in the South and Northeast, followed by Karp-like strains (27.7%) and Gilliam and Ikeda strains (2.3% each). Neimeng-65 genotype strains were also observed in the Northeast. Clarifying the genotypic diversity of O. tsutsugamushi in India enhances knowledge of the regional diversity among circulating strains and provides potential resources for future region-specific diagnostic studies and vaccine development.
Project description:Scrub typhus is associated with outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome in Uttar Pradesh, India. A case-control study indicated that children residing, playing, or visiting fields; living with firewood stored indoors; handling cattle fodder; and practicing open defecation were at increased risk for scrub typhus. Communication messages should focus on changing these behaviors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is prevalent in India although definite statistics are not available. There has been only one study on scrub typhus meningitis 20 years ago. Most reports of meningitis/meningoencephalitis in scrub typhus are case reports. METHODS: A retrospective study done in Pondicherry to extract cases of scrub typhus admitted to hospital between February 2011 and January 2012. Diagnosis was by a combination of any one of the following in a patient with an acute febrile illness--a positive scrub IgM ELISA, Weil-Felix test, and an eschar. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits. RESULTS: Sixty five cases of scrub typhus were found, and 17 (17/65) had meningitis. There were 33 males and 32 females. Thirteen had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 54 cells/µL, 98%, 88 mg/dL, 0.622 and 3.5 U/mL respectively. Computed tomography was normal in patients with altered sensorium and cranial nerve deficits. Patients with meningitis had lesser respiratory symptoms and signs and higher urea levels. All patients had received doxycycline except one who additionally received chloramphenicol. CONCLUSION: Meningitis in scrub typhus is mild with quick and complete recovery. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis, except for ADA levels. In the Indian context where both scrub typhus and tuberculosis are endemic, ADA and scrub IgM may be helpful in identifying patients with scrub meningitis and in avoiding prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningitis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Typhoid fevers are infections caused by the bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) and Paratyphi A, B and C (Salmonella Paratyphi). Approximately 17.8 million incident cases of typhoid fever occur annually, and incidence is highest in children. The accuracy of current diagnostic tests of typhoid fever is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the comparative accuracy of available tests for the pediatric population.<h4>Methods</h4>We first conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies that compared diagnostic tests for typhoid fever in children (aged ?15 years) to blood culture results. We applied a Bayesian latent-class extension to a network meta-analysis model. We modelled known diagnostic properties of bone marrow culture and the relationship between bone marrow and blood culture as informative priors in a Bayesian framework. We tested sensitivities for the proportion of negative blood samples that were false as well as bone marrow sensitivity and specificity.<h4>Results</h4>We found 510 comparisons from 196 studies and 57 specific to the pediatric population. IgM-based tests outperformed their IgG-based counterparts for ELISA and Typhidot tests. The lateral flow IgG test performed comparatively well with 92% sensitivity (72% to 98% across scenario analyses) and 94% specificity. The most sensitive test of those investigated for the South Asian pediatric population was the Reverse Passive Hemagglutination Assay with 99% sensitivity (98% - 100% across scenario analyses). Adding a Widal slide test to other typhoid diagnostics did not substantially improve diagnostic performance beyond the single test alone, however, a lateral flow-based IgG rapid test combined with the typhoid/paratyphoid (TPT) assay yielded improvements in sensitivity without substantial declines in specificity and was the best performing combination test in this setting.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In the pediatric population, lateral-flow IgG, TPT and Reverse Passive Hemagglutination tests had high diagnostic accuracy compared to other diagnostics. Combinations of tests may provide a feasible option to increase diagnostic sensitivity. South Asia has the most informed set of data on typhoid diagnostic testing accuracy, and the evidence base in other important regions needs to be expanded.
Project description:Scrub typhus is largely ignored in India particularly during outbreaks of viral fever. The disease course is often complicated leading to fatalities in the absence of treatment. However, if diagnosed early and a specific treatment is initiated, the cure rate is high. We report here five cases of scrub typhus to highlight the fact that high clinical suspicion for such a deadly disease is an absolute necessity.