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Effects of a blend of green tea and curcuma extract supplementation on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in horses and ponies.

ABSTRACT: Background:In horses and ponies numerous medical conditions are known to be linked with inflammation in different tissues, especially in the liver. Besides affecting other metabolic pathways such as the expression of certain interleukins (IL), inflammation is associated with stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In particular, ER stress leads to adaptive stress response and can be measured by several markers of inflammatory and stress signalling pathways, like nuclear factor ?B (NF-kB). Objectives:To investigate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory reactions and their modulation in horses and ponies by feeding a polyphenol-rich supplement consisting of green tea and curcuma. Methods:In a cross-over study, 11 animals were allocated to either a placebo or a supplement group and supplemented with 10 g of a blend of green tea and curcuma extract (GCE) or a placebo (calcium carbonate) once daily. After 21 days of supplementation, all animals underwent a LPS challenge to induce moderate systemic inflammation. Blood samples and liver biopsies were taken at standardized time points: 24 hours before and 12 hours after LPS challenge. Inflammatory blood parameters such as serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured in serum. Hepatic mRNA levels of selected markers of inflammation such as haptoglobin, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), IL-1?, IL-6, cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), NF-?B, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) were quantified by RT-qPCR. In addition, liver biopsies were examined histologically for inflammatory alterations. Results:Blood markers of acute inflammatory response increased after LPS challenge. In the liver, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? showed significantly lower mRNA levels after LPS challenge in the supplemented group (P = 0.04) compared to the placebo group. Levels of the hepatic CD68 mRNA increased significantly in the placebo group (P = 0.04). There were no significant differences between supplemented and placebo groups concerning other markers of inflammation and markers of ER stress within the liver. The number of hepatic macrophages were not different after LPS challenge in both feeding groups. Conclusion:LPS was able to induce inflammation but seemed less suitable to induce ER stress in the horses and ponies. The polyphenol-rich supplement showed some potential to reduce inflammatory responses. Nevertheless, the supplementation did not exert an overall anti-inflammatory effect in horses and ponies.

SUBMITTER: Starzonek J 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6857679 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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